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enters the mind. Being accustomed bestowed particular attention on this to retain figures and arrangements, circumstance. we are dissatisfied if they do vot' There was a time when festivals appear as usual. My father hung and religious observances were conhis almanac on this nail, and I must nected with the anniversaries of the do as my father did. A book of this births of apostles and martyrs. It kind being compiled and published was therefore necessary to inform anew every year, we take for grant- the people when these anniversaed that every new year demands a ries occurred. A change of religion new almanac.

has taken away this necessity, at Habit will account for the conti- least among ourselves. Swithen, nuance of a certain practice, but not Margaret, Magdalen, Michael, and for its origin. One would be natu. Denys are names which the reader rally led to think, that when alma- overlooks. He never dreams of manacs were first invented, mankind king a distinction between the days were more conversant with the stars opposite to which these names apthan at present ; that every cotta- pear and other days. To us, thereger was interested in the planetary fore, or at least to some of us, they revolutions, in the places of the are wholly useless and impertinent, moon, in the solar progress, and in but still they are annually printed, the birth-days of hermits and con- and their omission would create, in fessors.

many persons, disapprobation and This is partly true ; but the surprize. source of curiosity respecting the It can scarcely fail to occur, that motions of the heavenly bodies, was almanacs might be made the instrumerely a belief that the incidents of ments of much general improvehuman life were connected with these ment. Custom has introduced them changes. That tract in the heavens into every family. There is genewhich the sun apparently passes in rally space set apart for miscellaa year, was called the zodiac, and neous information, and in filling this was divided into twelve portions, space the compiler is at liberty to which were called signs, and each exercise his own judgment. The of which received a fantastic name. popularity of almanacs will thus afA connection was imagined between ford him an opportunity of impartthe different members of the human ing wholesome truths to thousands, body and the signs of the zodiac. whose audience he could never hope Hence it was requisite to state mi. to obtain in any other way, nutely the zodiacal place of the sun, In the form of tables, and in place that men might be aware of the acci- of much of what is now introduced, dents to which they were most liable facts in physical and moral science at certain seasons. The frontispiece might be happily substituted. What commonly exhibited a figure, ex- is now occupied by Crispin and plaining the connection between con- Gregory, by the perigee and apogee stellations and limbs; and this fron- of the moon, by the risings and detispiece is still generally retained. scents of Sirius and Arcturus, and

Stellar influence, though strong, by the vagaries of the planets, might was rightly supposed to be inferior surely be supplied with much more to that of the planets. The relative useful matter. position of the fixed stars is appa. The happiness of mankind derently unchangeable. Not so that pends not so much upon the progress of the planetary bodies: hence cu which the sciences, abstractedly conriosity was busy in ascertaining the sidered, have made, as on the diffuplaces of the latter, the prosperous sion of the knowledge which already and adverse state of man being sup- exists. A thousand truths are to be posed to be swayed by the opposi- found in the recorded meditations lions and conjunctions of these orbs; of the wise, of which mankind have and hence compilers of almanacs profited nothing, because, in general,

they remain ignorant of their exist. F. (opening the door) Well, ence. It seems as if a man, truly en Conrad. lightened, should employ himself not C. Ferry vell ; tank you kaintin advancing the various branches ley. So! 'tis right hot akin to-tay: of physical and moral knowledge to ov’rre, not so hot as Soontay : unt perfection by solitary experiments, 'no rain at all : Got's veel pe tone; and closet speculation, but in con unt dare's mishter Vinch's two triving and executing schemes for pootes. l’fe heeld ’toder, unt poot making simple, intelligible, and con- fone sole to dis. cise, the sciences in their present F. (taking the boots) Very state of improvement; in making well, Conrad. cheaper and more commodious, in C. Hem-hem-'tish hart times, clothing in more popular and at- mine vife says; ferry hart times, tractive forms, and putting into the she says, unt no ledder in de hause; possession of a greater number, the unt de widdow Veester vont two knowledge already ascertained, and shoose fur papey. She's kot a new which is most conducive to their papey, unt de oder fone iss teat; unt welfare. I cannot conceive an in so she vont shoose to let her vaulk strument more useful to this end, pye-unt-pye-hem !--hart times, and an opportunity more favourable inteet, mishter

Vinch, my vife says. to the dissemination of truth and F. True, Conrad; and so, to happiness than an almanac affords. soften them a little, there's your ino

The advantages of this expedient ney: have not been wholly overlooked. C. Tank you kaintley. So, koote In Germany it has been more ex- pye! (going). tensively employed than elsewhere. F. Good day, Conrad. History, botany, mineralogy, agri C. (returning ) Mine kott! I culture, and domestic economy, have forkits Katy Stephens

poor Katy! all been moulded into this form, and F. What of her, Conrad? with admirable skill and efficacy. C. Kott's veel pe tone ; unt a Two improvements have likewise voort more mit you, mishter Vinch. been observable in our own country. (After a pause, assumes a grave One consists in noting the date of the ione.) Your company iss, in a most principal events of our own history, pertee’kler manner, invited to de and the other in assigning a column perrin of Ratmouse* Stephen's pig for exhibiting the degrees of heat, shile, at four diss effternoon : unt as observed on Fahrenheit's ther- two perrins koes in fone : unt fune mometer, on each day of the pre- iss a leetle fone, unt ’toder is much ceding year.

pigger; unt de parson koes pefore: so, koote pye! ( going).

