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3. The Vice-presidents shall hold seniority in the order of their continuous membership in the Association.

1. The Permanent Secretary shall attend to the business of the Association, the arrangements for the meetings and such other matters as the Council may designate. He may employ, with the approval of the Council, an Assistant Secretary. The salaries of the Secretaries shall be determined by the Council.

5. The General Secretary shall attend to matters connected with the organization of the Association, its relations to the affiliated societies and such other matters as the Council may designate. He shall receive such compensation as may be determined by the Council.

6. The Permanent Secretary, the General Secretary and the Treasurer shall present annually to the Council an account of the funds in their charge. These accounts shall be audited by an Auditor elected by the Council. There shall be a Finance Committee of three, elected by the Council, including the Treasurer, who shall give advice in regard to the investment of the funds of the Association. The Treasurer and the Permanent Secretary and General Secretary shall present a budget to the Council for the year following the annual meeting.


1. There shall be a Committee on Grants, appointed by the President, with the advice of the Council, consisting of eight members, two appointed annually for a period of four years, which shall award for scientific research such part of the income from the permanent and special funds of the Association as may be appropriated for that purpose by the Council.

2. The following standing committees are authorized: Committee of One Hundred on Scientific Research; Committee of One Hundred on National Health; Committee on Delegates from Educational and Scientific Institutions; Committee on Expert Testimony; Committee on the Jane M. Smith Life Membership Fund.

3. A local committee shall be organized by the members resident in the place where a meeting of the Association is held. This committee may appoint an executive committee and other committees and shall make arrangements for the meeting, in cooperation with the Permanent Secretary and the other officers of the Association.


1. The Sectional Committees shall arrange for each annual meeting a program of general scien

tific interest, occupying usually one or two sessions. The Section shall not hold sessions for the reading of special papers when the affiliated society in the same field meets with the association.

2. No member shall take part in the organization or hold office in more than one section at any one meeting.


1. A Pacific Division has been organized whose territory lies west of the "Rocky" Mountains. This Division and other Divisions that may be authorized by the Council have full control of their meetings, their affiliations with other scientific organizations, and of all movements to promote the advancement and diffusion of science in their territory. The Pacific Division shall be allowed for its expenses the entrance fees collected through its efforts and one dollar a year for each member in good standing.

?. Local Branches may be formed by members residing in the same locality. These branches shall be allowed for their expenses the entrance fees collected through their efforts and an amount for their expenses not to exceed fifty cents for each member in good standing.


1. Affiliated societies having two representatives on the Council and on the Sectional Committees


2. Affiliated societies having one representative on the Council and on the Sectional Committees


3. Associated societies are:


1. A general session of the Association shall usually be held on the first evening of the meeting and at this session the address of the retiring president shall be given. Other general sessions may be arranged by the Council.

2. The Council shall ordinarily meet on the afternoon of the first day of the meeting. It may also meet at such other times as may be decided, and shall ordinarily hold a meeting in the spring at Washington.

3. The Sectional Committees shall ordinarily hold meetings on the morning of the first day of the annual meetings and may hold such other meetings as they may arrange.

4. The Executive Committee shall meet on the day preceding the annual meeting and at such other times during the meeting as it may decide. It shall ordinarily hold meetings in the spring and in the autumn.

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1. By arrangement with the publishers of SCIENCE this journal publishes the official notices and proceedings of the Association and is sent to all members in good standing, the sum of $2 being paid to the publishers of the journal for each member. Members may by request receive The Scientific Monthly in place of SCIENCE. This arrangement may be cancelled by the Council of the Association or by the publishers of the journal, after

one year's notice has been given by either party.


1. The official year of the Association shall begin on October 1, and the dues of members are payable on that date. Only members who have paid their dues shall enjoy the privileges of the meetings and receive publications of the Association, but those not longer than two years in arrears for dues are retained on the membership list. Members dropped from membership for nonpayment of dues may have their names reinstated by payment of arrearages or may be reelected with payment of the entrance fee. In the case of members of affiliated societies elected to membership in the American Association for the Advancement of Science within one year of their election to membership in the affiliated society, the entrance fee shall be remitted.

