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Jago. I am glad of this; for now I shall have reason To Thew the love and duty that I bear you With franker spirit: therefore, as I am bound, Receive it from me :- I speak not yet of proof. Look to your wife ; observe her well with Callio; Wear your eye-thus, not jealous, nor secure: I would not have your free and noble nature, Out of felf-bounty, be abus'do; look to't: I know our country disposition well ; In Venice? they do let heaven see the pranks They dare not shew their husbands; their best conscience Is not to leave undone, but keep unknown S.

Oth. Dost thou say so?

lago. She did deceive her father, marrying you ; And, when the seem'd to shake and fear your looks', She lov'd them most,



6 Out of self-bounty, be abusid ;] Self-bounty for inherent generofity. WARBURTON.

our country difpofitionIn Venice Here Iago seems to be a Venetian. JOHNSON, Various other passages, as well as the present, prove him to have been a Venetian, nor is there any ground for doubting the poet's intention on this head. See p. 529, n. 9;

8 Isot to leave undone, but keep unknown.] The folio perhaps more
clearly reads :

Is not to leav't undone, but keep't undone. STEEVENS.
The folio, by an evident errour of the press, readsskipe unknown.

MALONE. 9 And, when she seem'd, &c.] This and the following argument of lago onght to be deeply impresied on every reader. Deceit and false. hood, whatever conveniencies they may for a time promise or produce, are, in the sum of life, obstacles io happiness. Those, who profit by the cheat, distrust the deceiver, and the act, by which kindness was Tought, puts an end to confidence.

The same objection may be made with a lower degree of trength against the imprudent generosity of disproportionate marriages. When the first heat of passion is over, it is easily fucceeded by suspicion, that the same violence of inclination, which caused one irregularity, may stimulate to another; and those who have shewn, that their pallions are too powerful for their prudence, will with very night appearances against them, be censured, as not very likely to reitrain them by their virtue. JOHNSON,

Vol. IX.



Oth. And so she did.

lago. Why, go to, then; She that, fo young, could give out such a seeming, To seel her father's eyes up, close as oak', He thought, 'twas witchcraft :-But I am much to

I humbly do beseech you of your pardon,
For too much loving you.

Oth. I am bound to thee for ever.
lago. I fee, this hath a little dalh'd your fpirits.
Oib. Not a jot, not a jot.

lago Trust me, I fear it has.
I hope, you will consider, what is spoke
Comes from my love ; – But, I do see you are mov'd:-
I am to pray you, not to strain my speech
To grosser issues", nor to larger reach,
Than to suspicion.

Oth. I will not.

lago. Should you do so, my lord, My speech should fall into such vile success 3


1 To feel ber farber's eyes up, close as oak,-) The oak is, I believe, the most close-grained wood of general use in England. Close as oak, means, close as ibe grain of obe oak. To fecl is an expression from falo sonry. STEEVENS.

To feel a hawk is to sew up his eyes-lids. See Vol. VII. p.589, n. 9. In ibe Winter's Tale, Paulina says,

“ The root of his opinion, which is rotten

" As ever oak, or stone, was found.MALONE. To grosser issues,] Iques, for conclufions. WARBURTON, 3 My speech pould fall into fucb vile success,] If fuccefs be the right word, it seems to mean consequence or event, as fucceffo is used in Italian.

Johnson. I think success may, in this instance, bear its common interpreta. tion. What lago means, seems to be this : “ Should you do fo, my lord, my words would be attended by such an infamous degree of suc. cess, as my thoughts do not even aim at.” Jago, who counterfeits the feelings of virtue, might have said fall into success, and vile fuccess, because he would appear to Othello, to wish that the enquiry into Desdemona's guilt might prove fruitless and unsuccessful.



As my thoughts aim not at. Cassio's my worthy friend -
My lord, I see you are mov’d.

Oth. No, not much mov’d:-
I do not think, but Desdemona's honeft.

lago. Long live the so! and long live you to think so !
Oih. And yet, how nature erring from itself, --
lago. Ay, there's the point: As,-to be bold with

Not to affect many proposed matches,
Of her own clime, complexion, and degree ;
Whereto, we see, in all things nature tends:
Foh! one may smell, in such, a will most rank",
Foul disproportion, thoughts unnatural.
But pardon me; I do not, in position,
Diftin&tly speak of her: though I may fear,
Her will, recoiling to her better judgment,
May fall to match you with her country forms,
And (hapily) repent.

Oth. Farewel, Farewel :
If more thou dost perceive, let me know more ;
Set on thy wife to observe : Leave me, lago.
lago. My lord, I take my leave.

