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ere he sailed for Canada, he would, it re-act for evil or for good on the chais likely, have regarded the exhibitions racter (properly so called) of those of Yankee petulance with a somewhat who wear them. In these views, we more tolerant eye.

have no doubt our intelligent readers At the same time, nothing can be in America will perfectly coincide with more just and true, than the general Mr Howison ; and, altogether, as we conclusions which Mr Howison draws have already hinted, we think his book

from his own observation of the state will be a favourite one in America as We of manners on the New Continent, well as in England. un both in Canada and in the United Mr John Howison, the author of

States. Himself apparently by no these Sketches of Upper Canada, is, s means tinged with any deep aristocra- we understand, the brother of that s tical notions, he is constrained to ac- Mr William Howison, who has al

knowledge that the equality (as it is ready excited so many bright expectacalled) of American society, is the tions by his beautiful Fragments and greatest curse of that society ; that Fictions, published under the name of the manners of the vulgar are brutal, M. de Pezıdemots ; and by his Essay on ized to a horrible degree by that al- the Sentiments of Aduptation, $c. We most total absence of superior models, doubt whether there be another famiwhich is observable in Canada more ly in the empire that can boast the particularly; and, finally, that extere possession of two such rising lights of nal manners, although not certainly in letters, and hope both brothers will themselves the first objects of philoso- exert themselves to keep up the hopes phical attention, are fit objects of very that have been formed, or, as we may serious consideration, in as much as, more properly express it, to redeem be they good or ill, they cannot fail to the pledges that have been given.

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CHRISTOPHE, LATE EMPEROR OF HAYTI.

To Christopher North, Esq. SIR,-As Supplementary to an Article which appeared in your fifty-first number, relative to the late Emperor of Hayti, the subjoined Letter will perhaps gratify some of your readers. They will be glad to recognize, in an independent document, statements verifying the inferences, which I then considered as fairly deducible from the Imperial Rescript, addressed to Mr W., and which it would not be difficult abundantly to sustain by other collateral proofs. As it is, I feel a melancholy pleasure in thus offering to the once powerful Christophe, on the good old principle, my sacrifice after sunset !

It may, probably, create a farther interest in the fame of the Departed, if I add, that his daughters, (now, with their mother, in England,) are represented by their hospitable friends, as well-bred and simple-minded young women, characterized chiefly by their timidity, and a tinge of seriousness, which the recent events of their life have been but too well adapted to create. One does not, surely, readily derive such dispositions and habits from a bloody and uxurious parent,

Nec imbellem feroces

Progenerant.But, if they pluck the “ precious

jewel” from adversity, they will have no cause regret their fallen fortunes. The widow is said to be a good-humoured and Leasing woman ; but less refined, as might be expected, and less accomplished han her daughters. Out of the wrecks of their shattered greatness, it is trusted that enough has een collected to render them independent. If Christophe had been as rapaciis for private purposes, as his calumniators contend, would he not have inested, out of his millions, large sums in foreign funds, for his family's use;

the contemplation of that aola Suntou Te Mendoulos, which his own observation ust so forcibly have impressed on his mind ? After the testimony, indeed, borne by Lord Byron to the courtesy of Ali cha, it may now, perhaps, be questioned, whether the civilities (hearty and pretending as they appear to have been,) recorded in the annexed epistle,

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contain evidences of a friendly disposition or a kind heart. But, at the risk of being classed among the dupes of a mock patriotism, or a spurious humanity, I am willing to regard the efforts of Christophe to purifythe morality of his recently liberated and ill educated countrymen-particularly with respect to adultery and duelling, as establishing his magnanimity in its best acceptation. The concupiscible and irascible passions, which prompt the Venerem et prælia, were not likely to be easily controlled in bosoms drawing intensity of feeling of every kind, from the region which has supplied our stage with its Oroonokos, its Zangas, and its Othellos; warped as they must farther have been, by a sense of many wrongs, and stimulated, for the first time, by the intoxicating cup of sudden emancipation.

Neither does his unceasing zeal to introduce a better education throughout his new dominions, or the enthusiasm with which the toast, proposing bis health, was received at the governor's table, naturally announce the savage or the tyrant.

I might also appeal to his excellent character, as a husband and a father; for, though instances of conjugal and parental affection are not wanting among barbarians and despots, they seldom show themselves in so rational and so consistent a manner as in the case of the Emperor of Hayti.