F. But you say there's two, Conrad: who is the other?

C. (returning) Mine Kott! I For the Literary Magazine.

voorkits 'toder. 'Toder iss Sophy, up pye de cooper's hause, right ober Kingsint'n perrin kround. So! koote pye (going):

F. But, Conrad, what Sophy is

this? Scene-Street before a house.

C. Mine Kott, mishter Vinch, no

madder fur her oder name. Eff I ENTER a shoe-maker, with

vas tell you, you voud'nt know it. boots in his hand. He taps softly at So, koote pye! the door.

F. But what was her complaint, Finch. (within) Who's there? Conrad ?

C. Nebber mint; 'tis o’ny me, vid mishter Vinch's two pootes.






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C. De feeber unt agur, unt a leetle man you loved, you will find it difpain in de pones. Mine own shile ficult to convince me that your sufdied of dat last yee'ar. Put Sophy ferings, however real, were not Schneider died of 'toder ting: put I rather the effect of caprice than of don't know vot dat voss. De docter sound understanding. Sebneehause said it voss de grumble H. Do you then think that we in de pelley, ov'vre some sish ting; owe nothing to the feelings of pafur old mooter Schutepeckke laid a rents, who have devoted themselves spelt upon Sophy; unt so she had to our happiness; who for a number de grumbles and died so : unt so, of years have been unremittingly koote pye!

Exeunt. anxious for our welfare, and who,

to the utmost of their knowledge and ability, have afforded us every

source of instruction, and commuFor the Literary Magazine.

nicated every good within their pow

er. If I do not understand this ques. REASONABLE LOVE. tion, I understand nothing. Grant,

however, that it were caprice ; from A dialogue.

the mistakes of caprice, we are the

most liable to suffer. Why did I By Holcroft.)

so readily take upon me to assert, i. YOU surely are the happiest lovely and admirable though I have of mankind.

found my Marianne to be, that she H. We are but ill judges of the was the only woman on earth who happiness of others.

could make me happy? L. Why do you make that ob L. The only one whom you know, servation ? Are you not married to at least the only one perhaps whom the woman on whom your love was you could hope to obtain : and you so fixed that, without her, frenzy, were fortunate enough to have her death, or some strange misery, must thrown as it were upon yoor mercy, have been your lot ?

and with the rare and exquisite enH. I am married to the woman joyment of being able to bestow hapwhom I do and shall for ever love, piness on her whom your heart and am much happier, indeed, than adored. Oh, that I had that power! I deserve to be.

H. The blessing was indeed inef. L. Pshaw ! that is talking idly. fable, and one that, while I have Your friends are reconciled; nay, life, will give me transport to recolthey are as happy as you are your- leci ! But to confirm one truth does self; they are rich ; you have your not destroy another. The desire to establishment; are empowered ho- make her mine was no less virtuous nourably to maintain your wife and than it was delightful to my heart. pursue your studies; and, if you I may, and I sincerely believe I can complain of unhappiness, well shall be happier with her than I

should have been with any other it. I did not : I meant only to woman. Still, however, so far as I say, I am not so happy as I might supposed the happiness and utility have been, and that, during a cer- of my life must be lost were we to tain period, my error gave me be separated, I was wrong, under strong affliction, which, however the infuence of violent passion, and well it might be deserved, required unable to recollect or perceive the every effort to support.

the truth. Virtuous and highly amiL. You talk now at your ease. able though Marianne be, she is not

H. You are a witness that I say the only virtuous and highly amiable nothing but the truth.

woman on earth. L. I do not mean to dispute the L. But the only one, I say, whom sincerity or the goodness of your perhaps you might be ever able to heart; but, having obtained the wo- obtain.

may I.