2. The Secretaries of the Association and of the Sections shall be allowed $30 in lieu of their traveling expenses to the annual meeting, or, if their expenses are less than that sum, the amount of their expenses.

3. Members of the Executive Committee shall be allowed $30 in lieu of their traveling expenses in attendance on meetings of the Committee, held apart from the meetings of the Association, or, if their expenses are less than that sum, the amount of their expenses.


These By-Laws and Rules of Procedure may be amended by vote of the Council.



ON November 8, after several previous meetings, a number of the geologists of Dallas, Fort Worth, Austin, Shreveport, and other cities of the southwest organized an association, to be known as the Southwestern Geological Society. It is not the intention of the founders that the society shall be a

competitor of either the Geological Society of America or the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, but that it shall be a regional organization comparable to the Cordilleran section of the Geological Society of America, the Geological Society of Washington, or other similar local organizations. It is also intended that it shall provide, through bi-monthly sectional meetings in each of the important cities of the southwest, frequent opportunities for the exchange of scientific data and views.

The promotion of fellowship and cooperation are the paramount aims, and publications, for the present, except of brief abstracts, will be a secondary consideration.

The membership will be drawn from those actively engaged in geology in the southwest, both academic and economic, and will include the professors of the state and other universities and members of the geological surveys, as well as those engaged in economic work.

The officers elected at the first meeting are as follows: President, Myron L. Fuller; vicepresidents, Wm. Kennedy and Wallace Pratt; secretary E. W. Shuler; treasures, R. B. Whitehead; council Robert T. Hill, H. P. Bybee, John A. Udden, W. E. Wrather and Chester A. Hamil.

Among the founder members were the following; Ellis W. Shuler, Myron L. Fuller, Robert T. Hill, F. W. Simonds, Wm. Kennedy, R. B. Whitehead, John A. Udden, F. A. Lahee, Wallace Pratt, F. L. Whitney, J. W. Beede, H. P. Bybee, E. B. Hopkins, C. A. Hamil, J. E. Brantly, V. V. Waite.

All geologists of good standing interested in the geology of the southwest are invited to send in their applications for membership to Dr. Ellis W. Shuler, secretary, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas.


THE 100th regular meeting of the American Physical Society will be held in the Ryerson Physical Laboratory of the University of Chicago, on Friday and Saturday, November 28 and 29, 1919. The occasion will be

marked by a symposium of papers of unusual importance on the electron-tube, presented upon invitation of the president of the society. There will also be the usual program of papers contributed by members in general. The Central Association of Science and Mathematics Teachers holds it annual meeting on the same dates, and arrangements are being made for the usual joint session.

The provisional program of special papers which will probably be given on Saturday morning, is as follows:

"Phenomena in pure-tungsten filament electron tubes," Irving Langmuir, The General Electric Company.

"Phenomena in oxide-coated filament tubes,'' H. B. Arnold, The Western Electric Company.

"The relations of the constants of an electron tube to its physical dimensions," L. A. Hazeltine, Stevens Institute of Technology.

"Theory of action of electron tubes as amplifiers," John M. Miller, Bureau of Standards.

"Theory of action of electron tubes as genera


," John H. Morecroft, Columbia University. "High power transmission sets," W. C. White, The General Electric Company.

"Telephone sets," O. B. Blackwell, American Telephone and Telegraph Company.

Members wishing to present papers at the Chicago meeting are requested to send abstracts ready for publication, to the secretary, before November 15. The secretary expects to send the program to all members before the meeting, but the delays in the mails are so great at present that members should not depend upon the program to determine their attendance.

The next following meeting of the society. will be held in St. Louis in the week of December 29-January 3. Members are requested to submit abstracts of papers for this meeting at the earliest possible date, not waiting for further notice.

