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narchy is by divine right established. one will but carefully read our author's own reasoning from these words, Observations, 244. and consider, among other things, the line and posterity of Adam, as he there brings them in, he will find some difficulty to make sense of what he says ;; but we will allow this at prefent to his peculiar way of writing, and consider the force of the text in hand.' The words are the curse of God upon the woman, for having been the first and forwardest in the disobedience ; and if we will consider the occasion of what God says here to our first parents, that he was denouncing judgment, and declaring his wrath against them both, for their disobedience, we cannot suppose that this was the time, wherein God was granting Adam prerogatives and privileges, investing him with dignity and authority, elevating him to dominion and monarchy: for though, as a helper in the temptation, Eve was laid below him, and so he had accidentally a superiority over her, for her greater punishment; yet he too had his fhare in the fall, as well as the fin, and was laid lower, as may be seen in the following verses ; and it would be hard to imagine, that God, in the same breath, should make him universal monarch over all mankind, and a day-labourer for his life ; turn him out of paradise to till the ground, ver. 23. and at the same time advance him to a throne, and all the privileges and case of
g. 45. . 51 $.45. This was not a time, when Adam could expect any favours, any grant of privileges, from his offended Maker. If this be the original grant of government, as our author tells us, and Adam was now made monarch, whatever Sir Robert would have him, it is plain, God made him but a very poor monarch, such an one, as our author himself would have counted it no great privilege to be. God fets him to work for his living, and seems rather to give him a spade into his hand, to subdue the earth, than a sceptre to rule over its inhabitants. In the sweat of thy face thou shalt eat thy bread, says God to him, ver. 19. This was unavoidable, may
perhaps be answered, because he was yet without subjects, and had nobody to work for him ; but afterwards, living as he did above 900 years, he might have people enough, whom he might command, to work for him; no, says God, not only whilst thou art without other help, save thy wife, but as long as thou livest, shalt thou live by thy labour, In the sweat of thy face, shalt thou eat thy bread, till thou return unto the ground, for out of it waft thou taken, for duft thou art, and unto duft shalt thou return, v. 19. It will perhaps be answered again in favour of our author, that these words are not fpoken personally to Adam, but in him, as their representative, to all mankind, this being a curse
upon mankind, because of the fall.
§. 46. God, I believe, speaks differently from because he speaks with more truth,
more certainty: but when he vouchsafes to speak to men, I do not think he speaks differently from them, in crossing the rules of language in use amongst them : this would not be to condescend to their capacities, when be humbles himself to speak to them, but to lose his design in speaking what, thus fpoken, they could not understand. And yet thus must we think of God, if the interpretations
of fcripture, necessary to maintain our author's doctrine, must be received for good :
for by the ordinary rules of language, it will be very hard to understand what God fays, if what he speaks here, in the fingular number, to Adam, must be understood to be Spoken to all mankind, and what he fays in the plural number, i, Gen. 26, and 28. must be understood of Adam alone, exclusive of all others, and what he says to Noah
and his fons jointly, must be understood to be e meant to Noab alone, Gen. ix.
$.47. Farther it is to be noted, that these words here of iii. Gen. 16. which our author calls the original grant of government, were not spoken to Adam, neither indeed was there any grant in them made to Adam, but a punithment laid upon Eve: and if we will
take them as they were directed in particular :. to her, or in her, as 'their representative, to
all other women, they will at most concern the female sex only, and import no more, but that subjection they should ordinarily be
it d ar
in to their husbands; but there is here no more law to oblige a woman to such a subjection, if the circumstances either of her condition, or contract with her husband, should exempt her from it, than there is, that the should bring forth her children in sorrow and pain, if there could be found a remedy for it, which is alfo a part of the same curse upon her : for the whole verfe runs thus, Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy
be forrow and tby conception ; in forrow thou shalt bring forth children, and thy defire shall be to tby husband, and be fall rule over thee. It would, I think, have been a hard matter for any body, but our author, to have found out a grant of monarchical government to Adam in these words, which were neither spoke to, nor of him: neither will any one, I suppose, by these words, think the weaker sex, as by a law, fo subjected to the curse contained in them, that it is their duty not to endeavour to avoid it. And will any one say, that Eve, or any other woman, sinned, if she were brought to bed without those multiplied pains God threatens her here with ? or that either of our queens, Mary or Elizabeth, had they married any of their subjects, had been by this text put into a political subjection to him? or that he thereby should have had monarchical rule over her? God, in this text, gives not, that I see, any authority to Adam over Eve, or to men over their wives, but
ve nd be
ere ere ta
only foretels what should be the woman's lot, how by his providence he would order it so, that she should be subject to her husband, as we see that generally the laws of mankind and customs of nations have ordered it fo; and there is, I grant, a foundation in nature for it.
§. 48. Thus when God says of Jacob and Esau, that the elder mould ferve the younger, xxv. Gen. 23. no body supposes that God hereby mnade Jacob Efau's sovereign, but foretold what should de facto come to pass.
But if these words here spoke to Eve must needs be understood as a law to bind her and all other women to subjection, it can be no other subjection than what every wife owes her husband; and then if this be the original grant of government and the foundation of monarchical power, there will be as many monarchs as there are husbands : if therefore these words give any power to Adam, it can be only a conjugal power, not political ; the power that every husband hath to order the things of private concernment in his family, as proprietor of the goods and land there, and to have his will take place before that of his wife in all things of their common concernment; but not a political power of · life and death over her, much less over any body else.
S. 49. This, I am sure: if our author will have this text to be a grant, tbe original grant