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will destroy the deadly principles of venom without inducing a similar destruction of vital components in the circulating fluid. The outlook, then, for an antidote for venom which may be available after the absorption of the poison, lies clearly in the direction of a physiological antagonist, or, in other words, of a substance which will oppose the actions of venom upon the most vulnerable parts of the system. The activities of venoms are, however, manifested in such diverse ways, and so profoundly and rapidly, that it does not seem probable that we shall ever discover an agent which will be capable at the same time of acting efficiently in counter-acting all the terrible energies of these poisons. The monograph closes with a complete bibliography of the subject, and a number of colored lithographs, which serve to illustrate in a most perfect manner the lesions caused by the venoms.
MCLENNAN'S STUDIES IN ANCIENT HISTORY.
THE first edition of McLennan's Primitive marriage was published in 1866. The novelty and striking character of the theories propounded in it, the accumulation of interesting facts, and the clear and attractive style, aroused attention, and led to much discussion. Many writers of note Sir Henry Maine, Sir John Lubbock, Mr. L. H. Morgan, Professor Bachofen - took part in the controversy. Darwin himself entered the arena. Ten years later, to meet a pressing demand, the work was reprinted by the author, with additions, under the title of Studies in ancient history.' That the interest awakened in the subject has remained unabated is evident from the fact, that, since the author's lamented death, his brother has found it necessary to issue a new edition of this volume, with some notes of his own, designed to clear up doubtful points, and to indicate certain changes of view which the author had announced. The publication will be welcome to all who take an interest in the study of the primitive history of our race, and who have not had an opportunity of procuring the earlier editions. Few works on the subject can be read with greater satisfaction, even by those who do not yield assent to the author's views. The grace of diction, the profound scholarship, and the stimulating originality of thought, displayed in the work, combine to make it one of the classics of modern science.
Twenty years, however, have not sufficed to establish the views put forth with so much confi
Studies in ancient history, comprising a reprint of Primitive marriage. New ed. By the late JOHN FERGUSON MCLENNAN. London and New York, Macmillan, 1886. 8°.
dence, and maintained with so much ingenious reasoning. On the contrary, antagonistic theories have sprung up on every side. To some extent, indeed, the author, as his brother intimates, had changed his views; and it is not easy to determine what were the precise conclusions at which he had arrived on some important points. The view, for example, which represents the earliest tribes of men as living in a state of communal marriage,' or, in other words, of promiscuous intercourse, is maintained throughout his first publication. This view was subsequently adopted by Lubbock in his 'Origin of civilization,' and by Morgan in his 'Ancient society.' But it was contested with overwhelming power of argument by Darwin, in Descent of man.' He showed that the nearest congeners of man, the anthropoid apes, are all pairing animals, and, like other pairing animals, fiercely jealous. That human beings, on their first appearance, should at once have sunk in the social scale below the apes, and even below the sparrows, and should only have emerged from this condition of more than brutal debasement by a long succession of struggles and experiences, is of all suppositions the most improbable.
This consideration seems to have impressed Mr. McLennan, and to have produced a remarkable change of opinion. One of his essays, added in this volume to the original treatise, comprises a severe and destructive criticism of Sir John Lubbock's scheme, which makes communal marriage' the starting-point of human society. With equal force of logic, the author disposes of Morgan's 'classificatory system' and Bachofen's 'mother-right,' both of which are founded on the same fanciful basis, thus demolished by him. Yet, strangely enough, he fails to see that his own theory of marriage by capture' rests on the same unsafe foundation, and must fall with the others. His view, as presented in his earliest publication, and not subsequently retracted, is that in the first stage of tribal society 'utter promiscuity' prevailed; that with this was connected the practice of female infanticide, the male children being preserved to add to the strength of the tribe, while females were regarded as a source of weakness; that the scarcity of females in a tribe led to the custom of capturing them from other tribes, and this custom finally became the law of the tribe. Thus marriage arose, at first exogamous (that is, restricted to women of other tribes or kindreds), and afterwards, as society advanced. either endogamous (that is, restricted to the clan) or general, as in civilized nations. As the author himself, in his later essays, has taken away the main substructure on which his ingenious theory was built, it is not necessary to refer at any length
to the facts and arguments which have been brought forward in opposition to it. That among the greater number of tribes which have been found in the lowest stage of savagery, no trace of marriage by capture has been discovered; that among such tribes female infanticide is by no means a common practice; and that, on the contrary, female children are regarded by their parents as a source of wealth, through the price which they bring for wives, these and similar
facts seem to prove that the custom, of which the author has pointed out so many widely scattered traces, did not originate in any general law of social organization, but was, like polygamy, polyandry, the North American clan-system, the Australian class-system, the Hindoo caste-system, the Roman paternal autocracy, and the many other social arrangements which have been pressed into the argument, merely a casual and local cus. tom, one of those numberless diversities of tribal organization, which, like the diversities of language, indicate at once the variety of the human faculties and the unity of the species. The conclusion announced by Darwin, that all the races of men are descended from a common ancestry, and that all inherit the ordinary pairing instinct, which, however perverted in occasional instances, manifests itself distinctly in the vast majority of communities, savage and civilized alike, is one which will doubtless be generally accepted in the end. The theories which oppose this conclusion destroy one another; and the results of the profoundest science bring us back to the common belief which prevailed before the theorizers began their work. H. HALE.
