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indwelling of fin. So it is for justification and sanctification. And faith receives and rests on him
tively, alting for an action or work. On the other side, balances of (Tzedek) righteousness, stones of righteousness, Lev. xix. 36. are balances and weights conform to the standard. Thus these two words, frequently occurring, how beit their fignification may come to one in effect, yet they do in their formal notion represent the thing under different fsheles. Accordingly the righteousness of Christ imputed to believers, is expressed by each of them.
His righteousness (Tzidkatho) is declared and preached, Pfal. xxii. ult. : and he is Jebovah (Tzidkenu) our righteousness, Jer. xxiii. 6.: the former proposing his righteousness, as the fulfilling of the law; the latter, as conformity to the law, arising therefrom. As the word Hbaschabb is used for devising, chap. vi. 5. it is sometimes constructed, as here, with L’, to or for, denoting the party for whom the thing is devised, as Amos vi. 5. or the end for which, as Gen. I. 20. But lnce faith cannot be said to be devised righteousness, that sense of the word, which at best is but secondary, can have no place here. But for clearing the import of this weighty expreffion, used in the text, according to the scripture-phraseology, it will be worth the while to inquire into the several phrases, formed with the word Hbafcbabb, in the notion of reckoning, which is the formal notion of it. I. A person is said to be reckoned with others, i.e. claffed with them, and the same account made of him, as of them. Thus Pfal. Ixxxviii. 5. the pfalmift was reckoned with them that go down to the pit, his cale accounted hopeless, even as theirs. II. TO reckon one person or thing as another, is to make a like account of them, as of the other, and so to treat them after the like manner. Thus Job's friends thought they were reckoned as beasts, Job xviii. 3.; and he himself thought, he was reckoned as an enemy of God, chap. xix, 11. and darts are reckoned as stubble by the leviathan, chap. xli. is. So Num. xviii. 27. Pfal. xliv. 23. If. v. 28. & xl. 15. Hof. viii. 12. III. To reckon one thing for another, is to account it be that thing. Job xxxv. 2. Hast thou reckoned this for judgement, i. e. reckoned this to be judgement. So Judah reckoned Tamar for an harlot, Gen. xxxviii. 15. Eli, Hannah for a drunken woman, 1 Sam.i. 13. Job, according to Elihu, reckoned God for bis insmy, i. e. to be his enemy, Job xxxiii. 10. Thus to be reckoned for righteoufurss, Pfal.cvi. 31. is to be reckoned to be righteousness. So this third phrase falls in with, and is equivalent to the IV. here used by Moses. That is, two terms being proposed, the one is said to be reckoned the other, as faith reckoned righteousness. Concerning this Phraseology, Obf. 1. It is used of reckoning a thing, what in reality and in very deed it is, antecedently to the reckoning. Thus the treasurers were reckoned faithful, Neh. xiii. 13. as indeed they were ; and for that cause Nehemiah put them into that office : the houses valled villages were to be reckon
alone for all these; Gal. fi. 16. Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith ed upon the field of the land, Lev. xxv. 31. as they were indeed, not being separated from the field by a town-wall: a fool holding his peace, is reckoned wise, Prov. xvii. 28. and so he is in that point: the fruitful field shall be reckoned for a forest, If. xxix. 19 and so it really is now, and is truly so reckoned ; namely, 'the Jews sometimes God's people, but now rejected. The land of the Ammonites, faith the text Deut. ii. 20. would have been reckoned a land of giants, i. e, formerly it used to be fo reckoned - and juftly.; for the giants, adds the text, duelt therein in old time; however it neither was so, nor was it lo reckoned, in Mofes's time. The Emims would have been reckoned giants, ver. 11. : and jøstly yo ;' for they were tall as the Anakims, ver. 10. The scope of the two last paliages is, to confirm the Israelites in the faith of their conquest of Canaan, notwithstanding of the Anakims there. For this cause Mofes Thews them, that the Zamzum rions were driven out before the Ammonites, and the Emims before the Moaoires, though both the one and the other were reckoned giants. But if they were not really what they were reckoned to be, these instances were hos thing to the purpose they are adduced for. And thus the fact of Phinehas was reckoned for righteousness, Psal. cvi. 3. 