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So it is for juftification and And faith receives and rests on him
indwelling of fin. fanctification.
tively, acting for an action or work. On the other fide, balances of (Tzedek) righteousness, ftones of righteousness, Lev. xix. 36. are balances and weights conform to the ftandard. Thus thefe two words, frequently occurring, howbeit their fignification may come to one in effect, yet they do in their formal notion reprefent the thing under different chefes. Accordingly the righteoufness of Chrift imputed to believers, is expreffed by each of them. His righteousness (Tzidkatho) is declared and preached, Pfal. xxii. ult. : and he is Jehovah (Tzidkenu) our righteoufnefs, Jer. xxiii. 6.: the former propofing his righteousness, as the fulfilling of the law; the latter, as conformity to the law, arifing therefrom. As the word Hhafchabb is used for devifing, chap. vi. 5. it is fometimes conftructed, as here, with L', to or for, denoting the party for whom the thing is devifed, as Amos vi. 5. or the end for which, as Gen. 1. 20. fince faith cannot be faid to be devifed righteousness, that sense of the word, which at beft is but fecondary, can have no place here. But for clearing the import of this weighty expreffion, ufed in the text, according to the fcripture-phrafeology, it will be worth the while to inquire into the feveral phrafes, formed with the word Hbafchabb, in the notion of reckoning, which is the formal notion. of it. I. A perfon is faid to be reckoned WITH others, i. e. claffed with them, and the fame account made of him, as of them. Thus Pfal. Ixxxviii. 5. the pfalmift was reckoned with them that go down to the pit, his cafe accounted hopeless, even as theirs. II. To reckon one person or thing as another, is to make a like account of them, as of the other, and fo to treat them after the like manner. Thus Job's friends thought they were reckoned as beafts, Job xviii. 3.; and he himself thought, he was reckoned as an enemy of God, chap, xix. 11. and darts are reckoned as ftubble by the leviathan, chap. xli. . So Num. xviii. 27. Pfal. xliv. 23. If. v. 28. & xl. 15. Hof. viii. 12. III. To reckon one thing For another, is to account it to be that thing. Job xxxv. 2. Haft thou reckoned this for judgement, i. e. reckoned this to be judgement. So Judah reckoned Tamar for an barlot, Gen. xxxviii. 15. Eli, Hannah for a drunken woman, 1 Sam.i. 13. Job, according to Elihu, reckoned God for his nemy, i. e. to be his enemy, Job xxxiii. 10. Thus to be reckoned for righteoufuefs, Pfal. cvi. 31. is to be reckoned to be righteoufnels. So this third phrafe falls in with, and is equivalent to the IV. here ufed by Mofes. That is, two terms being propofed, the one. is faid to be reckoned THE OTHER, as faith reckoned righteousness. Concerning this Phrafeology, Obf. 1. It is ufed of reckoning a thing, what in reality and in very deed it is, antecedently to the reckoning. Thus the treafurers were reckoned faithful, Neh. xiii. 13. as indeed they were; and for that caufe Nehemiah put them into that office: the houses in unwalled villages were to be reckon
alone for all thefe, Gal. i. 16. Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith
ed upon the field of the land, Lev. xxv. 31. as they were indeed, not being feparated from the field by a town-wall: a fool holding his peace, is reckoned wife, Prov. xvii. 28. and fo he is in that point: the fruitful field shall be reckoned for a foreft, If. xxix. 17," and fo it really is now, and is truly fo reckoned; namely, the Jews fometimes God's people, but now rejected. The land of the Ammonites, faith the text Deut. ii. 20. would have been reckoned a land of giants, i. e. formerly it ufed to be fo reckoned and july; for the giants, adds the text, dwelt therein in old time however it neither was fo, nor was it fo reckoned, in Mofes's time. The Emims would have been reckoned giants, ver. 11.: and juftly fo; for they were tall as the Anakims, ver. 10. The fcope of the two laft paffages is, to confirm the Ifraelites in the faith of their conqueft of Canaan, notwithstanding of the Anakims there. For this at caufe Mofes fhews them, that the Zamzum nims were driven out before the Ammonites, and the Emims before the Moabites, though both the one and the other were reckoned giants. But if they were not really what they were reckoned to be, thefe inftances were nothing to the purpose they are adduced for. And thus the fact of Phinehas was reckoned for righteoufnefs, Pfal. cvi. 3!. i. e. reckoned a righteous action, pleafing to God; which it really was, being done in faith and hereby it is declared to be fo, for an obvious reafon, viz. that otherwife men would have been apt to have condemned it. It is without caufe alleged, that the text fays, It was reckoned, righteoufnefs for generation and generation, which it was not, being his own perfonal deed, and not the deed of any of his pofterity. For the text ftands thus, And it was reckoned to him, for righteoufnefs: for generation and generation; even to perpetuity. i. e. It was reckoned to him, righteoufnefs: [it was reckoned fo] for generation and generation; even to perpetuity: A token of which was, the priesthood's being continued in his family, from generation to generation. Obf. 2. This phrafe is ufed of reckoning a thing, what in very deed it is not, neither prior to the reckoning, nor pofterior to it. And in this cafe, it either, 1. Bears a mistake, which takes place only, where the reckoner is capable to form a judgement, but withal is fallible. Thus did Judah's reckoning of Tamar bear a miftaken judgement, Gen. xxxviii. 15.; Eli's of Hannah, 1 Sam. i. 13.; the Jews of Chrift, while they reckoned nim Bricken, mitten, of God, If. liii. 4. i. c. an object of God's peculiar hatred, while he was indeed his beloved Son. And fuch would be the judgement of one, who would reckon the deep hear hairs, Job xli. 4. which without queftion it is not. Or elfe,
2. The meaning is no more, but that the reckoner treats the thing, as if it were that other thing. And thus it is always in
In the cafe of agents incapable of forming a judge ree cales.
