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unintelligible. He came into the world when the lowered in expression, out of condescension to our school of Dryden and Pope gave the law to English calier temper. It is thus that harangues and decpoetry. In ihat school he had himself learned 10 lamations, ihe last proof of bad taste and bad man be a lofty and vigorous declaimer in harmonious ners in conversation, are avoided, while the fancy verse; beyond that school his unforced admiration and the heart find the means of pouring forth all perhaps scarcely soared; and his highest effort of their stores. To meet this despised part of language criticism was accordingly the noble panegyric on in a polished dress, and producing all the effects of Dryden. His criticism owed its popularity as much wit and eloquence, is a constant source of agreeable to its defects as to its excellences. It was on a level surprise. This is increased, when a few bulder with the majority of readers-persons of good sense and higher words are happily wrought into the resand information, but of no exquisite sensibility; and lure of this familiar eloquence. To tind what seems to their minds it derived a false appearance of so- so unlike author-craft in a book, raises the pleasing lidity, from that very narrowness, which excluded astonishment to its highest degree. I once thought those grander efforts of imagination to which Aris- of illustrating my notions by numerous examples toile and Bacon have confined the name of poetry." from · La Sevigné.' And I must, some day or The admirable and original delineation, bungler, who is noi enouga master of language to
other, do so; though I think it the resource of a of which this is but a small part, appears to convey his conceptions into the minds of others. have been the task of one disturbed and The style of Madame de Sevigné is evidently copied, sickly day. We have in these volumes char- not only by her worshipper, Walpole, but even by acters of Hume, Swift, Lord Mansfield,
Wilkes, Gray, who, notwithstanding the extraordinary merGoldsmith, Gray, Franklin, Sheridan, Fletcher its of his matter, has the double stiffness of an imiof Saltoun, Louis XIV., and some others, all lator, and of a college recluse." finished with the same exquisite taste, and
How many debatable points are fairly setconceived in the same vigorous and candid tled by the following short and vigorous respirit; besides which, it appears from the marks, in the Journal for 1811:Journal, that in the same incredibly short " Finished George Rose's Observations on period of fourteen or fifteen days, he had Fox's History,' which are tedious and inefficient. made similar delineations of Lord North, That James was more influenced by a passion for Paley, George Grenville, C. Townshend, Tur- arbitrary power than by Popish bigotry, is an idle
refinement in Fox: le liked both Popery and got, Malesherbes, Young, Thomson, Aiken- tyranny; and I am persuaded he did not himself side, Lord Bolingbroke, and Lord Oxford; know which he liked best. But I take it to be cesthough (we know not from what cause) none tain that the English people, at the Revolution, of these last mentioned appear in the present dreaded his love of Popery more than his love of publication.
lyranny. This was in them Protestant bigotry. During the same voyage, the perusal of no reason : But the instinct of their bigotry pointed
right. Popery was then the name for the faction Madame de Sevigné's Letters engages him which supported civil and religious tyranny in (at intervals) for about a fortnight; in the Europe: To be a Papist was to be a partisan of the course of which he has noted down in his ambition of Louis XIV." Journal more just and delicate remarks on her
There is in the Bombay Journal of the same character, and that of her age, than we think year, a beautiful essay on Novels, and the are any where else to be met with. But we moral effect of fiction in general, the whole cannot now venture on any extract; and must of which we should like to extract; but it is confine ourselves to the following admirable far too long. It proceeds on the assumption, remarks on the true tone of polite conversa- that as all fiction must seek to interest by tion and familiar letters,—suggested by the representing admired qualities in an exaggesame fascinating collection:
rated form, and in striking aspects, it must “When a woman of feeling, fancy, and accom- tend to raise the standard, and increase the plishment has learned to converse with ease and admiration of excellence. In answer to an grace, from long intercourse with the most polished obvious objection, he proceedssociety, and when she writes as she speaks, she must write letters as they ought to be written; if “A man who should feel all the various senii. she has acquired just as much habitual correctness ments of morality, in the proportions in which they as is reconcilable with the air of negligence. A are inspired by the Iliad, would certainly be tar moment of enthusiasm, a burst of feeling, a flash of from a perfectly good man. But it does not follow cloquence may be allowed; but the intercourse of that the Iliad did not produce great moral benefii. society, either in conversation or in letters, allows | To determine that point, we must ascertain whether no more. Though interdicted from the long-con- a man, formed by the Iliad, would be better than tinued use of elevated language, they are not with the ordinary man of the country, at the time in
