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"Seeing then all things have an end, there are "these two indifferently set before us, death and life and every one shall depart unto his proper place." Ignatius to the Magnesians: Wake, ubi sup. p. 79.



Rom. ix. 22. the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction. N.B. Nothing can be inferred from this text in favour of annihilation. It does not relate to the retributions of the world to come; but to the dispositions of Providence, and the judgments of God, with regard to nations or people in this world. It is one instance, amongst the rest, that the scripture does not use the word à¤λeα, destruction, in the philosophical sense of annihilation.

Num. LIX.

1 Cor. i. 18. —the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God.

It is plain what is here meant by the word perish: them that perish is explained by the opposition of -us which are saved. The former are not saved, and therefore in that sense they perish, or are lost. It may not be amiss to set down here, once for all, various passages of the New Testament, where this word is used; in order to discover, and, if we can, ascertain, its meaning.

pías, as if their punishment at last would be the cause of their death, or ceasing to be; but μetà Tuwpías, that is, such a death as is consistent with punishment. So the Constitutions, lib. i. cap. 3. σε θάνατος παρὰ Θεοῦ ἐπελεύσεταί σοι αἰώνιος, ἐν αἰσθήσει πικρῶς κολαζεις μév: æterna mors tibi a Deo superveniet, et acerbo sensus "cruciatu punieris."


Matt. ii. 13. Herod will seek the young child (añoλéσai) to destroy him.

v. 29. —that one of thy members should perish (ảñóληται).

vii. 13. —the way, that leadeth to destruction (àπúλειαν).

viii. 25. Lord, save us: we perish (ảñoλλúμeða).

ix. 17. and the bottles perish.

x. 6. —the lost sheep of the house of Israel (άñoλwλóra). Ver. 28. able to destroy both soul and body in hell. See Num. X. Ver. 39. -shall lose it :-loseth his shall in no wise lose his reward.



Ver. 42.

xii. 14. -held a council, how they might destroy

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xxi. 41. He will miserably destroy those wicked men. Mark i. 24. Art thou come to destroy us? —to torment us? Matt. viii. 29.

ii. 22. the bottles will be marred (άñoλovтai).

iii. 6. how they might destroy him.

iv. 38. Carest thou not that we perish?

viii. 35.

shall lose it ;-lose his life for my sake.

ix. 22. Cast him into the fire, and into the waters, to

destroy him. Ver. 41.


xi. 18.

shall not lose his reward (où μn

sought how they might destroy him.

xii. 9. He will-destroy the husbandmen.

Luke v. 37. the bottles shall perish.

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xiii. 3, 5. Ye shall all likewise perish. Ver. 33. A prophet cannot perish out of Jerusalem.

xv. 4.

lose one (viz. sheep); that which is lost.

Ver. 6. sheep which was lost. Ver. 8.-lose one piece.

Ver. 17. I perish he was lost. Ver. 32. —and

Ver. 9. the piece which I had lost. with hunger. Ver. 24.

was lost (ἀπολωλώς).

Luke xvii. 27. the flood-destroyed them all. -fire and brimstone, and destroyed them all. -shall lose his life.

Ver. 29.

Ver. 33.

xix. 10. —to seek and to save that which was lost (rò άжоλwλós). Ver. 47. sought to destroy him.

xxi. 18.

not an hair of your head perish.

John iii. 15, 16. should not perish, but have eternal life. vi. 12. that nothing be lost. Ver. 27. -the meat which perisheth. Ver. 39. I should lose nothing.

x. 10. -thief cometh to destroy. Ver. 28. —they shall never perish.

xi. 50.

that the whole nation perish not.

xii. 25. He that loveth his life shall lose it.

xvii. 12. -none of them is lost. See Num. XLVIII. xviii. 9. I have lost none. Ver. 14.