STEPHENS'S HISTORY OF THE FRENCH
THE literature of the French revolution would in itself compose a library, and Mr. Morse Stephens naturally begins his preface with an excuse for adding another history to a list which includes such names as Thiers, Taine, and Carlyle. In a masterly survey of his authorities he shows, that, since Carlyle wrote, our sources of information have been materially increased; that a number of local records and personal memoirs have come to light; and he lays particular stress on a collection of pamphlets in the British museum which Carlyle found to be inaccessible. Briefly, Mr. Stephens has spent untiring labor on the subject for years past, to the exclusion of every thing else,' and he aims at embodying in this volume the results of specialist researches. He notes in this connection the influence of the German school of
A history of the French revolution. By H. MORSE STEPHENS. Vol. i. New York, Scribner, 1886. 12°.
historians, - an influence, by the way, which is discernible in the increasing study of parochial and diocesan history in England, and in the rise of historical magazines and reviews such as the monthly Révolution Française and Revue de la révolution, which are entirely devoted to the history of the revolution.
Mr. Stephens introduces his work to the American public in a separate preface, in the course of which he remarks that the example of American independence was a more powerful ideal with the earlier revolutionists, the admirers of Lafayette and Franklin, while the later leaders sought inspiration from the republics of Greece and Rome. The Declaration of the rights of man he somewhat unfairly describes as a 'ridiculous fancy of the admirers of the American constitution,' foisted on the assembly by Lafayette. Surely the declaration breathes the spirit of Rousseau, and, farfetched and extravagant as it may seem to us, it was the gospel of the French revolution.
While the conflict of king and subject was passing into the tyranny of the state, the questions raised were so varied and suggestive that the epoch forms a kaleidoscope which can always be viewed in a new aspect. Theorists had full sway, and many of those great modern movements directed against the constitution of society - movements which have lately received a new impetus - were inaugurated. Now that it is hinted that democracy does not imply liberty, and that a new school of physiocrats' is growing up in the stronghold of modern democracy, it will be useful to study the experiments made by land and labor reformers a century back.
The plan of Mr. Stephens's work is simple and effective. In the present volume he carries the narrative from the assembly of the notables to the dissolution of the constituent assembly, aptly introducing sketches of important departments of the subject, such as the court, the army, and the church. There is no ‘Carlylese' or lurid color in his description; but if he does not write at high pressure, 'flamefully,' he tells his story in clear and straightforward English. Here and there occurs a slovenly phrase, such as, the influence of the parlement and the affection has been noticed when discussing". but the style generally is attractive by its simplicity and correctness. The fall of the Bastile is told unobtrusively. We notice that the celebrated speech, Paris has conquered her king,' is attributed to Lally Tollendal instead of to Bailly, presumably on the authority of the museum pamphlets. Bailly makes no mention of it in his 'Memoirs.'