There is a part of language which which it appeared. It is true that it 100 much me is disdained by the pedant or the declaimer, and spires an admiration for ferocious courage. That which both, if they knew its difficulty, would ap- admiration was then prevalent, and every circum proach with dread; it is formed of the most familiar stance served 10 strengthen it. But the Iliad phrases and turns in daily use by the generality of breathes many other sentiments, less prevalent men, and is full of energy and vivacity, bearing less favoured by the state of society, and calculated upon it the mark of those keen feelings and strong gradually to mitigate the predominant passion. The passions from which it springs. It is the employ- friendship and sorrow of Achilles for Patroclus, the ment of such phrases which produces what may be patriotic valour of Hector, the paternal afHiction of called colloquial eloquence. Conversation and let. Priam, would slowly introduce more humane affecters may be ilus raised to any degree of animation, tions. If they had not been combined with the ad without deparıing from their character. Any thing miration of barbarous courage, they would not have may be said, if it be spoken in the tone of society been popular; and consequently ihey would have The highest guests are welcome if they come in found no entry into those savage hearts which they the easy undress of the club; the strongest meta- were destined (I do not say intended) 10 soften. It phor appears without violence, if it is familiarly ex. is therefore clear, from the very nature of poetry, pressed; and we the more easily catch the warm- that the poet must inspire somewhat better morals est feeling, if we perceive that it is intentionally I than those around him; though, to be effectual and niseful, his morals must not be totally unlike those man of thirty.cight, the son of a shopkeeper, who of his contemporaries. If the Iliad should, in a long never filled an office, or had the power of obliging course of ages, have inflamed the ambition and fe- a living creature, and whose grand title to this dis rocity of a few individuals, even that evil, great as tinction was the belief of his virtue. How honour: it is, will be far from balancing all the generous able to the age and to the House! A country where sentiments, which, for three thousand years, it has such sentiments prevail is not ripe for destruction." been pouring into the hearts of youth; and which it now continues to infuse, aided by the dignity of
out a resource.
Sir James could not but feel, in the narrow antiquity, and by all the fire and splendour of poetry. circles of Bombay, the great superiority of Every succeeding generation, as it refines, requires London society; and he has thus recorded the siandard to be proportionably raised.
his sense of it: " Apply these remarks, with the necessary modi. fications, to those fictions copied from common life "In great capitals, men of different provinces, called Novels, which are not above a century old, professions, and pursuits are brought togeiher in so. and of which the multiplication and the importance, ciety, and are obliged to acquire a habit, a matter, as well literary as moral, are characteristic features and manner mutually perspicuous and agreeable. of England. There may be persons now alive who Hence they are raised above frivolity, and are direcollect the publication of Tom Jones,' at least, vesied of pedantry. In small societies this habit is if not of Clarissa.' Since that time, probably not imposed by necessity ; they have lower, but iwelve novels have appeared of the first rank-a more urgent subjects, which are interesuing to all, prodigious number, of such a kind, in any depart. level to all capacities, and require no effort or prepament of literature (by the help of Sir Walter Scott ration of mind.” and Miss Edgeworth we may now at least double the number)--and the whole class of novels must
He might have added, that in a great capihave had more influence on the public, than all tal the best of all sorts is to be met with; and other sorts of books combined. No:hing popular that the adherents even of the most extreme can be frivolous. Whatever influences muliitudes, or fantastic opinions are there so numerous, must be of proportionable imporiance. Bacon and and generally so respectably headed, as to Turyot would have contemplated, with inquisitive command a deference and regard that would adıniration this literary revolution."
scarcely be shown to them when appearing And soon after, while admitting that Tom as insulated individuals; and thus it happens Jones (for example) is so far from being a that real toleration, and true modesty, as well moral book as to be deserving of the severest as their polite simulars, are rarely to be met reprobation, he adds
with out of great cities. This, however
, is " Yet even in this extreme case, I must observe true only of those who mix largely in the that the same book inspires the greatest abhorrence of general society of such places. For bigots the duplicity of Blifil, of the hypocrisy of Thwackum and exclusives of all sorts, they are hot-beds and Square; that Jones himself is interesting by and seats of corruption ; since, however abhis frank ness, spirit, kindness, and fidelity-all vir- surd or revolting their tenets may be, such sues of the first class. The objection is the same persons are sure to meet enough of their felin its principle with that to the Iliad. The ancient lows to encourage each other. In the provinepic exclusively presents war-he modern novel love; the one what was most interesting in publie ces, a believer in animal magnetism or Gerlife, and the other what is most brilliant in private man metaphysics has few listeners, and no -and both with an unfortunate disregard of moral encouragement; but in a place like London restraint."
