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tions of provisions, and other articles needed by the regiment; the SergeantMajor, who assists the Major, as the Adjutant does the Colonel, in forming the lines, and posting the guides; the Quartermaster Sergeant, who assists the Quartermaster; the Drum Major and Fife Major, each of which is chief of the musicians of his own kind ; and the Hospital Steward, who has charge of the hospital and medicines, under the direction of the Surgeon.
Each company has a captain, two lieutenants, four sergeants, and five corporals. The first sergeant, called the orderly, keeps the roll of the company,
and forms it before the commissioned officers appear. Sergeants and corpor, als are appointed by warrant; captains and lieutenants by commission.
The rank of the various army officers is indicated by their shoulder straps. The Lieutenant-Genral has three stars, the middle one being larger than the other two. A Major-General has two stars; a Brigadier-General, one. A Colonel has a silver eagle ; a Lieutenant Colonel has a silver leaf; a Major a gold leaf, A Captain has two gold bars across his shoulder strap; a First Lieutenant, one bar; a Second Lieutenant, no bar or other device, the strap being plaid.
Quartermasters, Inspectors, Commissaries, and others, have various ranks from that of a Brigadier-General down to a Second Lieutenant, which is indi. cated on the shoulder strap, with the letters C. D., Commissariat Department, Q. D., Quartermaster's Department, &c.
Answer to No. 3.-Because she is found in school.
Answer to No. 8.-Take the Journal of Education.-A SUBSCRIBER.
If we are always looking back, we shall be sure to go as we look.
DEPARTMENT OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS.
SCHOOL VISITATION. Having in a previous number offered some reasons why members of School Boards, parents of pupils and friends of education should visit schools, I propose in the present article to urge the importance of Teachers visiting schools.
And first, I may remark, that a teacher's presence in a school conducted by another teacher, will be attended with all the good results upon the school visited, that the presence of any other person will. But the principal object of a teacher's visit is self-improvement. Let us briefly consider the course pursued by many if indeed I may not say most of those who are about to assume the important responsibility of becoming teachers of youth. What is their first and principal object? What, but to obtain a sufficient acquaintance with books to enable them to obtain a certificate of qualifications. This done, and the acme is reached, the goal is gained. What'more indeed can be wanting? Has he not given abundant proof of his ability to teach, in passing creditably the ordeal of examination ? Does not his certificate declare that be “has passed a satisfactory examination on all points required by law;" and does not the law require that the examining officer shall certify, not only, that the candidate has learning, but “ability to teach ?" Thus confident in his own competency and fortified by his license, he enters the school-room and commences his work. In a majority of instances, he will model his school after that teacher of his, who made the most abiding impression upon his mind. His instructor was perhaps the teacher of a high-school, possibly a professor in a college. Still he attempts to apply those high-school regulations and usages to his village, or country, primary and mixed school. His teacher may have been one of the many in those old established schools, who have been twentyfive years or more “in the ruts,” trudging along as his fathers did before him. Still he knows no other way and he imitates as best he can the practices of those who taught him. Frequent and unexpected difficulties arise, he is perplexed, but knows not how to find relief. His pupils become listless, inat. tentive and careless, they are frequently absent a part or all of the day and more frequently tardy, but he knows no remedy, He contents himself it may be, with the reflection “it is so in all schools,” that is, all with which he has been acquainted,
,-or perhaps he concludes that it it is the fault of the parents and the custom of the school and of course he is not to blame. In this way the teacher and the pupils drag through the wearisome days of the term, and close up with the consoling consideration that there “ has been no fault found."
This is but a meagre picture of the real condition of our schools. And is there no remedy?, I answer yes; the remedy is at hand. Frequent the school.
the experienced and successful teachers, become an eye witness to all its operations. Converse freely with your fellow teachers on all points involving difficulty: Do not become weary and discontinue the practice when you have witnessed the exercises of a few schools, but persevere. And remember that though every excellence is not found in one,
still, some good may be gleaned from each, and that when obstacles are met, which the teacher, single handed cannot surmount, the united 'wisdom and ex
experience of many may remove them. ot'A plan of systematic visitation in a town where all the teachers could join, would result in much good, not only to teachers themselves, but to the several schools there located: To accomplish this, soon after the commencement of the i term of schools, an arrangement could be made by the several teachers, by which, say, once in two weeks, all the teachers should meet at some school. house to witness the exercises of that school under the direction of its teachers. The next meeting to be held in some other district, where all could en. joy the privilege of observing that teacher's method of conducting the work of the school-rooms and so on until, if time permitted, each school in the -town had been visited: 11If occasionally, at some central point a few classes from each school were assembled, and each teacher should conduct a portion
of the exercises, it would prove additionally beneficial. •=- This is not an untried theory. Will not others test it, and prove its utility ?
If any company of teachers will subject this suggestion to 'a fair trial, and in the end, do spot and the result instructive and beneficial to the teachers, stimu. -lating and healthful to the pupils, and tending 'to 'wake up an interest among parents, they may with my full consent discontinue the practice forever, and eater upon the record that an error was once committed by HOPEFUL.