of Fefus Chrift, even we have believed in Jefus Chrift; that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and
leviathan reckons iron for Atraw, Job xli. 14. which doubtless it is not; but he treats it as if it were ftraw. (2.) In the case of fallible judges, in points not liable to mistake. Thus Laban's own daugh. ters were by him reckoned ftrangers. Gen. xxxi. 15.; and Job a Stranger, by his own domeftics, Job xix. 15.; and Zion's fons, earthen pitchers, by the enemies, Lam. iv. 2. in all which cafes, there could be no mistaking of the perfons reckoned for fuch perfons and things; but thefe perfons were fo treated, as if they had been taken for fuch perfons and things. (3.) In the case of the infallible Fudge. So If. xl. 17. The nations are reckoned of him lefs than (Tohu, Gen. i. 2.) emptiness: not that they are so in very deed; for they are creatures made the fixth day, after (Tobu) emptiness was no more: but that he can fo treat them, and annihilate them as cafily. Thus Job fays, God reckoned him for his ene • my, Job xiii. 24. not that he thought God judged him to be his enemy, indeed; on the contrary, he was refolved to maintain his way, as to the main of it, before the Lord, ver. 15. and fays exprefsly, chap. x. 7. Thou knowest that I am not wicked: but his meaning is, that God treated him, as if he had been an enemy; and Elihu found fault with him, even for that, chap. xxxiii. 10. Obf. 3. This phrafe is used of reckoning a thing what it is not indeed, confidered in its own nature, but yet in effect is; which laft bears the ground of the reckoning. Thus he who gives a flattering bleffing to his neighbour, hath a curfe reckoned to him, Prov. xxvii. 14. The bleffing is not in itself a curfe; yet it is a curfe in effect, as having the fame effect, as if he id curfed his neighbour and fo, on that ground, it is reckoned to the flatterer, a curfe. V. and lastly, To reckon a thing To a perfon, is to fet it down on his fcore, to put it on his account, as really his, antecedent to the reckoning; if ill, to answer for it; if good, that he may claim, or have the beneft of it. Examples of the former. Lev. xvii. 4. Blood shall be reckoned to that man; i e. The guilt of blood fhall be put on that man's account, as really his, and he fhall anfwer for it: he hath hed blood, faith the text, and that man shall be cut off. Pfal. xli. 4. Upon me they would reckon, evil to me, i. e. charge it on me, as my fact and deed, and make me anfwer for it." So a curfe is reckoned to the flatterer, Prov. xxvii. 14. Thus Shimei fays to David, Let not my lord reckon iniquity to me, 2 Sam. xx. .; he owns his crine, and do not remember that which thy fervant did perversely, ibid.; but he begs that the king would rot put it on his account, and make him anfwer for it. And thus David defcribes the blessednefs of the justified man, that the Lord will not reckon iniquity to him, Pial. xxxii. 2. i. e. that he will not put his iniquity on his own account, and make him anfwer for it; the putting it on the Surety, and his anfwering already for it, being already fuflained at M m
not by the works of the law for by the works of the law fhall no flesh be justified. So it is a going out
of one's felf to Chrift for all.