they make a little coterie; who herd together, The entry under 6th March, 1817, has to exchange flatteries, and take themselves foi the writer of this article, a melancholy inter- the apostles of a new gospel. est, even at this distance of time. It refers The editor has incorporated with his work to the motion recently made in the House of some letters addressed to him by friends of Commons for a new writ, on the death of Mr. his father, containing either anecdotes of his Horner. The reflections with which it closes earlier life, or observations on his character must, we think, be interesting always.
and merits. It was natural for a person whose “ March 6ih.— The only event which now ap authority of any but recent transactions, 10
age precluded him from speaking on his own pears interesting to me, is ihe scene in the House seek for this assistance; and the information of Commons on Monday. Lord Morpeth opened is in a speech so perfect, that it migh' have been contributed by Lord Abinger and Mr. Basil well placed as a passage in the most elegant Eng- Montagu (the former especially) is very interlish writer; it was full of feeling; every topic was esting. The other letters present us with little skilfully presented, and contained, hy a sort of pru- more than the opinion of the writers as to his’ dence which is a part of taste, within sase limils; character. If these should be thought too he slid over the thinnest ice without cracking it... laudatory, there is another character which Canring filled well what would have been the war has lately fallen under our eye,
which cerlife and talents. Manners Surton's most affecting tainly is not liable to that objection. In the speech was a tribute of affection from a private friend “Table-Talk" of the late Mr. Coleridge, we become a political enemy; Lord Lascelles, at the find these words:-"I doubt if Mackintosh head of the country gentleman of England, closing this affecting improving, and most memorable ever heartily appreciated an eminently origiscene hy declaring that if the sense of the House nal man. After all his fluency and brilliant could have been taken on this occasion, it would erudition, you can rarely carry off any thing have been unanimous. I may say without exagge- worth preserving. You might not improperly ration, that never were so many words uttered with write upon his forehead, 'Warehouse to let!"* out the least suspicion of exaggeration ; and that We wish to speak tenderly of a man of genever was so much honour paid in any age or nation 10 intrinsic claims alone. A Howard introduced, nius, and we believe of amiable dispositions, and an English House of Commons adopted, the who has been so recently removed from his proposition, of thus honouring the memory of a friends and admirers. But so portentous a misjudgment as this, and coming from such a we shall only say, that nothing could possibly quarter, cannot be passed without notice. If set the work before us in so favourable à Sir James Mackintosh had any talent more point of view, as a comparison between it conspicuous and indisputable than another, it and the volumes of " Table Talk," to which was that of appreciating the merits of eminent we have already made reference - unless, and original men. His great learning and perhaps, it were the contrast of the two minds singular soundness of judgment enabled him which are respectively portrayed in these to do this truly; while his kindness of na- publications. ture, his zeal for human happiness, and his In these memorials of Sir James Mackin. perfect freedom from prejudice or vanity, tosh, we trace throughout the workings of a prompted him, above most other men, to do powerful and unclouded intellect, nourished it heartily. And then, as to his being a person by wholesome learning, raised ard instructed from whose conversation little could be car- by fearless though reverent questionings of ried away, why the most characteristic and the sages of other times (which is the per: remarkable thing about it, was that the whole mitted Necromancy of the wise), exercised of it might be carried away—it was so lucid, by free discussion with the most distinguishei precise, and brilliantly perspicuous! The joke among the living, and made acquainted with of the “warehouse to let” is not, we confess, its own strength and weakness, not only by quite level to our capacities. It can scarcely a constant intercourse with other powerful mean (though that is the most obvious sense) minds, but by mixing, with energy and de that the head was empty-as that is incon- liberation, in practical business and affairs; sistent with the rest even of this splenetic and here pouring itself out in a delightful delineation. If it was intended to insinuate miscellany of elegant criticism, original spethat it was ready for the indiscriminate re- culation, and profound practical suggestions ception of any thing which any one might on politics, religion, history, and all the greater choose to put into it, there could not be a more and the lesser duties, the arts and the elegross misconception; as we have no doubt gances of life—all expressed with a beautiful Mr. Coleridge must often have sufficiently clearness and tempered dignity-breathing