DAYTON C. Miller,



THE readers of SCIENCE may be interested to learn that at the coming annual meeting

of the American Historical Association a conference will be devoted to the history of science. This is the first time that such a conference has been held, and it is earnestly hoped that many of those who are interested in this promising field may attend the session. whether they are members of the American Historical Association or not. The program, as thus far arranged, comprises papers on the History of Egyptian Medicine by Thomas Wingate Todd, professor of anatomy, Western Reserve University; on the History of Algebra by Louis C. Karpinski, professor of mathematics, University of Michigan; on Peter of Abano, a Medieval Scientist, by Lynn Thorndike, professor of history, Western Reserve University; and on The Problem of the History of Science in the College Curriculum, by Henry Crew, professor of physics, Northwestern University. The conference will take place in the Hollenden Hotel, Cleveland, Ohio, at 10 A.M., Wednesday morning, December 31.



THE Convocation Week meetings of Section F (Zoology) of The American Association for the Advancement of Science will be held in conjunction with those of the American Society of Zoologists at Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., on December 29. 30 and 31, 1919. As the officers of the American Society of Zoologists are responsible for the program under the rules of the American Association all titles and abstracts of papers should be sent to Professor W. C Allee, Lake Forest, Illinois. They should be in his hands before December 9. The address of the retir ing vice-president of Section F, Professor William Patten, will be given at the annual dinner on Wednesday evening, December 31. The subject of the address will be "The message of the biologist." H. V. NEAL, Secretary of Section F



A JOINT meeting of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society was held on

November 6, for the discussion of observations made during the total solar eclipse of May 29 last. Sir Frank Dyson, the astronomer royal, opened the discussion, and was followed by Professor Eddington and other members of the eclipse expedition. Cablegrams to the daily papers report that the photographic plates show the deflection of the rays of light from the stars by the sun's gravitation that the Einstein theory of relativity requires. A similar attempt was made by the Crocker Expedition of the Lick Observatory in 1918, and the problem is described by Dr. W. W. Campbell, the director of the observatory, in SCIENCE for July 12, 1918. An article on relativity in physics by Professor Reinhard A. Wetzel, of the College of the City of New York, is printed in SCIENCE for October 3, 1913, and one by Professor William Marshall, of Purdue University, in The Popular Science Monthly for May, 1914. The article on the ether drift by Professor A. A. Michelson and Professor Edward W. Morley, which gave rise to the discussion, was printed in The American Journal of Science in 1887. Albert Einstein, then an employee in the patent office at Bern, first published his theory of relativity in the Annalen der Physik in 1905. Dr. Einstein later became professor in the Zurich Polytechnic School and was called to Berlin several years ago.

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS THE Nobel prize for physics for 1918 has been awarded to Professor Max Planck, of Berlin, and for 1919 to Professor Stark, of Greifswald. The prize for chemistry for 1918 has been awarded to Professor Fritz Haber, of Berlin.

THE National Academy of Sciences has voted to confer its Public Welfare medal on Mr. Herbert Hoover.

SURGEON-GENERAL WILLIAM C. BRAISTED, of the U. S. Navy Medical Corps, has been elected an honorary fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.

DR. M. C. TANQUARY, associate professor of entomology at the Kansas State Agricultural

College, has resigned to accept the position of state entomologist of Texas, and chief of the division of entomology of the Texas Agricultural College. His resignation takes effect on February 1.

G. B. RICHARDSON has been placed in direct charge of the oil and gas section of the U. S. Geological Survey.

DR. G. DALLAS HANNA, who for eight years has been an assistant in the United States Bureau of Fisheries, has been appointed curator of invertebrate paleontology in the California Academy of Sciences. Dr. Hanna has for seven seasons been engaged in scientific work on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, having taken the census of the fur seal herd for five consecutive years. He brings to the museum of the academy his collection of mollusks which numbers about 100,000 specimens.

SIR HENRY ALEXANDER MIERS, F.R.S., vicechancellor of the University of Manchester, has been appointed a member of the advisory council to the committee of the privy council for scientific and industrial research.