-one man should die for the people. Compare chap. xi. 50, 51. What is here ἀπολέσθαι, is there ἀποθάνῃ, and ἀποθνήσκειν. Acts iii. 23. shall be destroyed (oλopevnσeτα) from among the people.

v. 37. —he also perished; (viz. Judas of Galilee.) xxv. 16. —to deliver any man to die (eis árúλesav). Rom. ii. 12. shall also perish without law. See Num. LV. chap. ix. 22. Num. LVIII.

xiv. 15. Destroy not him with thy meat.

1 Cor. v. 5. for the destruction (eis oλelpov) of the flesh. viii. 11. —the weak brother perish.

Ver 10.


x. 9. -were destroyed of serpents. destroyed of the destroyer; a destroying angel: and their carcasses fell in the wilderness, Heb. iii. 17. Compare Numb. xiv. 29, &c.

xv. 18. They which are fallen asleep-are perished. and in them that perish.

2 Cor. ii. 15.

iv. 3. it is hid to them that are lost. Ver. 9.but not destroyed.

2 Thess. ii. 3. The son of perdition. Ver. 10. —in them that perish. As for chap. i. 9. see Num. LXIX.

1 Tim. vi. 9. See Num. LXXII.

Heb. i. 11. They (the earth and heavens) shall perish.

Heb. xi. 28. -he that destroyed the firstborn (ó óλolpɛúwv). Ver. 31. the harlot Rahab perished not.

James i. 11. —the grace of the fashion of it perisheth.

iv. 12. Who is able to save and to destroy. See Num. LXXXI.

1 Peter i. 7. gold that perisheth.

2 Peter iii. 6. The world-overflowed with water, perished. Ver. 9.-not willing that any should perish.

2 John ver. 8. That we lose not those things—.

Jude ver. 5. Afterward destroyed them that believed not. Ver. 11. And perished in the gainsaying of Core.

Rev. ix. 11. the angel of the bottomless pit,-in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon: that is to say, a destroyer (marg.)

xvii. 8, 11. The beast-goeth into perdition. That is, the great tyrannical power, or empire, represented by the beast, will be destroyed.

From these passages, where the word "λλvμai, or some of its compounds or derivatives, is used, we may see plainly that nothing can be inferred, merely from the use and sense of that word in the New Testament, in favour of annihilation. It may be asked, in which of the texts above it has any such import? Let them be pointed out. I will point out one or two, in which it is as likely to bear this signification as in any of the rest; and yet, if Mr. Whiston admits it, he must relinquish a considerable part of his scheme. John iii. 15, 16. If annihilation be here meant, it is plainly said that these believers shall not be annihilated; contrary to Mr. W.'s insinuations, that even the blessed in heaven shall at last be no more. But it is far from being plain or certain, that this is the sense of the word either here or in that other similar text, John x. 28. Whatever the word may mean in the mouth of a philosopher, (as where Socrates says in Plato, ἀθάνατος ἡμῶν ἡ

ψυχὴ, καὶ οὐδέποτε ἀπόλλυται,) this is not the meaning of it in scripture, or in other writings which do not treat of philosophical subjects. We may (as bishop Pearson observes) as well conclude that whosoever says he is undone, (λλvua, perii,) intends thereby that he shall be no more. On the Creed, p. 393.

Num. LX.

1 Cor. iii. 13, 15. Every man's work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it is.If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.

If any man's work shall be burned, [by the fire, at the day of judgment, says Mr. W.] he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire: [such as the rich man underwent in hades, Luke xiv. 24.] p. 42.

All this is gratis dictum. Grotius and Le Clerc, and others of great note, understand by the day, mentioned ver. 13. not the day of judgment, but time, which will discover what is true and false; for truth is the daughter of time. And then the fire will be that stricter and more accurate examination of doctrines, which after some time Christians would set themselves to; and upon which the false would be rejected, and the true retained. This is certain, that some of the apostle's terms here made use of, must be interpreted figuratively. Wood, hay, and stubble do not mean literally wood, hay, and stubble, (which may indeed be burned by fire,) but false

See Poole's Synopsis, and Le Clerc's Supplement to Hammond.

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