experienced. And by whom is this dis- the purest spirit of good-will to mankindcovery, that Mackintosh's conversation pre- and brightened not merely by an ardent hope, sented nothing that could be carried away, but an assured faith in their constant advancethus confidently announced? Why, by the ment in freedom, intelligence, and virtue. very individual against whose own oracular On all these points, the "Table Talk' of and interminable talk the same complaint has his poetical contemporary appears to us to been made, by friends and by foes, and with present a most mortifying contrast; and to an unanimity unprecedented, for the last forty render back merely the image of a moody years. The admiring, or rather idolizing ne- mind, incapable of mastering its own imaginphew, who has lately put forth this hopeful ings, and constantly seduced by them, or by specimen of his relics, has recorded in the a misdirected ambition, 10 attempt impractipreface, that "his conversation at all times cable things:- naturally attracied by dim required attention; and that the demand on paradoxes rather than lucid truths, and prethe intellect of the hearer was often very ferring, for the most part, the obscure and negreat; and that, when he got into his 'huge glected parts of learning to those that are circuit' and large illustrations, most people useful and clear-marching, in short, at all had lost him, and naturally enough supposed times, under the exclusive guidance of the that he had lost himself.” Nay, speaking to Pillar of Smoke —and, like the body of its this very point, of the ease or difficulty of original followers, wandering all his days in “carrying away” any definite notions from the desert, without ever coming in sight of what he said, the partial kinsman is pleased the promised land. to inform us, that, with all his familiarity with Consulting little at any time with any thirg the inspired style of his relative, he himself but his own prejudices and fancies, he seems. has often gone away, after listening to him in his latter days, to have withdrawn altofor several delightful hours, with divers masses gether from the correction of equal mieds: of reasoning in his head, but without being and to have nourished the assurance of his able to perceive what connection they had own infallibility, by delivering mystical orawith each other. “ In such cases," he adds, cles from his cloudy shrine, all day long, to a "I have mused, sometimes even for days after- small set of disciples, to whom neither quesvards, upon the words, till at length, spon- tion nor interruption was allowed. The result taneously as it were, the fire would kindle," of this necessarily was, an excaerbation of all &c. &c. And this is the person who is pleased the morbid tendencies of the mind; a daily to denounce Sir James Mackintosh as an ordi- increasing ignorance of the course of opinions rary man; and especially 10 object to his con- and affairs in the world, and a proportional versation, that, though brilliant and fluent, confidence in his own dogmas and dreams, there was rarely any thing in it which could which might have been shaken, at least, if be carried away!
not entirely subverted, by a closer contact An attack so unjust and so arrogant leads with the general mass of intelligence. Unnaturally to comparisons, which it could be fortunately this unhealthful training (pecacasy to follow out to the signal discomfiture liarly unhealthful for such a constitution) proof the party attacking. But without going duced not merely a great eruption of ridicu. beyond what is thus forced upon our notice, I lous blunders and pitiable prejudices, bu! seems at last 10 lave brought on a confirmed purpose than to give effect to the enlightened and thoroughly diseased habit of uncharitable- and deliberate will of the community. To ness, and misanthropic anticipations of cor- enforce these doctrines his whole life was ruption and misery throughout the civilised devoted ; and though not permitted to comworld. The indiscreet revelations of the work plete either of the great works he had proto which we have alluded have now broughtjected, he was enabled to finish detached to light instances, not only of intemperate portions of each, sufficient not only fully 10 abuse of men of the highest intellect and develope his principles, but to give a clear most unquestioned purity, but such predic- view of the whole design, and to put it in the tions of evil from what the rest of the world power of any succeeding artist to proceedi has been contented to receive as improve with the execution. Look now upon the other ments, and such suggestions of intolerant and side of the parallel. Tyrannical Remedies, as no man would be- Mr. Coleridge, too, was an early and most lieve could proceed from a cultivated intel- ardent admirer of the French Revolution ; but lect of the present age—if the early history the fruits of that admiration in him were, not of this particular intellect had not indicated a reasoned and statesmanlike apology for an inherent aptitude for all extreme opinions, some of its faults and excesses, but a resolu-and prepared us for the usual conversion of tion to advance the regeneration of mankind one extreme into another.
