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cause she was a queen ; Madame Elizabeth suffered, because innocence, virtue, and magnanimity, could not, in the eyes of Jacobins, atone for the crime of being the daughter of a king, and the aunt of a king; and, after all the services which the duke of Orleans had rendered to the sect, he was facrificed, because he was of the race of kings.'
The fate of the several parties is thus briefly narrated. s Christ has no altar in France, nor have kings a throne; those who overthrew the throne and the altar, have conspired against each other. The deists and the atheists have destroyed the catholics; and they destroy one another. The 'conftitutionalists pursue the royalists, and the republicans' chase the constitutionalists; the democrats of the republic, one and indivisible, have murdered the democrats of the federal republic; the leaders of the faction of the Mountain guillotine those of the Gironde. The faction of the Mountain is divided into the parties of Hebert and Marat, of Danton and Chabot, of Cloots and Chaumette; and also into that of Robespierre, which devours them all, and is itself devoured by that of Tallien. Brissot, Genfonne, Guadet, Fauchet, Rabaud, Barbaroux, and thirty others, are condemned by Fouquier Tinville, as they condemned Louis XVI. Fouquier Tinville is himself condemned, as he condemned Briftot. Pethion and Buzot, wandering in the woods, perilh with hunger, or are devoured by beasts. Perrin dies in confinement; Condorcet poisons himself; Valage and Labat ftab themfelves ; Marat is killed by Charlotte Corday; Robespierre exists no longer ; Sieyes alone remains to be the cause of fresh plagues to France. Hell, to confirm the reign of his impiety, and Heaven, to punish it, have given him, under the name of directors, five tyrants, or pentarchs, and a double senate."
Our author afterwards endeavours to account for the amazing success of the French armies, and the extenfion of the disorganising principle to Belgium, Holland, a part of Germany, Switzerland, Savoy, Piedmont, the Milanese, and even the ecclefiaftical state. This he ascribes, in part, to the valour of the troops, and their characteristic jealousy of honour in combat; but principally to the sect and its legions of ernissaries, who preceded the armies. For the propagation of the new opinions, edicts or orders were sent from the chief lodge, or committee of the Grand Orient at Paris, to the inferior lodges in every part of Europe. The consequence was, that in Holland Paulus published his tracts on " Equality,;" in England, Paine his “ Rights of Man;" in Germany, Campe his a French Citizen," &c, More particularly our auchor gives an account of the efforts of the lect, not only in various parts of Europe, but also in
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Africa, Asia, and America. In giving this information, he names the conspirators, and affords such particulars of their proceedings as evince a more than common knowledge of the subject, and clearly demonstrate that the illusion of revolutionary and meliorating principles was one of the chief engines employed to facilitate the entrance of the French armies. How far the same means have been attempted in this country, is a subject in which we are too much interested not to catch at every information; and we are the more anxious to communicate to our readers what the abbé Barruel advances on this head, because professor Robifon has principally confined himfelf to mere assertions.
? When Mr. Robison declared, that there existed in England masonic lodges of illuminés, patriotic hunour took the alarm: those who form a kind of tribunal of public opinion thought they had a right to call upon that respectable writer for his proofs. I know not what answer he gave; I only know that he ought to have said, “ When persons in authority ask me, I am ready to answer." I should say to those who, without authority, demand my proofs, there may be circumstances that prevent me from making them public; it may be sufficient to discover them to the minister, that precautions may be taken to defeat the feet; and they may be of a nature satisfactory to the author, by a number of incidents which convince him, although he may not be able to adduce legal proof.
"I make these remarks upon the best ground, because certainly ministers have in their hands sufficient proofs, which their wisdom has not yet permitted them to publish. I make them, because Mr. Robison tells us enough to persuade us that he is well informed, when he announces the intrusion of the illuminés into fome English and Scotish lodges, without his being obliged to point out those lodges, ór without his being able to do so. But undoubtedly he did not wish to expose himself to the fate of the famous chevafier Zimmermann, who was, in a fimilar case, the victim of the illuminé Knigge, not because the latter was unjustly, accused, but because the accuser had not against him one of those proofs which are called legal, because he could not legally prove that Philon and Knigge were two names for the same person ; a circumstance which is now notorious. Let those who allow themselves to treat Mr. Robiion as a calumniator, reflect that the conspirators have many ways of influencing similar trials; that it is among their laws to destroy, in the public opinion, all writers of merit whom they cannot draw into their snares; and that Mr. Robison is one of those who, on that account, are justly entitled to their hatred. I could wish that Mr.' Robifon had an opportunity of answering the charge, by publishing his proofs ; and then those who now speak harshly of him, would thank him for the service rendered to his country; a zeal for which, without doubt, prevails in their hearts as well as in his, though they do not see the danger so well as he.' The abbé concludes this curious apology for the professor, by informing us, that he does not mean to copy his example, but to give a part of his own proofs.
" There are in England (he says) two men, for whom, I know, the apostles of the illuminés have fought. The one is an honest officer of the marine, who entertains for them all the contempt of which an honest heart can be fusceptible, and which his heart first felt when he found himself duped by an insinuating brother, who, under pretence of revealing the masonic mysteries, drew him into thofe of Weishaupt. The other is a man of merit, who might have known more, if he had not betrayed his fentiments, but whose authority will attest the truth of the following statement.