AT the annual meeting of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland, held on October 18, Dr. James Craig, professor of practise of medicine in Trinity College, Dublin, was elected president.

V. K. TING, director of the Geological Survey of China, is travelling in the United States.

PROFESSOR LYNDS JONES, of the department of zoology, of Oberlin College, conducted a party of students of ecology on a trip to the Pacific coast during the summer. The entire journey was made in automobiles-four Ford cars, a Franklin sedan, and a trailer. The route followed the Trans-continental, the Union Pacific and Northeastern to Omaha, thence to Yellowstone Park, spending several days in the park, up the Columbia River through eastern Oregon to Portland, then to Moclips, Washington, where camp was made and the party explored the coast and the neighboring islands. Except for occasional hospitality of friends along the way, every night was spent out of doors, and meals were

prepared over camp fire. Study was made while traveling of the animals, birds and plants, the nature of the country and the character of the soil, and lectures were given each day. The party left Oberlin on June 20 and returned on August 27 all in good health and reporting a most successful and enjoyable trip. For next summer a different trip is planned, through Colorado and Estes Park to California and the Yosemite.

IT is stated in Nature that the Swedish Academy of Science has reported favorably on a request by Professor J. G. Andersson, formerly director of the Swedish Geological Survey, for a government grant of 90,000 kroner towards scientific researches and collections in China, where Dr. Andersson is now geological adviser to the Chinese government. It is hoped that the Swedish Riksmuseum will thus receive rich collections in paleontology, prehistory and zoology, but, to comply with conditions laid down by Professors Andersson and Witman, the fossil vertebrates will go to Upsala.

DR. JAMES R. ANGELL, on leave of absence as head of the department of psychology and dean of the faculties of the University of Chicago, now chairman of the National Research Council, recently visited the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, and conferred with several members of the faculty who are particularly interested in the progress of research. In the afternoon, Dr. Angell addressed the faculty and graduate students of the division of applied psychology.

AT the meeting of the Section on Medical History of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, held on November 15, Lieutenant Colonel Fielding H. Garrison, M. C., U. S. Army, Washington, D. C., and Dr. Edward C. Streeter, Boston, presented a paper on "Sculpture and Paintings as Modes of Anatomical Expression."

THE president, Professor James Ward, of Cambridge University, delivered the inaugural address before the Aristotelian Society on November 3 on the subject "In the begin ning .. The congress which the society arranges annually will be held next year at

Oxford in September, and the French Philosophical Society will take part.


A COURSE of twelve Swiney lectures on Geology and Mineral Resources of the British Possessions in Africa" will be given at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, by Dr. J. D. Falconer, on November 10 and later.

THE tablets in memory of Lord Lister, executed for University College by Professor Harvard Thomas, were unveiled on November 11, by Sir George Makins, president of the Royal College of Surgeons, and Sir J. J. Thomson, president of the Royal Society. The Duke of Bedford, president of the Lister Memorial Committee, presided.

DR. WILLIAM G. BISSELL, bacteriologist and sanitary expert, died on November 14, at the age of forty-nine years. He was director of the laboratories of the Buffalo Health Department for twenty-five years and past pres ident of the New York State Sanitary Officers' Association. Since his graduation from the medical department of the University of Buffalo in 1892 he had practised there.

THE National Academy of Medicine and the Surgical Society of Rio de Janeiro is compiling a catalogue of all medical publications that have appeared in Brazil within the past hundred years. This catalogue will be distributed at the celebration of the Centenary of Independence which is to be held in 1920. A Congress of Medicine will be held at the same time in Rio de Janeiro under the direction of Professor Fernando Magalhaes, president of the Medical and Surgical Association.


By the terms of the will of Dr. Henry K. Oliver, Harvard University receives funds for a department of hygiene.

THE French minister of public instruction has introduced in parliament a bill covering an appropriation of 12,126,000 francs for the benefit of the universities, to be used in the

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