DEPARTMENT OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT. 01019.!
Liit of a los 3 and TO DISTRICT ELECTORS. i Upon the last Monday of the present month you will be called upon to transæet business for your several School Districts. "Let mie urge upon all the necessity of a panctual attendance upon this meeting. 7981.You have one officer to 'elect to fill the place of the 'one'elected three years'ago. In all Districts organized previous" to 1859 a Director must be elected this year-if the first annual meeting after the organization was held in 1860, you elect a Treasurer this year; if the first meeting after organization was held in 1861, you must elect' a Clerk; if in 1862, a Director; if in '1868, a Treasurer; if this be your first Annual Meeting since your organization, you must elect à clerk.. ---The officers elected will hold his office for three years. It is therefore very important that you select a good man, one who will act for the good of the
District in all respects, a man who has personal interest in the cause of educa. tion, and who has no personel ends to gain. The success of your school may depend upon the officer elected at this meeting.
In case of vacancies that have been filled by appointment during the year, an election must be had for the unexpired part of the term.
2. District officers select and employ your 'Teachers, but your money pays their wages and for this purpose taxes must be raised. Poor crops, high prices, and uncertainty as to the future will make you think of retrenchment of expenditures. As you look about you to find a place for retrenchment, I pray
Ι you consult the Future as well as the Present, before making your determination. One month's less instruction to your children during the coming year, which will save each of you a few cents or at most but a few dollars, will enable you to gratify some present desire of your children or of yourselves, which is of so little value that its remembrance dies with the gratification ; while the loss of this month's instruction must detract from the child's future usefulness, and open the way for the formation of habits injurious to the child and to his associates and which must result in increased care and anxiety, or it may be in untold sorrow to the parents. Your children may serve you at home and they may be needed there, but your neighbor's children in whose well-being you have a personal interest (though it may be indirect) will use the time lost from school in the cultivation of habits that will cost you in the end more than you will save by diminution of taxes. If an education is worth anything it is worth as much this year as any other. You may fear adversity and to guard against it deprive your children of the means of preventing its approach hereafter. This course will secure the result you wish to avoid.
By all means economize. In these days of extravagance it is specially necessary to think of the future. But let your economy be a sound economy, such as makes permanent future good of more weight, than transient present pleasure. All extravagance in school matters is as injurious as stinginess. But well qualified teachers should be employed and suitably paid. In these times their salaries should be commensurate to their needs.,
3. You will have before you also if you desire it the question of a change of time for holding the Annual Meeting. In all larger Districts there will be a decided advantage in having the Annual Meeting occur the last Monday in August. It will allow the employment of teachers so that a three months' Fall Term may be held before cold weather sets in. As it is at present, one of the best months in the year for smaller children to be at school, the month of September, is entirely lost. No officers desire to employ teachers till after the Annual Meeting. The law was so amended last winter that a majority of the electors present at the Annual Meeting may change the time of holding this meeting.
4. All Questions of repairs of the school-house will arise. Let your determi
„nation be to make your school-houses comfortable, and you will be amply repaid for the expense.
With these brief suggestions, I leave the matter to your deliberate and intelligent action.
TO DISTRICT CLERKS.
I wish especially to commend to your patronage the Jouri of Education. It will be made the medium of communication with you from this Department, Can you not persuade the District to authorize you to subscribe for a copy for the use of yourself and the teacher of your school. It will be made of great value to you in the discharge of your official duties. It deserves to be well sustained. Any effort you may make to secure subscribers will be thankfully acknowledged. For eight years past you have had the benefit of its perusal without cost to yourselves. Will you not aid in continuing its publication and circulation ?
Yours very truly,
J. L. PICKARD, Superintendent Public Instruction.
OUR LOSS. An expression of deep regret comes to us from every quarter, at the resignation of our State Superintendent. Says a highly valued correspondent: "I fear we shall find no other man who can do as well.” Mr. Pickard leaves the State however with the respect and the kind wishes we believe of all who know him, and especially of all who have come in contact with him in the discharge of his official duties. Though unfortunate in losing so good a man from her educational work, Wisconsin may feel complimented that she has furnished the metropolis of the Northwest with an educational head.
A brief biographical notice of Mr. Pickard, copied from Barnard's American Journal of Education, appeared in our last number, which renders it annecessary to dwell upon his past labors here. Eighteen years have been spent by him in Wisconsin-thirteen as Principal of the Academy at Platteville, and nearly five in the position which he now resigns. The Illinois Teacher thus speaks of Chicago's Superintendent elect:
Hon. J. L. PICKARD.At a meeting of the Board of Education, July 25, this gentleman was unanimously elected Superintendent of the Chicago Schools, at a salary of $2,500 a year. The election was made without the knowledge of Mr. Pickard, and it is therefore a matter of some doubt whether