at a still quicker rate, by setting before their And it is worth while to mark here also, eyes the pattern of a yet more exquisite form and in respect merely of consistency and of society! And accordingly, when a fullultimate authority with mankind, the advan-grown man, he actually gave into, if he did tage which a sober and well-regulated under- not originate, the scheme of what he and his standing will always have over one which friends called a Pantisocracy—a form of soclaims to be above ordinances; and trusting ciety in which there was to be neither law either to an erroneous opinion of its own nor government, neither priest, judge, nor strength, or even to a true sense of it, gives magistrate—in which all property was to be itself up to its first strong impression, and sets in common, and every man lest to act upon at defiance all other reason and authority. his own sense of duty and affection! Sir James Mackintosh had, in his youth, as This fact is enough :-And whether he afmuch ambition and as much consciousness of terwards passed through the stages of a Jacopower as Mr. Coleridge could have : But the bin, which he seems to deny—or a hotheaded utmost extent of his early aberrations (in his Moravian, which he seems to admit,-is really Vindiciæ Gallicæ) was an over estimate of the of no consequence. The character of his unprobabilities of good from a revolution of derstanding is settled with all reasonable men: violence; and a much greater under-estimate As well as the authority that is due to the of the mischiefs with which such experiments anti-reform and anti-toleration maxims which are sure to be attended, and the value of set- he seems to have spent his laiter years in tled institutions and long familiar forms. Yet, venting. Till we saw this posthumous publithough in his philanthropic enthusiasm he did cation, we had, to be sure, no conception of miscalculate the relative value of these op- the extent to which these compensating maxposite forces (and speedily admitted and rec-ims were carried ; and we now think that few tified the error), he never for an instant dis of the Conservatives (who were not originally puted the existence of both elements in the Pantisocratists) will venture to adopt them. equation, or affected to throw a doubt upon Not only is the Reform Bill denounced as the any of the great principles on which civil so- spawn of mere wickedness, injustice, and ciety reposes. On the contrary, in his earliest ignorance; and the reformed 'House of 'Comas well as his latest writings, he pointed mons as "low, vulgar, meddling, and sneering steadily to the great institutions of Property at every thing noble and refined, but the and Marriage, and to the necessary authority wise and the good, we are assured, will, in of Law and Religion, as essential to the being every country,"" speedily become disgusted of a state, and the well-being of any human with the Representative form of government, society. It followed, therefore, that when brutalized as it is by the predominance of dedisappointed in his too sanguine expectations mocracy, in England, France, and Belgium !'' from the French Revolution, he had nothing And then the remedy is, that they will recur to retract in the substance and scope of his to a new, though, we confess, not very comopinions; and merely tempering their an- prehensible form, of “Pure Monarchy, in nouncement, with the gravity and caution of which the reason of the people shall become maturer years, gave them out again in his efficient in the apparent Will of the King ! later days to the world, with the accumulated Moreover, he is for a total dissolution of ihe authority of a whole life of consistency and union with Ireland, and its erection into a sepastudy. At no period of that life, did he fail rate and independent kingdom. He is against to assert the right of the people to political Negro emancipation-sees no use in reducing and religious freedom ; and to the protection taxation—and designates Malihus' demonof just and equal laws, enacted by representa tration of a mere matter of fact by a redundant tives truly chosen by themselves : And he accumulation of evidence, by the polite and never uttered a syllable that could be con- appropriate appellation of “a lie;" and represtrued into an approval, or even an acquies- sents it as more disgraceful and abominable cence in persecution and intolerance; or in than any thing that the weakness and wickthe maintenance of authority for any other ! edness of man have ever before given birth to
Such as his temperance and candour are insecution. We are sure we treat Mr. Coleridge politics, they are also in religion ; and recom- with all possible respect when we say, that Inended and excused by the same flagrant his name can lend no more plausibility to ab. contradiction to his early tenets. Whether he surdities like these, than the far greater names ever was a proper Moravian or not we care of Bacon or Hobbes could do to the belief in not to inquire. It is admitted, and even stated sympathetic medicines, or in churchyard apsomewhat boastingly in this book, that he was paritions. a bold Dissenter from the church. He thanks We fear we have already transgressed our heaven, indeed, that he had gone much just limits. But before concluding, we wish farther than the Unitarians!” And to make to say a word on a notion which we tind pretty his boldness still more engaging, he had gone generally entertained, that Sir James Mackin. these lengths, not only against the authority tosh did not sufficiently tum to profit the of our Doctors, but against the clear and ad- talent which was committed to him; and did mitted doctrine and teaching of the Apostles much less than, with his gifts and opportunithemselves! "What care I,' I said, for the ties, he ought to have done. He himself Platonisms of John, or the Rabbinisms of Paul ? seems, no doubt, to have been occasionally My cons ience revolts ?!