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what grammarians sometimes call the third degree of comparison. In this case we should say, the younger, the elder, the wiser, the better, &c.

The conjunction nor is frequently used after an affirmative sentence very improperly, in this manner:

It was impossible that a soldier could esteem so dissolute a sovereign, nor is it easy to conceal a just contempt. Gibbon, vol. II. 5. Modern Europe has produced several illustrious women, who have sustained with glory the weight of empire; nor is our own age destitute of such distinguished characters. Ib. 32. This treacherous calm was of short duration; nor could the Christians of the East place any confidence in the character of their sovereign. Ib. vol. II. 487. alibi passim. He was young enough to receive new impressions; nor can he be supposed

to have wanted curiosity. Johnson's Lives, vol. IV. 259. The poet leads us through the appearances of things as they are successively varied nor is the Naturalist without his part in the entertainment, Ib. p. 273. The versification is tolerable, nor can criticism allow it a higher praise. Ib. p. 438. By the Spectator it has once been quoted, nor do I recollect much other notice from its publication till now. Ib. vol

. I. p. 77: To put their materials to practical use is required an imagination capable of painting nature; nor is he yet a poet till, &c. Ib. p. 235. All is general and undefined; nor does he much interest or affect the auditor. Ib. vol. II. p. 340. This ode is by far the best Lyric composition in this collection; nor do I know where to find it equalled among the modern writers. Ib.

p. 245. It would, I think, be much better to begin the latter part

of these sentences without this conjunction, which only seems to form a connection, but in reality has no corresponding negative. The simple independent word not would be preferable: he does not much interest; I do not even know, &c.

Among other expressions, equally correct and refined, we meet with the following sentence in the Preface to Maty's Sermons: nor was he less esteemed than beloved :" which is just as proper, as it would be to say, Mr. Maty was a good man, nor was he a bad preacher. In this passage the learned editors of these discourses have likewise given us a curious antithesis, a counterpoise of love and esteem, adjusted with as much care as the old woman balances her scales in the


I have been more particular in noting this use of the conjunction nor, because it occurs very frequently. But vulgar usage can never justify an absurdity. The impropriety, I

believe, has never yet been observed; and some, perhaps, may think the foregoing expressions unexceptionable. I shall not dispute with critics who are so easily satisfied. 1797, July.


CXI. Addison's Observation on Virgil's ACHATES.


Sunderlund, July 17, IN an Essay on Friendship, No. 385 of the Spectator, the good Mr. Addison says, “I do not remember that Achates, who is represented as the first favourite, either gives his advice, or strikes a blow, through the whole Æneid.”

The learned Dr. Joseph Warton quotes this passage in his second volume of Virgil, p. 74*, but says nothing thereon. In the 12th book of the Æneid, I find, in line 459,

“Epulonem obtruncat Achates." To the character of the faithful Achates, as a soldier, I offer this tribute of acknowledgment, not having noticed it elsewhere in the course of my reading. 1798, July.

C. A.

CXII. Latin Preface intended by Burton for his History of



Hartshorn, Dec. 21. THE following unpublished original, which I promised you in my last, being doubtless intended by the author as a Preface to his Leicestershire, which he afterwards changed into the published English one, I hope you will think worthy preservation in your Magazine. “ Will’mus Burton, Lindliacus, Leicestrensis, amico lectori

salutem. “ Cum in omni genere cognitionis, scientia antiquitatum rerumque veterum et præteritarum sit dignissima et maxime laudabilis, tum, ut mihi videtur, earum conservatio, et ab ima oblivione sive interitu vindicatio æquam meretur laudem. Quum enim ego non ita pridem in libellum incidi qui antiquitates, monumenta, et multa alia notatu digna. comitatus Leicestrensis, tum etiam paucorum circumjacentium comitatuum, illustravit, hoc animo animadvertens meo, nil gratius quam prodesse multis, ejiciens omnem laboris metum, aggrediendum duxi, quem rudi penna et pennicillo (ut aiunt) indocto hic depinxi, et ut nemini ingratus viderer, narrabo breviter, per quos profeci et quorum labore congestus hic liber sit. Wils'mus Wyrley, patria Leicestrensis, natus, ut ipse refert, apud Seale, com. Leic. 4 Eliz. e gentilitiis Staff. oriundus, et per matrem e familia de Charnels, de Snareston, com. Leic. homo sedulus et honestus, et studio heraldico multum addictus, circa annum 1588, hunc laborem suscepit, nimirum perambulandi et colligendi antiquitates, arma gentilitia, cæteraque notatu digna, quæ in quavis ecclesia, locove celebriori infra comitatum Leicestrensem, et alibi forent spectanda, non sine impensis et labore gravi: sæpeque mihi retulit (familiariter enim cum eo egi) se totum comitatum Leicestrensem, topographica, historica, et heraldica, narratione, descriptum velle, Quantum hac in re pro. gressus est pro certo non habeo; vereor enim ne impeditus negotiis, vel aliis coactus causis, propositum intermiserit: circa annum 1599 profectus est in Scotiam ad bum, et, quantum nunc audio, circa palatium regis moratur: sed amplius de instituto suo hac in re pro comperto non te

* In the third edition, p. 117, E.