1. e. reckoned a righteous action, pleasing to God; which it really was, being done in faith: and hereby it is declared to be so, for an obvious reason, viz. that otherwise men would have been apt to have condemned it. It is without cause alleged, that the text fays, It was reckoned, righteousness for generation and generation, which it was not, being his own personal deed, and not the deed of any of his pofterity. For the text stands thus, And it was reckoned' to him, for righteousness : for generation and generation ; even to perpetuity. i, e. It was reckoned to him, righteousness : [it was reckoned to) for generation and generation; even to perpetuity: A token of which was, the priesthood's being continued in his family, from g neration to generation. 05. 2. This phrase is used of reckoning a thing, what in very deed it is not, neither prior to the reckoning, nor posterior to it. And in this case, it either, 1. Bears a mistake, which takes place only, where ihe reckoner is capable to form a judgement, but withal.is fallible. Thus did Judah's reckoning
Tamar bear a mistaken judgement, Gen. xxxviii. 15.; 'Eli's of Hannah, 1 Sam. i. i 3.; the Jews of Christ, while they reckoned him firicken, smitten, of God, Il. liii. 4. 1. c. an object of God's peculiar hatred, while he was indeed his beloves Son. And such would be the judgement of one, who would reckon the deep bear hairs, Job xli. . which without queîion it is not. Or elle, 2. The meaning is no more, but that the reckoner treats the thing, a; if it were that other thing. And thus it is always in three cales, (1.) lo the case of agenis incapable of forming a judgeart. So the
of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ; ibat we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and leviatban reckons iron for Atraw, Job xli. 1. which doubtless it is not ; but he treats it as if it were straw. (2.) In the case of falli.. ble judges, in points not liable to miffake. Thus Laban's own daugh. ters were by him reckoned firangers. Gen. xxxi. 15.; and Job a stranger, by his own domestics, Job xix. 15.; and Zion's fons, cartben pitchers, by the enemies, Lam. iv. 2. : in all whici cases, there could be no mistaking of the persons reckoned for such perfoes and things; but these persons were so treated, as if they had been taken for such persons and things. (3.) In the case of the infallible Judge. So Il
. xl. 17. The nations are reckoned of him lefs iban. (Tohu, Gen. i. 2.) emptiness : not that they are so in very deed; for they are creatures made the sixth day, after (Tobu) emptiness was no more: but that he can so treat them, and annihilate them as easily. Thus Job says, God reckoned bim for his ene mj, Job xiii. 24. : not that he thought God judged him to be his enemy, indeed; on the contrary, he was resolved to maintain his way, as to the main of it, before the Lord, ver. 15. and fays expressly, chap. x. 7. Thou knoweft that I am not wicked: but his meaning is, that God ireated him, as if he had been an enemy; and Elihu found fault with him, even for that, chap. xxxiii. 10. Ob/. 3. This phrase is used of reckoning a thing what it is not indeed, confidered in its own nature, but yet in effect is; which laft bears the ground of the reckoning. Thus he who gives a flattering bleffing to his neighbour, hath a curse reckoned to him, Prov. xxvii. 14. The bleffing is not in itself a curse; yet it is a curfe in effect, as having the same effect, as it ne.. id cursed his neighbour and so, on that ground, it is reckoned to the Aatterer, a curse. V.. and lafly,, To reckon a thing to a person, is to set it down on his score, to pat it on his account, as really bis, antecedent to the reckoning; if ill, to anfwer for it; if good, that he may claim, or have the leneft of it. Examples of the former. Lev. xvii. 4. Blood shall be rickored to that man; i e. The guilt of blood shall be put on that man's account, as really his, and he mall answer for it: he hath Jood blocd, faith the text, and that man shall be cut off. Pfal. xli. $. Upon me they would reckon, evil tó me, i.e. charge it on me, as my fad end deed, and make me answer for it.' So a curse is reckoned to the fatterer, Prov. xxvii. 14. Thus Shimei fays to David, Let
lord reckon iniquity to me,' 2 Samn. xx. 30.; he owns his crinic, and do not remember that which thy servent did perversely, ibid
. ; but he begs that the king would ror put it on his account, and make him answer for it. And thus David describes the blessedre/s of the justified man, that the Lord will not reckon iniquity to him, Pial . xxxii, 2. i.e. that he will not pu: his iniquity on his own
and make him answer for it; the putting it on the Sureand his answering alriady for it, being already sullained at Vol. III.
