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2. The campaign is conducted over long periods of time because it is handled by the permanent extension workers of the agricultural colleges.

3. The local expenses are small because the work is done as a part of the regular duties of the extension staff.

4. The results in reducing malnutrition are readily measured through school surveys.

5. The increased consumption of milk is reported at regular intervals by the dairymen; these records show a consistent and continuous increase in milk consumption.

Chairman STANLEY. Are there any questions you would like to ask Miss Hoover ?

It is very fitting that we should have, to present the last paper, Mr. Munn, president of the National Dairy Council, who will speak to us on the educational work of the National Dairy Council. [Applause.]


M. D. MUNN, president, National Dairy Council, Chicago, Ill.

Ladies and gentlemen: I am quite well aware that you have been sitting here some time and are doubtless weary. I have confidence that what I have to say I will say in as brief a space of time as is possible.

As you have already observed, there are several lines of activity in carrying on this educational work regarding the food value of milk and dairy products. Three and one-half years ago the National Dairy Council began its active work in carrying on this educational program. And we have had considerable experience growing out of that work, and the questions that have been asked me since Philadelphia day, when we attempted to make a display of our activities and to show in part how we carry on this work, lead me to believe you wish to have something of the detail rather than general conclusions on the subject.

So I am going to give you, as briefly as possible, the details of our organization work, and how we carry on this work.

The paper you have just listened to, so splendidly presented by Miss Hoover, shows you the work of the Dairy Division of the Department of Agriculture. We work in the larger cities and communities with longer campaigns. We endeavor to put on a campaign covering a period of at least one year, preferably three years, in order to get the foundation laid and to fix the habits based on that foundation so they will carry on. We work through several agencies. We work through the schools on the theory that the child is the most available avenue through which to reach the parent. The school makes it possible to reach the largest number in the briefest time. We work next through the educational and health organizations of the city. We work through the parentteachers and mothers' club organizations and any other civic welfare organization that is available in the city. We have endeavored to put our work on such a high plane that we can solicit and receive the cooperation and support of all welfare organizations, both national and local. We have succeeded in doing that, and these national welfare organizations such as the one, for instance, represented by Miss Jean, whom you listened to in Philadelphia, cooperate with us heartily and render great aid.

Now, what method do we adopt in carrying on this work through these agencies? We believe that the child must be reached through the fanciful or imaginative appeal. A child is not interested in cold facts, but all children can be reached through the fanciful or imaginative avenue. Therefore, we try to dress our work in a form which will enable us to reach them through those avenues.

The result is, we have plays where children take fairy characters. we have story telling where we use fairy characters and fanciful illustrations, always confining ourselves to the truth, but clothed in fanciful form.

Then, we begin putting out material with this educational work through fanciful form in which we tell, either by narration of a story- still in fanciful form—or a simple statement of fact, illus. trated so as to attract the attention, in which we always have the story of the food value of milk and dairy products. The result is. that these children are immediately interested. They go home and tell their mothers of what they have heard or what they have seen in school. They repeat it again the next day, and the mothers begin to inquire where the children got this information and what it means, and the children come back to the school and ask the teacher about it or the mothers question the children and find out about it, and soon they are interested and ardently advocate that children. their own children, consume more milk. We find this method the most effective way of doing this work.

Then we follow it by material intended for the consideration and digestion of the parent, a little more substantial, a little more direct, not so fanciful. Then we come along next with our moving pictures and slides. We use those in the schools and the children take the message home and the mothers come back to see that picture or see that slide and again get the lesson.

We carry this all through in order that we may lay the foundation which I spoke to you about when I began. You can't build a habit in a day. The kind of food we eat is largely the result of habit, and you can't change the system of feeding in one day. It is the hardest thing we have to change, because the parent has this lifelong habit of eating less of the desirable and more of the undesirable food. The children pick that habit up from the parents and you have to overcome two, the child and parent, a human inertia most difficult to overcome. Therefore, we feel we must carry this work on, not by weeks, not by months, but by years, building a new habit in the parent and building a desirable habit in the child.

Those of us engaged in this work believe we are accomplishing a two fold purpose in doing that. We are not only attaining results to-day so far as the health of the children is concerned and the efficiency of the parents, but we are building a foundation with the child to be carried over to the next generation, because the boys and girls to-day are the fathers and mothers of to-morrow. And those children, with this strenuous work we are now carrying on in the

education of the present-day children, will not have to correct this habit as parents.

The plays we find extremely useful because we not only put over a message in the play in a form which fixes itself in the mind of the child and parent, but we enlist the interest of the parent. Maggie Murphy is informed that her little girl is going to take part in a play in school. Now, Maggie Murphy becomes interested at once in the fact that her child is to appear on the stage in a play in the school. She tells her neighbor, her next neighbor, her relatives, and she asks them all to come and see her little girl take part in the play in school, and we thus bring into that school to see that play a large number of adults in addition to the parents of the girl. And they get the message. They become interested, and thus give these plays more far-reaching results, perhaps, than almost anything we can do.

Now, we always supplement these activities by what we call local interest material. Our nutritional experiments carried on in Philadelphia have not the personal touch or interest in St. Paul that the same kind of experiments carried on there have. We seek all the time to have the newspapers to tell on the front page as news what we are doing rather than to get paid advertisements in the paper. We find that of great value. Therefore, we get what we call local interest material so the local paper will take it up and publish it as a piece of news, local news, and we always find they do that because of the new interest, together with the local news object. While we have almost inexhaustible funds of information on this nutritional work, we keep establishing new local demonstrations for the purpose for which I have outlined.