But I leave these, and other deductions, to the good sense of the public.-
Yours, &c.
Yorkshire, Dec. 1, 1821.

F. W.

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IPHIGENIA, Port Royal, not immediately about the King, is

JUNE 6, 1819. said to have greater influence than any (On board of which the writer was a other man. The Admiral then waited Lieutenant.)

on the Duke of Marmalade, governor MY DEAR *****

of Cape Henry; after which we sat ACCORDING to promise, I sit down down to breakfast, and found a most to give you as full an account of our sumptuous entertainment provided. reception at Cape Henry, as my recol- The only difference between our breaklection will furnish me with, as I am fasts and dinners, was the addition of promised a conveyance for it by a pri. tea at the former, and more wine drank vate hand.

at the latter; in other respects they The Admiral landed at six in the were quite the same ; soup, fish, and morning of May 16 ; his party con- all the other component parts of a sisting of Captains Parker and Cox, splendid dinner being provided at both, Lieutenant King of the Beaver, Mr together with wine of every descrip, Gahan, Dr Macnamara, surgeon of the tion; in short, the greatest gourmand Port Royal Hospital, and myself. Sir would have smiled at the succession of Home Popham was received at the courses and the good things that conlanding-place by a guard of honour, stituted them. Sixteen places were where carriages were waiting to convey provided for whatever guests Sir H. the party to the house allotted for our Popham thought proper to invite. Carreception, which we found to be a very riages and horses were constantly kept good one—uncommonly clean, well in readiness ; but in consequence of furnished, and provided with a library the extreme heat of the weather, (the and plenty of servants; the lower part, sun at this time being exactly vertical,) with the exception of the kitchen and we seldom rode out, except early in the other offices, being fitted up as a tem- morning, and after dinner, when the porary guard-house, which was occu- cavalry by no means held sinecure pied during our stay by a guard conn- places; his Haytian Majesty's chammanded by a Captain, who always paigne promoting wonderful émulation turned out on the Admiral's going from among the horsemen. or returning home. Two centinels In these excursions, we visited the were constantly posted at the door, places most worthy of notice in the and one at the head of the staircase. neighbourhood of the town, particuBaron Dupuy here received the Admi- larly the scenes of several desperate ral, and did the honours during the first battles fought between the natives and day, giving us all a most hearty wel- the French, during their struggle for come. The Baron is a Mustiferio, (the emancipation from slavery. In some fourth remove from black,) and though of these battles, the enthusiasm and

devotion of the undisciplined negroes Frenchman without expressing a gein the cause of liberty, overcame the nerous indignation. It is said to be best troops France could send against Christophe's intention to restore the them ; although they frequently were town to its former state, when the inarmed with no other weapons than a dependence of his country is acknowlong stick with a spike-nail at the end. ledged by France, and guaranteed by The Haytians feel an honest pride in England; for without Great Britain pointing out these places, rendered sa- being a third party, such is their opicred by their heroic achievements. nion of French perfidy, they will not