Mr. Stephens is, we think, weakest in his estimate of character. Study of Mirabeau's corre
spondence with La Marck seems to have prejudiced him against the moral' characters of the revolution, Necker, Bailly, and Lafayette, whom he scarcely mentions without a sneer. The removal of the king and assembly to Paris is put down to "the extreme vanity of Lafayette, who wanted them there merely to increase his own honor and glory." The starvation " gave Lafayette an opportunity to pose as savior of the monarchy." In the matter of the suspensive veto, Necker "acted vainly and foolishly on the plan which Lafayette had vainly and foolishly invented." What was criminal in Lafayette at the Hotel de Castries, it becomes a virtue in Mirabeau to defend. In short, Mr. Stephens feels something of the rancor which Mirabeau felt when "every attempt of Mirabeau to unite himself to Necker and Lafayette had been spurned by those vain and conceited men." On the other hand, the double dealing of Mirabeau when he was in the pay of the court is put down as masterly statesmanship, and his want of principle is almost made a proof of his greatness. Nothing is said of the difficulties of Lafayette's position, which exposed him to attack from both sides; of his chivalrous loyalty to the court, yet sympathy with the popular cause; or of the high opinion entertained of him by the best contemporary critics.
There is much new and interesting matter in the account of the elections to the states-general, and of the local cahiers of grievances. Mr. Stephens is a lover of exact detail, perhaps at times overloading his history with biographical minutiae. There are also sketches of the economic and financial state of France in connection with the views of the foremost thinkers (to whom the evils of the internal douanes suggested the doctrine of free trade), showing the results of the issue of a paper currency and of the wasteful system of taxation. The theory (p. 176) that the burning of châteaux was due to the desire of the copy hold tenants to get possession of their court-rolls seems a little strained to any one who has read contemporary accounts of the condition of the French peasantry. Points made very clear are the unpractical character of the constituent assembly, with its theory of irregular verbs,' - the reasons why it was left behind by the provinces in the march of ideas, and the widening gulf between the bourgeois and lower classes, especially the ouvriers, who suffered from protective trade associations.
Enough has been said to show that Mr. Stephens has produced a work which promises to rank among the standard authorities on the period, and which will be of sterling historical value to the student of modern democracy.
VINES'S LECTURES ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS.
THERE has long been felt the need of a good text-book on vegetable physiology in the English language, and hence we heartily welcome the appearance of this excellent treatise. The investigation of the phenomena of plant-growth, nutrition, respiration, metabolism, reproduction, etc., has of recent years been almost entirely accomplished by the Germans, and the prominent part they have taken in these researches will be at once apparent to the reader of Professor Vines's work. As the title indicates, the volume is an expansion of the author's lectures on the subject, and these are twenty-three in number. Nearly ten years have elapsed since its preparation was begun, ill health and the pressure of official duties having retarded its publication.
Lecture I., as introductory, treats of the general features of the vegetable cell, its cell-wall, and its contents, Protococcus and yeast being used as examples with references to the tissue systems of multicellular plants. Then follow two chapters on the structure and properties of the cell, in which are discussed the growth, thickening, and lignification of the wall; its optical properties; and its incrusting mineral matters, oxalate and carbonate of lime, and silica; the protoplasmic contents and the nucleus; the vacuole and the cell-sap. The molecular structure of organized bodies is then considered. An account is given of 'imbibition,' or capacity of organized matter for absorbing water. The rival theories of Naegeli and Strasburger are compared; and the latter appears to be favored by the author, though farther on in the book reference is made to Naegeli's micellar hypothesis. In this connection allusion is made to Hale's old experiment of putting peas to soak in an iron pot with a leaden cover on which was placed a weight of 184 pounds: the force generated by imbibition was sufficient to raise the cover and weight. Here we also find an instructive discussion of the osmotic properties of the cell, and it is pointed out that substances may be transferred from cell to cell by means of the connecting threads of protoplasm as well as by osmosis.