H. That is uncertain ; but suppose ther conformable to virtue nor to it true, it only happened to be my sound understanding. Should we not peculiar good fortune to meet with call the man absurd who, beholding her. And suppose the power to ob- a beautiful mansion and park, were tain her had not been mine? Must to say, that must be mine, or I shall I therefore have sunk under an ima be for ever wretched. I will continualginary loss? How many beautifully lament, I will continually accuse, objects are there in the world, how I know not whom or what; the many treasures, which for them- world, the fates, my stars, or any selves men might desire, but which other imaginary phantom ; or, if the they do not, because they are sensi. owner do not give it me, I will cast ble their desires would be vain ! In myself into the water that ornaromances, written perhaps with ments his lawn, and punish him by much imagination, but with little putting an end to my own sufferings! moral feeling, it is the essence of Would it not be as childish as if he the story that a knight should fall in were afterwards to add, my wretchlove with a princess. Men may readed ghost shall haunt him after I am such romances till they think them- dead, to punish him for his injustice selves permitted to fall in love with towards me. Believe me, there is the first princess they may happen no essential difference between such to see, or to hear described; but, a man and a desperate lover, and in such a case, their fellow-citizens the insanity and folly of the latter, must always consider them as mad. though more common, is not a whit I was not far from the same unhappy less egregious, than of the former. condition, when I refused to refer the decision of my fate to my parents, and married without their knowo ledge. My friend, my heart bleeds, For the Literary Magazine. when I recollect my own dishonest, undutiful, and unworthy behaa

FRENCH HISTORY. viour ! L. Your feelings were very differ THOUGH the records of

every ent before your marriage.

man's own country are those which H. They were strangely erro. he reads with most curiosity and deneous ! For a man to say there is light, yet, considering the matter as but one woman who is worthy of citizens of the world, and divesting me, there is but one with whom ourselves of local partialities, the I can be happy, or there is not history of no European nation can another on earth possessed of so enter into competition, in point of many perfections, is to be guilty of interest and importance, with that an absurd supposition with respect of France. If we look at the othe to himself, and to commit flagrant states of Europe, some of them have injustice towards the female sex. come into the vineyard, as it were, That people, before they marry, at the eleventh hour, and were barshould have a sincere and tender barians but the other day; some, affection for each other; that their again, have long ago run out their Jove should be founded on their mu race of fame, and protracted from tual admiration and excellence, and age to age an existence gradually that should be a mutual preference decaying ; some have never cultiof each other, is so just, that a vir. vated letters, and others never been tuous marriage can scarcely be made great in arms; some have been too without these requisites : but that miserable to produce legislators, and any one should say, I must have the others too happy to breed heroes ; person whom I now admire, or I some have had meagre annalists to never can admire any woman on chronicle great exploits, and others earth, and shall be guilty of some great historians to record their petty folly, or indiscretion, is surely nei. transactions. But, as the daration

of the French empire for thirteen your hearts, and the end of all your centuries far transcends the credible labours ? history of any other state ; so the T. For that you wish to cement events by which that period is filled us, by alliances and treaties of fraup are more various and important, ternity, with the horrid and inexohave been related by more numerous rable French and agreeable writers, and given H. The only expedient we have scope to the talents and virtues of left to elude the effects of your un. more distinguished men, than any natural and traitorous devotion to other; while the subject presents a Britain. still more interesting spectacle to T. But no wonder you act as traithe British and American philoso- tors to your country, and as tools pher, as the source from which and sycophants of France. Power much of our polity and jurisprudence, is the bribe held forth to you ; and, much of our literature, and almost to reign is worth your ambition, the whole of our system of manners though as slaves and puppets of a has been derived.

foreign power. No man can claim the title of a H. Whereas you more wisely literary or philosophical antiquarian, content yourself with money, and who has not drank pretty largely will barter the freedom of your from the copious stream of French country for a much safer considerahistory; a stream so copious, in. tion. Gold, British gold, is the spell deed, that the most diligent among that binds you. the learned natives themselves have 7. A pack of knaves! cajoling never been able, even in its smaller the people by lies and stratagems! branches, to exhaust it.

and labouring to build up your private fortunes, profligate and bankrupt as you are, upon the ruins of

your country! For the Literary Magazine. H. Better knaves than fools, say

I: better pursue measures by which THE SPIRIT OF POLITICAL CON a few shall prosper, than, like you,

to embrace those by which all shall

perish in common. The knave Written in 1799.

promotes his own interest, at least,

but the fool partakes himself of the I WENT lately into the company ruin which he heaps upon others. of two persons, whom I will cail Ye are blind guides, that fall first Tom and Harry, talking very loudly into the ditch into which you lead upon politics. The debate, as usual, others. Sampsons, that, in order to had proceeded from argument to destroy your enemies, pull the house sarcasm, and from raillery to railing, upon your own heads. and went on somewhat in this style : T. Not content with warring

Tom. Yes, your party aims at no- against all political order, ye labour, thing but to overthrow the present with a diabolical zeal, to destroy government.

the very names of morals and reliHarry. The very purpose of the gion. villanous faction whom we fight H. Whereas you are contented against.

merely with abolishing the things. T. To throw us all into anarchy, You leave us to console ourselves and celiver us over to a Robespier with the name, but take care that rian usurpation.

the substance shall be exchanged H. And who's to blame, if that for bigotry, intolerance, and superfalls out, merely from our struggles stition. to prevent you from establishing a T. Cursers of God ye are, and titled and hereditary despotism, well tools of the devil ! known to be the dearest wish of H. Fit companions, if so, for the


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