Cape Henry, when in possession of evenenter into a negociation with them. France, (then called Cape François,) In the meantime, as he is in constant avas considered one of the richest, and expectation of an attempt on the part certainly was the most splendid city in of France to recover her colonies in St he West Indies--with a population of Domingo, he does not much encourage ixty thousand. It was so celebrated building in the sea-port towns; as it or its magnificence, luxury, and dis- is his policy, in the event of an attack, Epation, that it bore the name of the to render them useless to the enemy, Western Paris.” But with all this, and retire to the inland fortresses or arcely any town ever fell so com- mountains, where their active harassetely a victim to revolutionary fury. ing system of warfare, aided by their ot a single house or church escaped climate, (so fatal to Europeans,) will nflagration. Their ruins still denote soon destroy any force France can send eir former splendour. The remains against them. the cathedral are among the most Individuals, however, have repaired iking objects. These occupy one and fitted up their houses in a very e of a large square, at the head of handsome manner, and all that are ich the king's palace now stands. inhabited are of a very comfortable is square was the theatre for num- description. less inhuman spectacles, during In my humble opinion, an attempt struggle between liberty and op- to subjugate Hayti, would be perfect sion. The French at that time madness. The people have tasted the le a practice, when they captured blessings of liberty and independence; ck officer, of nailing his epaulettes and the obnoxious recollection of their is shoulders; and, after allowing former state is too fresh in every man's e unfortunate men a sufficient time memory, to admit of their again subffer under their tortures, they ge- mitting their necks to so galling a ly put a period to their lives by yoke. Their mountains and forests g their caps, to their heads, by afford a natural defence, from which of derision. The private men no human power can dislodge a people ortured to death in various ways; so devoted to their country. Besides ost common of which was, to boil this, the talents of the King as a gealive over a slow fire, or to con- neral, as well as of many of his officers, them gradually, by commencing are by no means despicable. This he r feet, and burning upward. In has manifested during the revolutionn to these, whole ship-loads ary war, and in his wars with the reaken outside the harbour, and publican part of the island. His army cuttled ; and where they were (which is uncommonly well armed, spatched by wholesale, four or clothed, and disciplined) at present e sewed up in a bag together, consists of three nominal, but only two thrown overboard. After suf- complete regiments of cavalry, three these horrible cruelties, can nominal, and two complete regiments esent antipathy to their former of artillery, one regiment of engineers, be wondered 'at? Although at and nineteen complete regiments of lusion of this inhuman war, infantry, each of two battalions; the tians had an opportunity of whole amounting to 35,000. Their their oppressors with the same high state of discipline is admirable ; they had themselves suffered, in fact, the minutiæ of military duty wed much more moderation, are entered into with the same precihe end suffered the remnant sion as in the British army. The arms ench to embark on board a are all of English manufacture, with juadron. To the present time the Tower mark upon them, purchased of Hayti never mentions, a from the Austrians, Prussians, and

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Spaniards, who were so liberally sup- A short time ago, three Judges were
plied during the late war by Great sent to the Citadel Henry, to work as
Britain. The centinels are obliged to labourers, on being convicted of par-
stand like statues from the time they tiality, and were kept at hard labour
are posted, until relieved, without be- for a month !
ing permitted to move one way or The King is in all things absolute

. other. Those at the palace have little He is the sole proprietor of land, the pedestals to stand upon. Nothing, produce of which is sold for the beneeven of a very minor consequence, can fit of the State. No other person occụr without the King's knowledge. whatever can have a freehold: but His memory is so good, that he is ac- tracts of land are granted by lease at quainted with every man in the army, a nominal rent, in reward for services, as well by name and person, as by the King constantly retaining the roy. character.

alty. Cattle and sheep are also a royal The laws of Hayti are very severe; monopoly. The revenue arising from but, when it is considered that the the above, and 10 per cent duty leviedle King, on his accession to the throne, indiscriminately on all imports and found his country in the utmost con- exports, more than double the expendifusion, insubordination, and demoral- ture of the country. The whole treaization, the necessary severity of the sure collected at Sans Souci is immense. “ Code Henry” will appear obvious. Twelve millions sterling is considerThis great and wonderful man, in the ably below the medium statement I space of ten years, has corrected all heard respecting it. Whatever gold the numberless abuses which he found or silver is deposited in the treasury, existing ; and his endeavours to esta- never again sees day-light. All payblish morality have been eminently ments are made in produce, which the successful. The penalty for adultery, merchants are obliged to purchase fica is death to both parties; but I under- with gold or silver, or European goods; stand there is not an instance of its so that money is constantly flowing having been rigidly put in force. On into the country, without any leaving a recent occasion, however, the Coun- it. tess of Rosiene (a white woman) was Several manufactures are brought obliged to ride through the streets of to considerable perfection. Mahogany Sans Souci in a state of perfect nudity, chairs and tables, together with most at noon-day, on the back of a donkey, other descriptions of furniture, are as with her face toward the tail, for a highly finished here as in England. breach of chastity, her paramour suf- The magnificent palace of Sans Souci fering a still more severe punishment. is almost entirely fitted up with things higiene A great proportion of the coloured of native manufacture. "What most women are kept mistresses. Some surprised me were the carriages (one wa timp months ago, heavy rains occasioned a belonging to the King, the other to river to overflow its banks, and change the Prince Royal) both built at Sans its course, to the almost total destruc- Souci, and finished with equal taste, tion of several plantations. The King lightness, and elegance with some that immediately determined dam it up stood beside them of English build. in its proper channel. To carry this All the ornamental parts were of solid into effect, he issued an order for all silver; and that metal was substituted women of bad or doubtful character, for iron wherever it was possible. The of whatever rank, to be employed in royal stud is very large, and the stables carrying clay, and the other requisite are kept in the most beautiful order, materials to the workmen, which was under the direction of an English strictly put in force under the inspec- groom, with a salary of 1600 dollars tion of black female overseers. Duel- a-year. Gun-powder mills are worked, ling is not allowed, without the King's also founderies for casting shot. permission being first obtained, which Among other things, the education he