Lecture IV. is on the absorption of water by root-hairs and the epidermal cells of rootlets, and is full of important information for the agriculturist. The structure of soils, the action of acid cell-sap, which saturates the absorbing organs and brings salts insoluble in water alone into solution, are described, and numerous analyses of the ash of plants are given. The discussion of the absorpLectures on the physiology of plants. By SYDNEY HOWARD VINES. Cambridge, University press, 1886. 8°.
tion of gases through stomata and lenticils is given in lecture V. It has long been known that under certain conditions some plants absorb oxygen: this is most markedly true of fungi; and Professor Vines states (p. 76) that it appears that the power of absorbing this gas is possessed by all plants, sustaining this conclusion by the experiments of Wolkoff and Mayer on seedlings, those of De Saussure, Oudemans, and others on germinating seeds, and of De Saussure on many flowers. It also appears, that, if roots are not supplied with oxygen, the plant soon becomes unhealthy, and ultimately dies. Portions of plants which contain chlorophyl abundantly, absorb oxygen in darkness, while this is given off during their exposure to sunlight. All green portions absorb carbonic acid in sunlight. Ammonia also is taken from the atmosphere, as has been shown by Ville; but free nitrogen is apparently not thence absorbed, the presence of this gas in the cell-sap being accounted for by its solubility in water.
Lecture VI. is on the movement of water in plants. A very clear account of this phenomenon is given, the circulation being regarded as passing mainly through the cell-walls of the lignified tissues. Transpiration, or the exhalation of watery vapor from the leaf surfaces, is treated of in the seventh lecture, and the food of plants in the eighth.
The next six chapters are devoted to the metabolism of plants, - the changes which materials undergo in the tissues under the influences of light, heat, chemical affinity, etc.; and these are perhaps the most valuable parts of the book. Here the discussion begins with the consideration of the formation of non-nitrogenous organic substances, principally starch; then that of nitrogenous substances, collectively termed amides,' and of the function of chlorophyl, which is concisely stated to "absorb certain rays of light, and thus enables the protoplasm with which it is intimately connected to avail itself of the radiant energy of the sun's rays for the construction of organic substance from carbonic acid and water." A summary of what is now known of the metabolic processes is admirably stated on pp. 325-328; and an instructive table, showing the income and expenditure of matter and energy, is given. The energy is entirely referable to the absorption of light by the chlorophyl, and to heat.
Lecture XV. is devoted to the phenomena of growth; and the following six chapters, to irritability, which is thus minutely described, and the forces inducing its manifestation fully discussed. In the last two chapters the subject of reproduction is treated; and here may be found a résumé of present knowledge of the development
of spores and seeds in the various divisions of the vegetable kingdom, the phenomena of hybridization, of parthenogenesis, and of variation. The closing sentence is, "Evolution is no longer a matter of chance, but is the inevitable outcome of a fundamental property of living matter.”
At the close of each chapter of this most valuable book, copious references to the bibliography of the subjects treated are given; but, for some reason not apparent, these are only to the works cited, and, except in a few instances, not to pages. Had these been added, it would have greatly facilitated the work of students who desire to pursue the study further. A very extensive index, arranged not only by subjects, but also by authors quoted, is appended.
THE Challenger cephalopods were at first placed in the hands of Professor Huxley, whose numerous engagements finally obliged him to decline the work, with the exception of a special investigation into the genus Spirula. Mr. William Evans Hoyle, who was intrusted with the work by Mr. John Murray, has devoted the report now under consideration chiefly to systematic work, but expresses his intention of preparing a supplementary article on the anatomy of those specimens which are available for this purpose. He alludes to the fact, that, since the return of the Challenger, marine explorations have been so energetically prosecuted, that no less than five genera, new when obtained by the Challenger, have since been described from the collections of the U. S. steamers Blake and Albatross, etc. Mr. Hoyle has been favored with the assistance and friendly advice of Professor Steenstrup, and has compared with the specimens of the fine collection at Copenhagen all the critical Challenger species, thus insuring a double authenticity for the determinations of the report. The latter commences with an excellent synopsis of the species of recent cephalopods, with references to the places where they are figured and described. The Challenger collection contains seventy-two species of thirty genera. Of these, thirty-two species and four genera were new to science. For one of these, Amphitritus, possessing the unique feature of having the mantle fused with the siphon in the median line, so as to form two openings into the branchial cavity, a new family has seemed necessary. None of the giant squids were obtained; as, indeed, the means for capturing such animals in their native haunts have not yet been devised,
Report of the scientific results of the exploring voyage of the Challenger. Vol. xvi.: Zoology. London, Government, 1886. 4°.