The next thing we find most effective is the story telling, where we weave around these facts the fanciful narration, picturing, as you saw in Philadelphia, the fairies, the protein fairy, the butter fairy, the vitamin fairy, the mineral matter fairy, so the child, not understanding anything about the vitamin, mineral matter, etc., as such, seeing this fanciful presentation of what they mean, forever after retains it in its mind. At the same time the child associates it with the fact that that particular element in the food does him good.

We make the appeal to the boy on the idea that the boy always wants to be strong and athletic, and these foods will make him so. We picture that in the play. We appeal to the girl who wishes to have bright eyes, rosy cheeks, glossy hair, and healthy looks. We picture that. We find the lesson so gripping to thes? children that when we go back with a request for a poster or an essay it is always forthcoming, and we see as a result that our message has become impressed as a fixed thing in the mind of the child.

The moving picture, of course, is an entertainment, but we always have with that a lesson. The child, in turn, is held by the picture, as there is enough of the human interest or the fanciful woven into that picture so the child associates it with milk and always remembers it.

Then we ask the children to prepare essays, or if they are artistically inclined, posters, and we offer them small prizes in the schools for those presenting the best essays or poster. We avoid as much as possible giving monetary prizes to the child. We get hold of the child's intarest in the school. In other words, the child is doing it

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for the school, not for himself, thus creating that school spirit that all children have, more or less, and thus getting the interest of the teachers in the school by featuring the school as having won a prize. We get marvelous results from those posters and essays.

In St. Paul we have had a child health essay contest and a child health week. We had the fanciful side of this presented and then we asked the pupils of the high schools to prepare epigrams for a contest, with prizes to the schools, as I have outlined. We published a little book of those epigrams known as the Sayings of Three Wise Schools. We selected the best of hundreds of sayings and made the awards to the schools having the larg st number selected. this book all prepared by these children, and they are all based on health rules and emphasizing the food value, thus, you see, enlisting the interest of the children.

In addition to educational work, we carry on or are carrying on what we think is a very valuable work which touches directly upon the milk dealer's and producer's end of the industry. We carry on quality control work. We believe there is a dual obligation in this industry. We believe it is an obligation of those who produce milk and dairy products to supply the consuming public the very highest grades possible. Then we believe there is an obligation on the consuming public to pay a price for those products that will insure and justify their production. We are trying to build in the minds of the consuming public the quality idea and at the same time educate th: producer to produce and to help market that quality product. To my mind that is the keynote that we should adopt in this industryquality as a basis for advancement.

Now, we do this quality control work by having men who go out among these farmers and explain to them how they can improve the quality of their milk; show them why it is going to be of benefit to them; point out to them the condition of the milk they are shipping in; explain to them why it is so and how it can be improved. The results are surprising:

In one locality, a short time ago, there were four or five farmers who were shipping a quality of milk that was far below what it should be. The neighbors of these farmers were trying to improve the quality and had succeeded in improving it. We showed the first group of farmers just what had happened and urged them 10 improve the quality to conform to the neighbors milk. The neighbors took it up and said to these men: “ If you ship your milk with ours you must come up to our standard." Thus we secured the cooperation of the producers themselves in helping us to improve, all along the line, the quality of the product they are putting on the market. I think that is invaluable work.

We still find another thing which is necessary. In some localities where we have been asked to come in to carry on education work the condition of the supply of milk did not justify educational work. We will not, as an educational organization, attempt to put on a campaign to educate people to consume more milk unless there is a supply of milk adequate in quality available in that communtiv. As a result we find it necessary to go in and help a local community to clean up those conditions and secure, if necessary, municipal or other measures requiring improved quality, such as Pasteurization


or the inspection of the dairies and a standardization that brings into that local community the kind of milk that should be distributed under our education. That work is growing rapidly, in our organization.

I refer to these things to show in a general way what we are doing and how we are doing it.

Doubtless many of you are asking yourselves: “What are the results obtained? Is the council accomplishing the things that it has aimed to accomplish ?”

In answer to this question I am glad to say that the results are far beyond what we had expected in the first instance. You must bear in mind that the educational work of the council covers but a comparatively short period of time. It is only within the past few years that the vital food value of milk and dairy products has become known. The field of science through research work has demonstrated during the past five years that this product of the dairy cow is vital to human welfare. Our work has necessarily followed, rather than preceded, these scientific research conclusions.

In the begining of our work we were in doubt as to the best methods. It required a great deal of experimentation and, necessarily, some failures resulted before we could finally determine the most effective methods of carrying on the work.

We are now working along well-organized and established lines of procedure, and the results which follow even amaze these engaged in the work.

In Philadelphia you saw a display in one of the large schools in that city. In the beginning we had to solicit the opportunity of going into a school or any educational institution in order to make our display and to help the teachers teach the children how to be healthy.

Our work has progressed so rapidly that now, instead of soliciting the opportunity, we have difficulty in meeting the demands made upon us by the schools of the country.

What a great and inspiring thing it is to be invited over the threshold of the schoolroom to help those engaged in teaching the children, and to be able to show that by using more of the products of the dairy cow in connection with the observance of health rules the children would be far more healthy. What an obligation this places upon the dairy industry. How important it is that we should have ideals that we live up to in helping to teach and train these children who are soon to become the men and women upon whom the hopes and successes of the Nation depend.

We always have and always shall strive to reach and maintain those ideals; and I say, without fear for the future, that all those engaged in this great and vital industry, whether in production, manufacturing, or marketing, are rapidly coming to see that this great ideal must be kept ahead of the industry, rather than that the industry should be essentially commercial, with the ideal trying to follow on behind.

Ladies and gentlemen, there never was presented to men and women engaged in any industry or occupation such an opportunity as is presented to this industry and to those engaged in this educational work as well as to those engaged in the industry itself.

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