very seldom grants. An infringe- of the rising generation is not neglectment on this law is certain death to ed. Schools on the Lancastrian prin. both parties, and imprisonment for ciple are established at all the principal the seconds. Every person has the towns, under the direction of English privilege of appeal to the King, from masters, whose language is to be inthe courts of law, if he conceives him- troduced instead of French. An acaself to have been unjustly dealt with. demy for instruction in geography,

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AWANG

mathematics, and the classics, is also for military stores of every description. y established at Cape Henry, under the During the latter part of the last year, e direction of an English clergyman, it suffered very much from lightping;

The admiral visited these institutions, which, communicating with magari and was much pleased with their order zine, oecasioned a most terrible exband regularity, and with the proficien.. plosion, destroying a considerable part "cy of the boys, several of whom were ex, of the works, and blowing up 350 men, amined for his satisfaction. The whole together with a vast quantity of stores, expense is defrayed by the King, who and some treasures. The flames were frequently inspects them in person. rapidly approaching the principal ma

The hospitals, both military and gazine, containing upwards of 400 tons charitable, are not less admirable. The of powder, and were probably only military is under the direction of Dr stopped by the King's great presence Stewart, a man not less to be admired of mind and intrepid example. The for his professional abilities, than for instant he became acquainted with the his hospitality and gentlemanly man, accident, he repaired to the spot, and, ners. We went over them, and found in defiance of the prayers and advice as much method and regularity exist- of those around him, rushed through ing here, as at the Royal Hospital at the flames, followed by many others, Haslar. Dr Stewart has a carte blanche and, by dint of personal exertions, from the King; and nothing is wante succeeded in removing or destroying ing for the comfort and accommoda, the whole of the powder in time to {tion of the patients. One thing ap- save the çitadel from total destruction. peared rather ludicrous and unneces- The flames were soon afterwards got sary, which was, a pair of stocks fitted under, but not before a very considers to every bed-place, in which the legs able damage had been done. It is of the occupier are immediately put, now repaired and enlarged, and in on the least symptom of insubordina- other respects considerably improved. tion. Dr Stewart assured us, that With respect to his domestic chacoercive measures were absolutely ne- racter, I was assured he was a most cessary; as, from the great ignorance excellent father and hushand, and has of some of the negroes, it was impos- spared no pains in giving his children sible to induce them to take their me- a finished education. The Princesses licines by mild ones.

have had the advantage of English To this state Haïty has been brought governesses, and are said to be highly in the sixteenth year of its independe accomplished. The Prince Royal has ince, by a people whom some have been brought up by the Baron Vasti, he wiekedness to reproach with being an exceedingly clever and gentlemanhe link of affinity between the human ly white man, author of several wellind the brute creation.

written publications. During our stay The general residence of the King at the Cape, I had the pleasure to ben s Sans Souci, a palace built by him come well acquainted with him, and elf near a town of that name, situated liked him very much. The Queen is bout fifteen miles from Cape Henry, a very amiable and charitable woman, It is said, that more than two millions quite destitute of the affectation, which terling have been expended on this generally accompanies so extraordinary nagnificent structure, which is placed a rise as hers. She is fond of relating in such an elevated position, that the her adventures during the revolution, hermometer seldom rises higher than the whole of which time she accom5°, Near to this is the Citadel Hen- panied her husband, with her chily, which stands on the summit of dren on her back, often without any ne of the highest mountains in the other food than wild fruit and berries, ountry. From its natural strength and generally exposed to the weather, f position, together with its very jų. sometimes half clothed. icious and elaborate defences of art, During our stay, we were entertained is justly reckoned the 'Gibraltar' of every evening with balls, given for our le West Indies. Three hundred and amusement by the order, and at the ex, xty pieces of artillery are mounted pence of the King. The colours of the 1 the

ramparts ; two years' provisions company varied from the black to the e constantly kept up for a complete white. Some of the Creoles were un urrison, and it is the principal depôt commonly pretty, and agreeable ; and VOL. X.

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