those observed or recorded by naturalists being without exception in an invalid condition or cast dead on the shores. With regard to the distribution of the species in depth, there are great difficulties in the way of deciding whether the specimens came from a given depth or not. Circumstances seem to indicate that Cirroteuthis, probably Bathyteuthis and Mastigoteuthis, and perhaps one or two species of Octopus, may be reckoned as abyssal forms. But no structural features appear to have been discovered by which a species may be definitely asserted to be a deep or a shallow water animal. This agrees well with the conclusions drawn by others from a study of the deep-sea mollusks of other classes. A full discussion of the geographical distribution of the class gives completeness to the report. In the discussion of genera and species, Mr. Hoyle has the courage of his opinions, and freely criticises where the circumstances seem to him to warrant it, but his tone is uniformly courteous. His report may be heartily commended.
The Stomatopoda are crustaceans related to the common Squilla of our southern and eastern coasts, and are restricted to shallow waters. Prof. W. K. Brooks remarks that when he examined the Challenger collection, consisting of only fifteen species, his first feeling was of disappointment, since the types seemed all familiar. But after a more thorough examination, this gave way to a lively interest, since it appeared that the material was such as to enable him to trace the ancestry and development of this small and compact order with great completeness. The Squillidae have a very long larval life, and are found at the surface of the sea, where the currents carry them vast distances; so that some of the species have a nearly world-wide distribution. The larvae are among the most elegant of the immature crustacea found in the tow-net, and naturally excite great interest among the naturalists who capture them. But the young stages do not thrive in confinernent, the eggs seem dependent on the parent for suitable conditions up to the time of hatching, and so the connection of the isolated links in the chain of life of any given species has been a task of great difficulty. The very numerous larvae contained in the Challenger collection, and the indefatigable application of Professor Brooks to the problem, have enabled him to add materially to the knowledge of the group, and to smooth away many difficulties for subsequent students. According to the author, the Challenger collections "enable us to determine, with much greater certainty than before, the larval type which pertains to nearly every one of the genera of adult Stomatopoda, and also to give a pretty complete picture
of the developmental history of each larval type."
The collection of reef corals made was a large and important one, there being representatives of two hundred and ninety-three species, referable to sixty-nine genera, and by series large enough in many cases to afford an instructive idea of the very considerable range of variation within a species. Of the whole number, about one-fourth were new. Of the seventy-three new species, seventy-one were obtained in the Pacific, and two in the Atlantic, which illustrates fairly well our comparative knowledge of the two chief coral regions. Of the sixty-nine genera, eight are new, all from the Pacific. The report is confined to a description of the hard parts, the material for anatomical purposes being otherwise disposed of by the authorities. In the generic grouping, Professor Verrill's revised list of Dana's zoophytes, contained in the Corals and Coral Islands,' has been followed, with certain amendments as to species. Much use has been made of Professor Moseley's field notes as to the habitat and environment of the corals. A detailed list of the species from each locality has been given, which it is hoped may serve as a basis for a knowledge of the distribution of the reef corals. In classification, Mr. Quelch has mainly followed Duncan for the Madreporaria; but in the Rugosa the occurrence of Moseleya latistellata has led the author to apply a new treatment, which he anticipates will lead to some discussion. This remarkable species is directly and closely related to the most typical Cyathophyllidae, while at the same time it presents undeniable astraeid characters. It must be looked upon as one of the,most remarkable types of structure brought to light by the Challenger. It occurred at Wednesday Island, Torres Strait, in eight fathoms. The discussion of distribution, areal and bathymetric, is very interesting. The Atlantic reef coral fauna is sharply separated from that of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The distribution in depth is greater than formerly supposed, two species reaching to seventy fathoms, though it is tolerably certain that the zone of most active growth does not extend much below twenty fathoms. The thermal limit of 68° F., which is doubtless the limit of active reef-building, does not, as formerly was believed, confine the existence of the reefbuilding species. Manicina areolata was obtained at the Cape in water of the temperature of 65°, and Madrepora borealis is said to inhabit the cold waters of the White Sea near Archangel, Russia. On this point we confess to some scepticism, until at least a second specimen is obtained; that in the Paris museum, still unique, dating from