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period in 1892-93. In 1894 he was appointed honorary custodian of mesozoic plants in the National Museum, a title that he held to the time of his death. In 1907 he gained the full rank of geologist on the survey, retaining his quarters in the National Museum where he had access to the collections upon which his work was based.

Doctor Knowlton was an earnest student, in manner kindly and genial. For the greater part of his career he was afflicted with chronic bronchial asthma, which seriously interfered with his work but never dampened his enthusiasm nor altered his kindly disposition.

On February 2, 1888, Dr. Paul Haupt (born Görlitz, Germany, November 25, 1858), professor of the Semitic languages at Johns Hopkins University, of Baltimore, Md., was appointed honorary curator of the newly established section of oriental antiquities, and, with Dr. Cyrus Adler as assistant curator, began the preparation of a study series of casts of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities. In 1898 he was appointed honorary curator of the division of historic archeology, and in 1905 associate in historic archeology, a position held at his death December 17, 1926. This long and active connection was of incalculable benefit to the Museum, as Doctor Haupt, a world acclaimed authority on Orientalia, was always at hand to give council on this subject. Doctor Haupt was a master of Biblical exegesis. He was an indefatigable worker and his writings on Biblical and Assyrian philology, archeology, history, comparative Semitic grammar, Sumerian, and similar subjects, number more than 400.

William Healey Dall, honorary curator of the division of mollusks and cenozoic invertebrates in the National Museum, died March 27, 1927. Doctor Dall was born in Boston, Mass., August 21, 1845, and studied under Louis Agassiz at the museum in Cambridge during 1862 and 1863. In 1865 when a very young man he was appointed chief of the scientific corps of the Western Union International Telegraph expedition to Alaska, a place which he held for three years. It was on his return from this expedition that, through the influence of Professor Baird, he became affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution, a connection which lasted 58 years. From 1870 to 1885 he was an assistant in the Coast Survey and spent several years in exploration in Alaska. In 1885 he was appointed a paleontologist of the Geological Survey, a place which he held until his retirement in 1925, with office in the National Museum, where he had especial charge of fossil mollusks. To Doctor Dall belongs the credit for establishing the splendid organization, installation, and care of the division of mollusks and cenozoic invertebrates in the National Museum, which, under his leadership has grown to be the largest of its kind in the world.



By WALTER HOUGH, Head Curator

A year of increased activity in exploration has swelled the receipt of specimens in this department beyond precedent. Work conducted by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, Chief of the Bureau of American Ethnology, at an ancient pueblo near Flagstaff, Ariz., resulted in an excellent collection of material from that source. Through funds provided by the Bureau of American Ethnology field researches were made possible during the field season of 1926; by Dr. Aleš Hrdlička, curator of physical anthropology, in reconnaissance of many sites. of ancient villages in Alaska; by Herbert W. Krieger, curator of ethnology, at Indian sites on the upper Columbia River and in southern Alaska; by Henry B. Collins, jr., assistant curator of ethnology, in archeological investigations in Louisiana and Mississippi, and in 1927 by the head curator at Indian Mound in western Tennessee, where a number of sites were examined that gave many archeological specimens. The work of Neil M. Judd, curator of American archeology at Pueblo Bonito, N. Mex., under funds provided by the National Geographic Society, has been continued during the present year. Especially noteworthy in its importance to the Museum was the exploration of unknown parts of Dutch New Guinea by Matthew W. Stirling, formerly assistant curator of ethnology, through private means supplied by Mr. Stirling and his associates. This enterprise, originated by Mr. Stirling, was carried out as a joint exploration by the Dutch Colonial government of the East Indies and Mr. Stirling, representing the Smithsonian. The expedition made use of an airplane furnished by Mr. Stirling for preliminary reconnaissance and then penetrated inland across the Lake Plain of New Guinea to the pygmy settlements in the Nassau Mountains along river routes examined from the air. The cooperation of the Dutch Government in these investigations is highly appreciated. Parties in the field at the close of the fiscal year included Mr. Judd, at Pueblo Bonito; Henry B. Collins, jr., assisted by T. Dale Stewart, aid in the division of physical anthropology, at Nunivak Island, Alaska; and Herbert W. Krieger, on the Yukon River, Alaska.


Accessions in this department for the year numbered 148, 24 more than in the previous year, while the number of specimens added totaled 12,974 against 4,223 in the fiscal year 1926.

Of first importance was the collection of several thousand objects presented by Matthew W. Stirling and resulting from the exploration mentioned in the interior of New Guinea. This consists of bows and arrows, hafted stone axes, stone knives, chisels; woven bags, armor, wristlets; innumerable barbaric ornaments, necklaces, headdresses; fire thongs, pipes, salt bundles, and many other objects secured often in series and forming a wonderful exhibit of the material culture of these peoples. This material is entirely new to the Museum collections and contains much previously unknown to science, especially where secured from hitherto unvisited Papuans and from Negritos of the Nassau range in central Dutch New Guinea. Current exploration and investigations in the ethnology and archeology of Alaska by the Bureau of American Ethnology resulted in several valuable collections. That obtained by Dr. Aleš Hrdlička in the summer of 1926 consisted of many ancient and modern artifacts, much extending the Museum's fine collection from Alaska. In this connection material lent by Karl Lomen is important as it contains many specimens of etching and carving on fossil ivory made by extinct people belonging to some as yet undetermined race. A noteworthy American Indian collection received as a gift from C. H. Heyl, 2d., consists of valuable painted shields, headdresses, paintings on skin, bows and arrows, costumes, beadwork, and other objects collected by the late Col. C. H. Heyl, United States Army. Several hundred specimens of Philippine ethnologica, given by Gen. Tasker H. Bliss, United States Army, consist of costumes, weapons, weavings, and other objects of value. From Miss Isobel H. Lenman there were received as a loan over 100 rare headdresses, ornaments, and other objects from the Pacific Islands. Mrs. Richard Wainwright also presented a number of Indian baskets, pieces of pottery, and stonework.