not by flie works of the law: for. "by the works of the 11-3 hill no flesh be justified. So it is a going out of one's self to Chrift for all. Go's bur. 'Eramples of the latter. 2 Sam. iv. 2. Beeroth; it wou!! bave been reckoned, upon Benjamin ; viz. as truly theirs, to have the benefit of it, fo: it indeed dił belong to Benjainin, Josh. xviii. 25. though the Philistines violently portefled it, i Sam. xxxi. 7. So it is faid of another plat of ground, It would have been retkonce to the Canaanites, Joth. xiii. 3. namely, as really theiss; and therefore it remained to be poffeffed by Israel, ver. 1. And thus, Num. xviii. 27. Your heave-offerings fall be reckoned 10
you, put on your account, as your own offerings, and you to receive the benefit of the same. On the other hand, He that offereth'a peace. offering, and eateth of it on the third day, it was not to be reckoned to hiin, Lev, vii. 18. 1. 6. put on the account of his fervice to God. Pfal. xl. *.. I (am) poor and needy, my LORD will reckon 10 % iie. The Father would put the poverty of the Mediator on his account, and reward him for it. And thus the deed of Phinehas was reckoned to him, put on his account of acceptable fervice, and gracinully rewarded, for the sake of the Mediator. Thus fat of the pirafas formed with 'Hha/chaby, to reckon. Now the Scope and delign of Mofes in the text, is to shew to all, and particularly to the Jews, the way how a finner is jufified before the Lord, namely, by faith in the Meffias, wir.bout the works of the luw. Having given an account, how Abram entertained the promise, viz. that he trufied in Jehovah; he discovers, on'that occasion, how be became righteous before God, namely, by that truft : that every one may fee in him, as in an exemplar, how a inner is justified in God's sight, That this is the scope of the words, is put beyond question by the apostle, Rom. iv. From what is said, it appears, that, according to the phraseology of the Holy Ghost; and the scope of this patlage, the following positions are establithed. Pof, T. The only righ. teousness, wherein a man can stand before the Lord, is the fulfilling of the law, or a conformity to tbe law resulting therefrom. For nuci is the scripture-notion of righteousness in the case of ment. Po 'The sense of this passage is not, That God reckoned Abrant's trusting or believing, for a righteous and worthy action, as he did the fact of Phsrehas, Pial.cvi. 31. For it is the righteownes of Abram's perfon, not the righteousness of an action or is, that is here aimed at. The deed of Phinehas was what could not have misfest, by some at least, to have been reckoned a rajin ang pintill action, if God himselt had not declared his approbation of it but A bram's trusting in Jehovah, was what could never be liisle to any such misconstruction, among thofe who believe Jehovah to be GOD. But the sense is, His faith' was accounted rigtiteoul. ness for his person in the fight of Guj. Pof. III, Faith's being Jackoned or counted for rightecufness, which is the phrase of
VII. I come now to consider the ground and warrant of faith. This is the gospel-offer, (1.)
the Septuagint, retained by the apostle Paul, Rom. iv. 3. valent t9, and of the fame sense with, Moses's phrase in the text, viz. faith's being reckoned righteousness. This is clear from what is said on the third and fourth phrases compared. Pof. IV. The righteousness of Christ, though righteousuels in the stricte it propriety, greatest reality and perfection, antecedently to the imputation or reckoning of it, may, according to the scripture, be inputed for righteousness, te us: for, in the phraseology of the Holy Ghost, a thing is said to be reckoned or imputed for what it is really, as well as for what it is not ; as appears froin the instances adduced, obl. 1. op the fourth phrase. ; Polo V. Since faith, or the act of þelieving, is not in itself righteousness for a person before God, an. teceuently to the imputation of it, for that righteousness ; which is manifest from that it douh not, in itself, exactly answer or fulfil the law, the eternal rule of righteoufness: and since God, the infal. lible Judge, whole judgement is alivays according to trutb, is the farty in puting it for rigliteousness; therefore faith, or the act of believing, imputed to finners for righteoune?s, neither is at any time, cor is made by the inputation, nor by any gratuitous acceps gation, the very formal righteoufness, for which a inner is juftified in the fight of GOD. It is no more so, than Laban's daughters were really Arangers to him, Gen, xxxi. 1;.; or Zion's fons, cariben pitchers, Lam. iv. 2.; or the nations really less than empainefs, If. xl. 17, though they were fo reckoned. Pol. VI. Upon the fam: grounds, faith is therefore said to be imputed for righteoulnels; not that God judg th it to be the righteousness of a person before bim, but because he treats faith, as if it were that rightcousness; namely, justifying the perion who hath it, pardoning all his fins, and accepting him
as righteous in his fight, immediately upon his act of believing. Even as the leviathan treats iron as draw, Job xli, 24 though he does not judge it to be flraw; and Laban treated his own daughters, Gen, xxxi. 15, and Job's servants their malles, Job xix, 15, as if they had been jirangirs; and Zion's ene. mięso her sons as earthen pitchers, Lam. iv. 2, though furely they did not judge them to be fo. And even as God.creats the nations as if they quere less than emptiness, 11. xl. 17. though he infallibly knows they are more thin empiineis ; and as Job thought hiinfelt treated of God, as if he bad been his enemy, Job xiii. 24. ; while in the mean time he knew, that God did not judge him to be au enemy gp him, POL VII. Though faith is not really and in itself the righteousness of a guilty man before the Lord: yet being in in off to wit, rclatrvey and inffrumutally; foralmuch as it lays hoki on, presents, and pleads the righteousness of Christ; iuis, on good gounds, said to be impued for righteousnejs: even as the fiartezei's blefling as reckened a cu: se, Prov.xxvii. 14. as being fv.in