God's bar. Examples of the latter. 2 Sam. iv. 2. Beeroth; it would have been reckoned, upon Benjamin; viz. as truly theirs, to hive the benefit of it, for it indeed did belong to Benjamin, Joh. xviii. 25. though the Philistines violently poffeffed it, 1 Sam. xxxi. 7. So it is faid of another plat of ground, It would have been reckened to the Canaanites, Joth. xiii. 3. namely, as really theirs; and therefore it remained to be poffeffed by Ifrael, ver. 1. And thus, Num, xviii. 27. Your beave offerings shall be reckoned to you, i, l. put on your account, as your own offerings, and you to receive the benefit of the fame. On the other hand, He that offereth a peaceoffering, and eateth of it on the third day, it was not to be
to him, Lev. vii. 18. i. e. put on the account of his ferviceckoned
God. Pfal. xl. 44. I [am] poor and needy, my LORD will reckon to me i. c. The Father would put the poverty of the Mediator on his account, and reward him for it. And thus the deed of Phinehas was reckoned to him, put on his account of acceptable fervice, and graeibully rewarded, for the fake of the Mediator. Thus far of the phrafes formed with Hhafchabh, to reckon. Now the Score and de gn of Mofes in the text, is to fhew to all, and particularly to to the Jews, the way how a finner is justified before the Lord, namely, by faith in the Meffias, without the works of the law. Having given an account, how Abram entertained the promife, viz. that he trufied in Jehovah; he difcovers, on that occafion, how he became righteous before God, namely, by that trust that every one may fee in him, as in an exemplar, how a nner is juftified in God's fight, That this is the fcope of the words, is put beyond question by the apottle, Rom. iv. FROM what is faid, it appears, that, according to the phrafeology of the Holy Gholt, and the scope of this patfage, the following pofitions are established. Pof. I. The only righ teousness, wherein a man can ftand before the Lord, is the fulfilling of the law, or a conformity to the law refulting therefrom. For fuci is the fcripture-notion of righteoufness in the cafe of men. Po The fenfe of this paffage is not, That God reckoned Abram trufting or believing, for a righteous and worthy action, as he did the fact of Phinehas, Pal. cvi. 31. For it is the righteousness of Abram's perfon, not the righteoufnels of an action of is, that is here aimed at. The deed of Phinehas was what could not have miffed, by fome at leaft, to have been reckoned a rafb" and finfill action, if God himfelt had not declared his approbation of it? Abram's trufting in Jehovah, was what could never be liable to any fuch mifconftruction, among thofe who believe Jehovah to be GOD. But the fenfe is, His faith was accounted righteouf nefs for his perfon in the fight of God. Pb. II, Faith's being reckoned or counted for righteousness, which is the phrafe of
VII. I come now to confider the ground and warrant of faith. This is the gofpel-offer. (L.)
the Septuagint, retained by the apoftle Paul, Rom. iv. 3. is equivalent to, and of the fame fenfe with, Mofes's phrafe in the text, viz. faith's being reckoned righteousness. This is clear from what is faid on the third and fourth phrafes compared. Pof. IV. The righttoufness of Chrifi, though righteoufuefs in the fricett proprie, ty, greatest reality and perfection, antecedently to the imputation or reckoning of it, may, according to the fcripture, be inputed for righteousness, to us: for, in the phrafeology of the Holy Ghoft, a thing is laid to be reckoned or imputed for what it is really, as well as for what it is not; as appears from the inftances adduced, b. 1. on the fourth phrafe. Pef. V. Since faith, or the act of believing, is not in itfelf righteoufnefs for a perfon before God, antecedently to the imputation of it, for that iighteoufnefs; which is manifeft from that it doth not, in itself, exactly anfwer or fulfil the law, the eternal rule of righteoufnefs: and fince God, the infal lible Judge, whofe judgement is always according to truth, is the party imputing it for righteoufnefs; therefore faith, or the act of believing, imputed to finners for righteoufnefs, neither is at any time, nor is made by the imputation, nor by any gratuitous acceptation, the very formal righteousness, for which a inner is juftified in the fight of GOD. It is no more fo, than Laban's daughters were really frangers to him, Gen. xxxi. 15.; or Zion's fons, tartben pitchers, Lam, iv. 2.; or the nations really less than emptinefs, lf. xl. 17. though they were fo reckoned. P. VI. Upon the fame grounds, faith is therefore faid to be imputed for righteouf nefs; not that God judgeth it to be the righteoufnefs of a perfon be fore him but becaufe he treats faith, as if it were that righteou nefs; namely, justifying the perton who hath it, pardoning all his fins, and accepting him as righteous in his fight, immediately up-. on his act of believing. Even as the leviathan treats iron as fraw, Job xli. 24 though he does not judge it to be flraw; and Laban treated his own daughters, Gen. xxxi. 15. and Job's fervants their mafters fob xix. 15, as if they had been rangers; and Zion's encmes, her fons as earthen pitchers, Lam. iv. 2, though furely they did not judge them to be fo. And even as God treats the nations as if they quere less than emptinefs, If. xl. 17. though he infallibly knows they are more than emptine fs: and as Job thought himfelf treated of God, as if he had been his enemy, Job xiii. 24.; while in the mean time he knew, that God did not judge him to be au enginy to him. Po VII. Though faith is not really and in itself the righteousness of a guilty man before the Lord yet being to in
, to wit, relatively and inftrumentally; forafmuch as it lavs hold on, prefents, and pleads the righte ufnefs of Chrift; it is, on good grounds, said to be impunid for righteousness: even as the fatterer's bleffing as reckoned a cu:fc, Prov.xxvii. 14. as being fin