Quocirca quum tam commoda et necessaria sit hæc descriptio et unicuique perutilis, ego tametsi ex minimis infimus, ex indoctis indoctissimus, exemplo inductus doctissimi et reverendissimi viri Gul. Camdeni, cui Britannia tantum debet quantum orbis Ortelio, exemplo etiam Joh'is Nordeni et Ricardi Carewe, quorum hic Cornubiam, ille Middlesexiam. et Hertforuiam descripsit, tum etiam exemplo amici mei singularis et unice colendi viri literatissimi et ornatissimi Samsonis Erdeswick, de Sandon Staffordiensis, qui accuratissime, quantum unquam aliquis,comitatus Stafford. et Cestriæ descripsit, opus grande, doctissimum, laboratis. simeque navatum: sed, heu dolendum! immatura præreptus morte, in lucem non cdidit sicut in animo esset suo, cujus consilíi ego testis etiam esse possim; quod opus in cujus nunc latet manibus incertum est; audivi nuper, quod penes esset Tho. Gerrard, militem, utinam in lucem propediem prodiret in perpetuam reipublicæ utilitatem. His ego, inquam, instigatus exemplis, et his de causis permotus, pro

regem Jacovinciam Leicestrensem illustrandam suscepi; collegi quædam laceris chartis, et, quantum pro tam brevi temporis spatio licuit, antiquitates quasdam enodavi, insignia gentilitia et stemmata genealogica comparavi; sed vereor ne quod mihi proposueram assequi non possim; duobus enim fere abhinc annis incidi in morbum dictum phthisim sive tabem, quo nunc afficior, cujus diuturnitate continua, vires corporis ita fractæ et labefactatæ sunt, ut nec mihi facultas studendi, nec potestas investigandi aut scribendi, data sit: interim tamen quibus possim viribus operam intendo, ut hic comitatus, qui a nobilibus præclarissimis, si quis in Anglia alter, et multis antiquitatibus refertur, inter reliquos emicet, caputque elevet suum,


quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi." Faxit Deus, ut in studiosorum et candidatorum gratiam, hanc descriptionem, usque ad summum desiderium, quod avide cupio et aveo, perficiam et perfectis partibus absol vam. Interea temporis (amice lector) hoc opus æque acci- . pito, quod non sine magno labore et sumptu collectum fuit, et quantum ego pro virili comprehendere possim, mei incu. ria vel negligentia omissum non erit. Vale.

Lindley, 7 Apr. 1604."

On the opposite page is the following:

“ Collectio armorum, insignium gentilitiorum, tumulorum, et eorum inscriptionum, monumentorum, et cæterarum antiquitatum, in singula fere ecclesia, templo, monasterio, aliove loco memorabili, in comitatu Leicestrensi, quas ætas et tempus ad nos devenire permiserunt, hic descripta, labore et studio plerumque Will’mi Wyrley Leicestrensis.

“ Accessit etiam collectio antiquitatum in quibusdam ecclesiis in comitatibus circumjacentibus, cæterisque ubicunque labore prædicti W. Wyrley*.

“ Nomina eorum, qui huic cumulo aliquid adjecerunt.
“ S. E. Sampson Erdeswick, de Sandon, Staff.
“ H. P. Humfredus Purefoy, de Barwell, Leic.
60 W. B. Will’mus Burton, de Lindley, Leic.

☆ Wyrley began his survey in 1569. His original MS. containing also many churches in Staffordshire, Northamptonshire, York, Rutland, and Warwickshire, is now in the library of the Heralds college: bearing the mark V. 197. It appears also that he afterwards accompanied Burton in his survey of the churches there in the years 1603, 1608, &c. In V. No. 127, in the same library, is a fair and beautiful copy of both their labours in this way, with the aris, monuments, and antiquities, well drawn. EDIT.

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« H. A. Hieronimus Aston, de Leicester. “ T. P. Thomas Purefoy, de Barwell, Leic. “ W. S. Will’mus Smith, Londinensis. “ N. C. Nicholaus Charles, Londinensis. “ R. C. Robertus Cooke, Clarentius Rex Armorum. “ N. D. Nicolaus Dethick, Windsor Heraldus. “ Edmundus Gunter, ædis Christi in Oxon. scholaris. “ T. I. Thomas Ingram, de Hinkley, Leic. “ W. Bel. Will’mus Belcher, de Gildesburg, Northampt.”

Yours, &c.

S. Shaw, jun.

P. S. The following original letter (found amongst the same MSS.) may likewise merit perpetuiry.

To his worthy friend Wm. Burton, Esq. at Lindley, these. “ Worthy Sir,

Aug. 5, 1639. “ I have herewithall safely returned your deedes, which I borrowed, with many thankes; but I hope you have yet a second course for me of choiser stuffe; for I assure you, most of these are not worthy the custodye you bestow on them. I was lately at Grendon, where I had sight of some evidences of Mr. Chetwynd's: and amongst them I find the covenants betwixt Aliva, the widow of Sir Wm. Chetwynd, of Ingestre, knt. and Wm. Purefoy; viz. that William, the sonne and heire of the said Wm. Purefoy, shall marry Margaret, the daughter of the said Aliva, before the feast of the Exaltation of the holy crosse next.

Dat. at Churchwaven, on the feast of Bartholomew, 21 R, II. And in the church of Grendon, in a South window, there are two pictures; the one of a man in armour, the other of a woman, each havinge upon their

surcotes these armes, Quarterly, i and 4, Gu. a chevron Erm. between 3 leopards' faces Or. 2d and 3d, Sa.on a fess Ar. (should be Gu. I thinke) 3 leopards' faces Or. between 3 saltires Ar. Under the man the same in a shield; the scutcheon under the woman is broken. I find likewise amongst his evidences a very fayre deede, the seale perfect in greene wax, whereby Wm. Basset grants to Robert Grendon, in frank marriage with Emma his daughter, totam terram de feodo suo in villa de Houdeby, cum homagia et servicio d'ni Steph. de Seagrave. Amongst others, Tho. de Esteley is a witnesse. I take it to be in the beginning of H. UI. tyme. The armes in the seale are these, 5 piles a cantop varie. I am this morninge goinge to my honoured friend

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