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interested in dairy manufactures with the object of becoming technical dairy experts in nearly all cases wis ly select either chemistry or bacteriology as their minor, or both.
There is already a considerable demand for men who are well grounded in the technique of dairy manufactures and who are at the same time capable of becoming executives in marketing organizations. A considerable group of men are at present preparing themselves for such opportunities by making a study of economics and marketing. In some cases these men take their major in dairy husbandry and their minor in economics, and again the reverse order is followed.
Among students taking advanced instruction in dairy production there is clearly a tendency for a division of interests between those whose inclinations are toward college instruction positions and those who are expecting to take up work of an extension character or engage in commercial activities. The man whose interest is along lines that lead to teaching or research work usually selects animal nutrition, physiological chemistry, or genetics as a minor, while the man of extension bent is likely to select farm management or veterinary science.
THE LANGUAGE REQUIREMENT.
A reading knowledge of two languages, usually French and German, is the standard requirement of a candidate for a doctor's degree. For the master's degree a reading knowledge of one language is generally required, with a provision in many institutions whereby this requirement may be waived in certain lines of study, usually including agricultural subjects. No doubt the language requirement deters many graduate students from becoming candidates for the doctor's degree. Unfortunately for those who plan to pursue advanced courses, little if any foreign-language requirement is found in the typical undergraduate curriculum. Moreover, no tendency is noticeable to increase the foreign-language requirement for the undergraduate. Experience seems to indicate that only the small percentage of university graduates in agriculture who engage in work of a professional character make use of a knowledge of foreign languages.
The typical agricultural student during the first two years of his university course expects to go into commercial lines upon graduation. As he comes in closer contact with some of the specialized fields of work his interest may develop until he decides that a professional career has greater attractions than commercial activities
. By the time he comes to this decision it is too late to take up the study of language. As a result he enters upon graduate work badly handicapped in language. He is confronted with the necessity of acquiring a reading knowledge of at least one language, or of two if neither French nor German was included in his preparatory course, Under these circumstances it is not surprising that the graduate student hesitates to enter a freshman class and begin the elementary study of a language.
The only suggestion that can be made in this connection is that as soon as a student finds that his interests are turning toward a
professional career in the agricultural field he should at once begin to make up his deficiencies in language requirements in order that he may be in a position to pursue graduate work with advantage if occasion makes it desirable.
MIGRATION OF STUDENTS.
In European universities the student is encouraged to divide his course between two or more institutions. There are clearly advantages from such a procedure, but there are also disadvantages in this country, due to the distance between institutions, difficulties resulting from transfer of credits, and among State institutions to the high nonresident tuition. The result of these conditions has been to limit the attendance of nine out of ten undergraduates to one institution. However, when the student reaches the point when graduate study is contemplated, the advantages are all in favor of taking his advanced instruction in an institution other than the one from which his undergraduate degree was received. Even if the second institution is no better equipped in men or apparatus, there is a distinct broadening effect from working in another institution where somewhat different conditions and ideals exist. So important is this experience that only under unusual conditions should a graduate in dairy husbandry plan to continue his graduate course in the same institution. This principle is recognized to the extent that scholarships are sometimes awarded under condition that they may be used only in an institution other than the one from which the holder is a graduate.
SELECTING THE INSTITUTION.
Fortunate is the student who is privileged to pursue graduate work under the master teacher of his subject. The student in considering where to take graduate work should understand that he should pick the man under whom he desires to work rather than the institution. This man should be the master teacher of the subject. If he happens to be located at an institution well equipped in a material way, so much the better, but let this be secondary.
It sometimes seems that agricultural colleges are especially prone to overlook the principle, universally recognized but not always followed, that the first place to spend money liberally is on men, and, second, on buildings and equipment. A faculty of men outstanding in their respective fields means far more to an institution than mag. nificent buildings and equipment. This is not said in depreciation of good material and equipment, but to bring home to the student who may enter upon a graduate course the overwhelming importance of the man equipment in contrast to the material equipment of the institution he selects. The inspiration from working with a master mind is never lost and often shapes the entire future career of the student.
THE SELECTION OF MINORS.
The graduate student ordinarily is expected to devote about twothirds of the time spent in graduate study to research work in his major field and the preparation of the material secured in the form
of a thesis. The remainder of the time is devoted to a selected subject closely related to his major. For a student interested in dairy manufactures the logical thing would seem to be to choose chemistry or bacteriology, or both, for his minor. The survey made indicates that this is exactly what is being done at present. If his undergraduate instruction has been especially good in one of these sciences, the logical thing is to emphasize the other. Fortunate indeed is the dairy-husbandry department that has associated with it strong men in dairy chemistry and in bacteriology.
In recent years the development of organized marketing agencies and of the United States Bureau of Markets has resulted in a de mand for men who are familiar with the manufacture of dairy products and at the same time are trained in economics, especially in regard to the marketing of agricultural products. This field is one of the most promising of all for the future. A number of students have seen these opportunities and are now enrolled in graduate courses preparing themselves for such activities. Some of these enroll with their major in dairy husbandry and a minor in economics, while some reverse the order and take a major in economics.
The man interested in dairy production should take advantage of his opportunity in graduate work to make up any deficiencies of his undergraduate days. For the man who desires to qualify for college and experiment station work, one of the best minors is physiological chemistry. Possibly no one subject will do more to broaden his knowledge of animal problems. Next stands genetics, especially when guided by a man with some ability in the way of applying the subject to problems of livestock production.