Among the books which best point out the number of the lodges of the illuminés, even among those which the enrolling brothers give to their candidates of a certain rank, there is one called Les Paragraphes. In that production, we find that the adept, the great traveller, of the same name with the chevalier Zimmermann, converted to illuminism fome lodges of free-masons in England: but, of five, there are two which have renounced the mysteries of Weishaupt; the three others still preserve them.
A new apoftle, who succeeded Zimmermann in London, came to England under the name of Dr. Ibiken, one of those fictitious names which the travelling brethren adopted according to circumstances. This doctor began with uniting himself to foine Quakers; he was then received in several of the lodges, where he introduced the preparatory means, and at length completely illuminated fome of the brethren. He also boasted of his success in Ireland; and pretended to foretell, that his pupils would soon see a great revolution in their pitiful free-masonry. Those to whom that language was unintelligible, told me that they comprehended it perfectly, after I had published the code of the sect. They lost light of Dr. Ibiken, and the vigilance of the ministry obliged himn to carry his mysteries to another quarter.
• A short time after, there appeared in England an emissary, who called himself an Alsatian, and who arrived from America under the name of Reginhard. He procured admillion into foine of the English lodges which were in corą respondence with those of Boston. He appeared lefs zealous than the other apostles; he did not even conceal his repugnance to a mission which, he said, ill agreed with his stations as he had been a chaplain in the French navy; and it was principally from him that the author of the letter which furnihes me with these details, learned the existence of il. luminism on the banks of the Thames.
Here then is sufficient proof that the illuminés have not fuffered their emissaries to forget England. Notwithstanding the honourable exception which I made, in a former part of the work, in favour of the English lodges, I am no longer surprised to find that illuminisin is received by a certain number of their adepts ; and here I ought to repeat, that, in that exception, I alluded only to the species of freemasonry, which I have called national,'
These are the principal circumstances upon which the abbé grounds his position as to the existence of lodges of illuminés in this country. It is obvious that they reft, in a gr measure, upon his authority ;. but we are not inclined to controvert them: they are at least probable, and they weigh with us the more as coming from an author who in all this laborious work has given us little reason to doubt his veracity, however we may have cause to differ from him in judgment.
The conclusion of this volume, it ought to be observed, contains some reflections on the desolating spirit of Jacobinism, and the fatal consequences with which it may yet be attended, if the people of all countries, those who have felt, and those who have only read of its effects, should not unite to restore the empire of religion, morality, and social order.
Upon the whole, we are of opinion, that the author has displayed considerable talents, great research, and a pure intention, in the composition of these memoirs. On the application, however, of the three conspiracies to the French revolution, we take the liberty of differing from the abbé. He attributes every inconsiderable event in the revolution to a pre-concerted plan. The Auctuations of parties, however, their violent contests, and other circumstances, milia tate against the idea of a regular plan ; and the little revolutions within the great one, as well as the great one itself, seem to have arisen from more obvious causes.
That any great benefit will result from these memoirs, 'is not very clear. If, according to the obvious intention of the author, they expound the mysteries of the French revolution, the effect will be more a matter of curiosity than of use, unless the rulers of nations will have récourse to such means as wisdom, not a fpirit of coercion, may fuggeft to defroy the existence of conspiracies, by attaching the people
APP, VOL. XXIV. NEW ARR. Рp
to the government, from its sensible effects on their happi. ness and security.
It will not be improper to add, that the abbé has published an abridgement of these four volumes, and that tranflations of the third and fourth volumes have made their appearance.
Voyage de la Pérouse.
(Concluded from Vol. XXIII. p. 492.) WE
E left this very respectable rival of captain Cook, ftretching to the westward from the coast of Chili. On the 9th of April, he arrived at Easter Island, which is peopled by a race fimilar to the inhabitants of the Society Ines. This spot is infertile, and its water is fcanty and brackish. The want of a copious supply of water is attributed to the deficiency of trees, though the island was once wooded. It has been remarked, that the rain, in the cleared parts of Guiana, is much less than in she woody regions; and the reason is fufficiently obvious. A difficulty however arises. Countries which have been covered with trees, when, from accident, or the imprudent activity of the early settlers, they are once disforested, can scarcely by art be made to re-produce them. Travellers fee, in different parts of England, remains of vast trees, while the present productions of those parts are a dwarfish stunted race, and the plantations, though carefully guarded, are often destroyed. In Ireland the trees which defended the land from the weftern blafts, are destroyed, and greater mischief enfues. The winds meet no impediment, and carry, far inland, masses of fand, which impair the fertility of the ground, and render many ancient buildings (once respectable) no longer habitable. It may naturally be asked, why the land, which once produced trees, will produce them no longer. As we have no reason to believe, that vegetable or animal nature is degenerating, or that its energies are impaired, the circumftance may be attrin buted to changes of climate, arising from alternations of sea and land (the former encroaching on, or retiring from, the latter), or some alteration in the aftronomical relations of our planet.
Easter Island was remarkable for a number of busts or ftatues of considerable height, formed of lava: but they are now fuperseded by small pyramidal heaps of stones, intended as maufolea.
The inbabitants of this island are confidered by la Péroufe as being under no government. He thought that