(going Oth. Why did I marry ? - This honest creature,

doubtless, Sees and knows more, much more, than he unfolds.

lago. My lord, I would, I might entreat your honour To scan this thing no further; leave it to time : And though it be fit that Caffio have his place, (For, sure, he fills it up with great ability,) Yet, if you please to hold him off a while,

The following passages will perhaps be considered as proofs of Dr. Johnson's explanation:

“ Then the poore desolate women, fearing left their case would forte to some pitifull succesez-.Palace of Pleasure, bl. let.

." Promos and Caljandra, 1578. HENDERSON.

4. — a will most rank,) Will, is for wilfulness. It is so used by Ascham. A rank will, is felf-will, overgrown and exuberant.




You shall by that perceive him and his means":
Note, if your lady strain his entertainment
With any strong or vehement importunity;
Much will be seen in that. In the mean time,
Let me be thought too busy in my fears,
(As worthy caule I have, to fear-I am,)
And hold her free, I do beseech your honour.

Oth. Fear not my government?.
Iago. I once more take my leave.

Oih. This fellow's of exceeding honesty,
And knows all qualities, with a learned spirits,
Of human dealings : If I do prove her haggard 9,
Though that her jesies were my dear heart-Itrings',


5 You fall by ebat perceive bim, and bis means :) You shall discover whether he thinks his best means, his most powerful intereft, is by the solicitation of your lady. JOHNSON.

- ftrain bis entertainment-] Press hard his re-admission to his
pay and office. Entertainment was the military term for admiffion of
foldiers. JOHNSON.

7 Fear not my governmens.] Do not distrust my ability to contaia
my passion. Johnson.
8- with a learned spirit,] Learned, for experienced.

The construction is, He knows with a learned fpirit all qualities of
human dealings. JOHNSON.

-If I do prove ber haggard,) A baggard hawk is a wild hawk, á bawk unreclaimed, or irreclaimable. JOHNSON.

A baggard is a particular species of hawk. It is dificule to be reclaimed, but not irreclaimable.

From a passage in Vittoria Corimbona, it appears that baggard was a term of reproach sometimes applied to a wanton :

“ Is this your perch, you baggard? Ay to the stews.”

Turbervile says, that “the baggart falcons are the most excellent birds of all other falcons." Latbam gives to the baggart only the second place in the valued file. In Holland's Leaguer, a comedy, by Shakerly Marmyon, 1633, is the following illuftrative paliage :

« Before these courriers lick their lips at her,

“ I'll trust a wanton baggard in the wind."
Haggard, however, had a popular sense, and was used for wild by
those who thought not on the language of falconers. STEEVENS.

· Tbougb ebat ber jefles were my dear beart-firings,] Feljes are thort
straps of leather tied about the foot of a hawk, by which she is beld
on the fift. HANMER,

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I'd whistle her off, and let her down the wind,
To prey at fortune? Haply, for I am black;
And have not those soft parts of conversation
That chamberers 3 have: Or, for I am declin'd
Into the vale of years ;-yet that's not much ;-
She's gone; I am abus’d; and my relief
Must be-to loath her. O curse of marriage,
That we can call these delicate creature ours,
And not their appetites ! I had rather be a toad,
And live upon the vapour of a dungeon,
Than keep a corner in the thing ) love,
For others' uses. Yet, 'tis the plague of great ones ;
Prerogativ'd are they less than the bale + :


In Heywood's comedy, called A Woman killed witb Kindness, 1617, a number of thele terms relative to hawking occur together :

Now the hath seiz'd the fowl, and 'gins to plume her; « Rebeck her not; rather stand still and check her.

“ So : feize her gets, her jesjes, and her bells.” STIEVENS. ? I'd qbifile ber off, and let ber down ibe wind,

To prey at fortune.) The falconers always let Ay the hawk against the wind ; if he flies with the wind behind her, the seldom rcturas. If therefore a hawk was for any reason to be dismissed, the was let down the wind, and from that time shifted for herselt, and preyed at fortune. This was told me by the late Mr. Clark.

JOHNSON, I'd wbiffle ber off, &c.] This paffage may possibly receive ilJustration from a similar one in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 2. sect. 1. mem. 3. As a long-winged hawke, when he is first wbified off be fi, mounts aloft, and for his pleasure fetcheth many a circuit in the ayre, till soaring higher and higher, till he come

to his full pitch, and in the end, when the game is sprung, comes down amaine, and foupes upon a sudden."

PERCY: Again, in Beaumont and Fletcher's Bonduca ;

he that barely " Whilled his honour of toobe wind,&. STEEVENS. 3 - ebam.berers-] i. e. men of intrigue. So, in the Countess of Pembroke's Antonius, 1590 :

" Fal'n from a souldier to a cbamberer." STEEVENS. Cbambering and wantonness are mentioned together in the sacred wri. Hings. MALONE. 4 Prerogativ'd are they lefs than the base :] In asserting that the


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