The man who expects to enter the extension field should ordinarily take his major in general dairy production and may well consider the advisability of a minor in agricultural education when a strong department in this subject is at hand. Others prefer veterinary science, which gives a training of immediate utility.
FINANCING THE GRADUATE STUDENT.
At least half, and possibly two-thirds, of those registered for graduate instruction in dairy husbandry in the United States are enabled to finance themselves at least partially through fellowships or assistant positions. All the leading universities and colleges make some provision for fellowships. Some fellowships require service to be rendered the institution in the form of teaching, others make no such requirement. For the young man who expects to take up graduate work immediately upon the completion of his undergraduate an opportunity to serve as part-time assistant in a first-class institution is especially to be recommended. The competition for such positions, however, is keen as a rule. The young man who receives an opportunity of this kind in a first-class institution should consider himself fortunate.
TAKING A MAJOR IN A SCIENCE DEPARTMENT.
To a man who plans to take graduate work the question often comes as to the advisability of taking the major in some related line more or less fundamental to dairy husbandry, such as genetics, chemistry, or bacteriology, rather than in dairy husbandry. It would appear that the answer depends upon conditions that may be set forth readily. A man who has had a rather extended experience in dairy husbandry work, especially following graduation, such as teaching or service on an experiment-station staff, will ordinarily profit more by taking his major in a science department provided the right man is available as adviser.
On the other hand, where the young man undertakes graduate work without an extended experience in applying the principles of science to dairy husbandry problems, and assuming a strong man in dairy husbandry is at hand, the logical thing is to place his major in this department. After all, the overshadowing importance of working under an outstanding man in his line should not be lost sight of when this decision is to be made.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GRADUATE WORK.
Students considering the advisability of enrolling for graduate work should understand that the purpose and nature of the instruction is quite different from that given the undergraduate in American universities. Some students seem to assume that it is merely a continuation of their undergraduate studies and that the professor has withheld some most important information or material for these advanced courses. During undergraduate days they have become accustomed to having their efforts largely directed by the instructor. When they enter upon graduate work and are placed almost entirely upon their own resources and their work supervised rather than directed, it often requires some time to orient themselves fully to the change. The typical graduate student, by the time he has completed his advanced course, begins to feel a power of independent thought and action never experienced before. He is able to realize for the first time the nature of the enthusiasm and satisfaction experienced by the explorer in the unbeaten paths of nature.
GRADUATE INSTRUCTION FROM THE INSTITUTION VIEWPOINT.
There are two parties concerned in graduate instruction-the student, and the institution as represented by the instructor. Graduate instruction is in recent years bringing to some institutions special problems that promise to become more important in the future. Some universities, or at least certain departments, are beginning to sutfer from too much popularity along these lines. Most of the men capable of giving graduate students the help and inspiration which means so much to the development of the student gladly give a liberal portion of their time and energy to a group of graduate studlents. Instruction of this type, however, makes severe demands upon the adviser in the way of time and often upon the institution in the way of finances. The financial burden is especially heavy in those fields such as dairy husbandry, where to supply facilities for conducting research problems provisions are required for the use of a number of animals, the maintenance cost of which is very heavy, or for the use of considerable quantities of milk or other dairy produets. Regarding the time required, the instructor is inclined to feel that this heavy expenditure is justified only for sudents of outstanding ability.
The slackening in demand for men which has resulted from recent financial conditions has been one factor in turning the thoughts of a much larger number of men towards graduate work. Among these have been some of mediocre ability that can not profit fully from such opportunities. Advisers of undergraduate students should be careful not to overstimulate interest in graduate instruction among those who are not especially gifted. It is not improbable that in the future some definite means of limiting enrollment to those especially qualified will be necessary.
GRADUATE INSTKUCTION AS A PREPARATION FOR COMMERCIAL WORK.
Modern scientific methods are being introduced into the dairy industry with such rapidity that the demand for trained technical men has been in recent years constantly greater than the supply. A few years ago an agricultural college student who specialized in dairy products probably had in view the operation of a creamery or ice-cream plant. Now the demand is far broader, and the opportunities are becoming more attractive from year to year. Within a few years most of the large city milk plants will be provided with a technical expert; the condensed-milk and milk-powder factories will have their experts, and the development of larger business units will make possible a greater financial remuneration for the technical expert of ability. The enormous possibilities in the way of developing the use of by-products will offer almost unlimited opportunities for the technical dairy expert in the near future.
The type of man now in demand, and the one that will apparently be wanted in the future, is one thoroughly grounded in chemistry and bacteriology and in the fundamentals of dairy manufactures. With these as a foundation, he can readily master the technical details of the particular industry in which he may be employed.
If the student decides upon this type of work early enough in his college career, he can shape his course to the end that he will be reasonably well qualified upon graduation. However, for reasons previously discussed, most students approach the end of their college course before deciding upon the line in which they wish to specialize. For these a year of intensive specialized study such as graduate work makes possible a desirable means of obtaining the technical training needed as a foundation for success in commercial dairy-products work.
The student should appreciate, however, that no amount of study, either undergraduate or graduate, will take the place of practical experience in the particular phase of the industry in which he expects to work. A thorough technical education merely furnishes the foundation upon which a successful career may be built. A young man, regardless of the amount of schooling he has had, should expect to start in a very modest way. If he is made of the right stuff he should advance rapidly to a position of usefulness and responsibility:
Chairman PEARSON. If I am not mistaken, we passed over one paper because the author who has come across the seas was not in the room at the time. He has now arrived and if there is no objec