—That was the ground of that opinion ; and yet we cannot but think of my Unitarianism." And by and by, this it in a great degree erroneous. If he had not, infallible and oracular person does not hesitate in early life, conceived the ambitious design to declare, that others, indeed, may do as they of executing two great works,-one on the choose, but he, for his part, can never allow principles of Morals and Legislation, and one that Unitarians are Christians! and, giving no on English History; or had not let it be under. credit for “revolting conscierłces” to any one stood, for many years before his death, that but himself, charges all Dissenters in the he was actually employed on the latter, we Jump with hating the Church much more do not imagine that, with all the knowledge than they love religion-is furious against the his friends had (and all the world now has) repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, and of his qualifications, any one would have Catholic Emancipation, and at last actually, thought of visiting his memory with such a and in good set terms, denies that any Dis- reproach. senter has a right to toleration! and, in per- We know of no code of morality which fect consistency, maintains that it is the duty makes it imperative on every man of extraof the magistrate to stop heresy and schism ordinary talent or learning to write a large by persecution—if he only has reason to think book :-and could readily point to instances that in this way the evil may be arrested; where such persons have gone with unquesadding, by way of example, that he would be tioned honour to their graves, without leaving ready " to ship off—any where,” any mission- any such memorial—and been judged to have aries who might attempt to disturb the un- acted up to the last article of their duty, doubting Lutheranism of certain exemplary merely by enlightening society by their lives Norwegians, whom he takes under his special and conversation, and discharging with ability protection.
and integrity the offices of magistracy or legis. We are tempted to say more. But we de- lation, to which they may have been called. sist; and shall pursue this parallel no farther. But looking even to the sort of debt which Perhaps we have already been betrayed into may be thought to have been contracted by feelings and expressions that may be objected the announcement of these works, we cannot
We should be sorry if this could be done but think that the public has received a very justly. But we do not question Mr. Cole- respectable dividend—and, being at the best ridge's sincerity. We admit
, too, that he was but a gratuitous creditor-ought not now to a man of much poețical sensibility, and had with hold a thankful discharge and acquittance. visions of intellectual sublimity, and glimpses The discourse on Ethical Philosophy is full of comprehensive truths, which he could payment, we conceive, of one moiety of the neither reduce into order nor combine into first engagement,—and we are persuaded will system. But out of poetry and metaphysics, be so received by all who can judge of its we think he was nothing; and eminently dis- value; and though the other moiety, which qualified, not only by the defects, but by the relates to Legislation, has not yet been tenbest parts of his genius, as well as by his dered in form, there is reason to believe that temper and habits, for forming any sound there are assets in the hands of the executors, judgment on the business and affairs of our from which this also may soon be liquidated. actual world. And yet it is for his preposter. That great subject was certainly fully treated ous judgments on such subjects that his memory of in the Lectures of 1799—and as it appears is now held in affected reverence by those from some citations in these Memoirs, that, who laughed at him, all through his life, for though for the most part delivered extempore, what gave him his only true claim to admira- various notes and manuscripts relating to them tion ! and who now magnify his genius, for no have been preserved, we think it not unlikely other purpose but to give them an opportunity that, with due diligence, the outline at least to quote, as of grave authority, his mere deli- and main features of that interesting disquisirations, on reform, dissent, and toleration--his tion may still be recovered. On the bill for cheering predictions of the approaching mil- History, too, it cannot be denied that a large lennium of pure monarchy—or his demonstra- payment has been made to account--and as tions of the absolute harmlessness of taxation, it was only due for the period of the Revoluand the sacred duty of all sorts of efficient per- I tion, any shortcoming that may appear upon