The division of American archeology makes special mention of the large contribution of the National Geographic Society in material collected by Neil M. Judd at Pueblo Bonito, N. Mex., during his several seasons of successful field work. The specimens, numbering 2,480, including many lots, consist of pottery, stone, bone, wood, and shell artifacts of the advanced material culture of this ancient pueblo whose inhabitants have passed into oblivion. The society also presented material secured from Pueblo del Arroyo, N. Mex., from small house sites near Chaco Canyon, and from other pueblo sites in the canyon. A large collection excavated by Dr. J. Walter Fewkes

from a ruin named Eldon Pueblo, near Flagstaff, Ariz., consisting principally of pottery new to the Museum, was transferred from the Bureau of American Ethnology. Herbert W. Krieger, exploring for the bureau, brought back a large collection of pottery, stone, and bone implements and ornaments from extended investigations of sites on the Upper Columbia River. The field work of Henry B. Collins, jr., for the bureau in Louisiana and Mississippi resulted in important specimens. A series of earthenware vessels, stone implements, and shards, was collected by Dr. Manuel Gamio, of Mexico, for the Archaeological Society of Washington, who loaned them to the Museum. Nine stone images from Tennessee, purchased from the collection of the late W. E. Myer, were transferred from the Bureau of American Ethnology.

The most valuable addition during the year to the division of Old World archeology, both from archeological and artistic point of view, is the collection of objects of Jewish religious ceremonial objects, Maccabean coins, and Palestinian antiquities and art works, comprising manuscript scrolls of parts of the Scriptures, marriage contracts, lamps, and silverware used in the religious life of the Jews, filling out many gaps in the section of Judaism in the exhibit of religions, received as a loan from E. Deinard. Among other accessions are such rarities as a manuscript on palm spathe from the Battaks, a tribe living in the central highlands of Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, the only non-Mohammedan lettered people in the Indian Archipelago, presented by Miss Rose E. Fankhauser; and a magnificent Buddhist manuscript measuring 23 by 21⁄2 inches, written in Siamese Pali on palm leaves, held between covers which are beautifully gilded, lacquered, and ornamented with mythical animals and floral designs, received as a gift from the Siamese National Library, H. R. H. Prince Damrong, president, Bangkok, Siam, through Dr. Hugh M. Smith.

In the division of physical anthropology the most important accessions were those of the skeletal material and photographs made by the curator in Alaska and transferred to the Museum by the Bureau of American Ethnology. The collection embraced 58 Indian and Eskimo skeletons, 342 separate skulls, large numbers of lower jaws and other parts of the skeletons. The photographs, mainly portraits of the natives, include several hundred, of which about 150 were made by the curator. A further important acquisition by the division was a set of valuable casts of the Krapina early man, obtained through Prof. Karl Gorjanovic-Kramberger, of the GeologickoPaleontologicko Museum, Zagreb, Jugoslavia. Other valuable accessions include 63 Indian crania, with some other skeletal parts, collected in mounds and burial sites of Louisiana and Mississippi by Henry B. Collins, jr., of the division of ethnology, and transferred by

the Bureau of American Ethnology; a gift of 16 skulls from old burials in Hopkinsville, Ky., from the Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., through Warren K. Moorehead.

Accessions in the section of musical instruments consisted of two harpsichords in glass cases, the gift of Hugo Worch, and three old square pianos, also presented by Mr. Worch.

In the section of ceramics notable accessions during the year were 64 specimens of Chinese pottery and bronze received as a loan from the estate of Gen. C. F. Humphrey, United States Army; an old American plate decorated with a spread eagle, gift of Robert D. Weaver; a copy of the oldest Worcester jug, donated by Mrs. Marian Bruce Clark; and pewter, snuff boxes, and a condiment set, a gift from Mrs. Stephen B. Stanton.

Accessions received during the year in the section of art textiles consisted of several French ecclesiastical paintings of the thirteenth century, lent by Mrs. Alice C. Barney; an especially fine old bag worked with beads and silk, several snuff boxes, and embroidered handkerchief, presented by Mrs. Stephen B. Stanton; 15 pieces of lace, donated by Miss Isabella C. Freeman and Mrs. B. H. Buckingham; and an Italian white linen hand-woven towel, gift from Mrs. Belle Bushnell. A Duchess lace fan was received as a bequest from Mrs. Sophia L. Rutherford.


Rearrangements of exhibits in ethnology were on a rather extensive scale due to the return of the collection sent for exhibit to the Sesquicentennial Exposition, and also to the transfer of the Piney Branch quarry group to the division of archeology. The present exhibit was improved whenever possible by the introduction of types of processes or methods employed by aboriginal artisans. The antique ironwork presented by Heinrich Meyn was placed on public view, cases containing Alaskan ivories, collected by Doctor Hrdlička and Karl Lomen were placed in the Eskimo section, and the splendid collection of Moro brass lent by Maj. Edward Dworak, United States Army, was installed in the Philippine section. Porcelains and bronzes from the estate of Gen. C. F. Humphrey, United States Army, were exhibited in the Chinese pagodas.

In American archeology the return of exhibits from the Sesquicentennial necessitated considerable reinstallation. A case was designed for the Tuxtla statuette, the oldest dated antiquity in the New World, to give it more effective setting, and a special case was made to exhibit as a transparency a photographic enlargement of one of the Atlantean figures from the Temple of the Warriors at Chichen Itza, Mexico.

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