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The Resurrection of the Body,

Cùm omnes HIS Article was anciently delivered and acknowledged * by all Ecclefiæ ita Churches, only with this difference, that whereas in other places facramentum it was expressed in general terms, the resurrection of the flesh, Symboli trathey of the Church of Aquileia, by the addition of a Pronoun quam dixerant

propounded it to every single Belicver in a more particular way pecca:orum reof expression, the resurrection of this flesh. And though we have transla- Cant "carnis ted it in our English Creed, the resurrection of the body; yet neither the resurrectioGreek nor Latin ever delivered this Article in those terms, but in these, the nem ; fancia t resurrection of the flesh; because there may be ambiguity in the one, in Ecclefia, relation to the celestial and spiritual Bodies, but there can be no collusion in ubi tradit car

nis resurrecthe other. Only it will be necessary, for shewing our agrcement with the

tionem, addit ancient Creeds, to declare that as by Flesh they understood the body of Man, unius pronoand not any other flesh ; fo we, when we translate it Body, understand no minis lyllaother body but such a body of flesh, of the same nature which it had before eo quod cateit was by death separated from the Soul. And this we may very

And this we may very well and ri dicunt, carproperly do, because our Church hath already taken care therein, and given tionem, nos us a fit occasion fo to declare our selves. For though in the Creed it felf, dicimus hujus

carnis refurused at Morning and Evening Prayer, the Article be thus delivered, [the re

rectionem, furrection of the body] yet in the Form of publick Baptisin, where it is pro- Ruffin. Apol. pounded by way of Question to the God-fathers in the Name of the Child adv. Hier. Sato be baptized, it runneth thus, [Dost thou believe ---- the resurrection of the tis cautas flesh?] We see by daily experience that all Men are mortal ; that the Body, left jectione fidem by the Soul, the salt and sife thereof, putrifieth and consumeth, and accord- Symboli Esing to the sentence of old, returneth unto Duft: But these Bodies, as frail docet, quæ in and mortal as they are, consisting of this corruptible Flesh; are the fub- eo quod à cæject of this Article, in which we profess to believe the resurrection of the teris traditur, body.

rectionem, uno

addito pronomine tradit, hujus carnis resurreftionem. Id. in symb. Sive ergo corpus resurrecturuna dicimus, fecundùm Apoftolam dicimus (hoc enim nominc ufus est) live carnem dicimus, fecundum traditionem Symboli confitemụr. Idem Prol. in Apolog. Pamphili.

The Greeks always use Caexos evésarl, the Latins Carnis Resurrectionem. And this was to be observed, because, being we read of spiritual Bodies, fome would acknowledge the Resurrection of the Body, who would deny the Resurrection of the Flesh. of this s. Jerome gives an Account, and withal of the words of the Creed. Exempli caufà pauca fubjiciam, Credimus, inquiunt, resurrectionem futuram corporum. Hoc fi bene dicatur, pura confessio eft; sed quia corpora sunt coelestia, & terrestria, & aer ifte & aura' tenuis juxta naturam fuam corpora nominantur, corpus: ponunt, non carnem, ut Orthodoxus corpus audiens carnem putet, Hærcticus fpiritum recognoscat. Hæc eniin eoruin est prima decipula ; quæ fi deprehenfa fuerit, inftruunt alios dolos, & innocentiam fimulant, & malitiosos nos vocant, & quafi fimpliciter credentes ajunt, Credimus resurrectionem carnis. Hoc verò cum dixerint, vulgus indoctum putat, fibi fufficere, maximè quia idipfum & in Symboio creditur. Ep. 55.

clelia nostra

ad Pam. Ocean.

When we created concerning the Resurrection of Christ, we delivered the # Page 254. proper notion and nature of the Resurrection in general, that from thence we might conclude that our Saviour did truly rise from the dead. Being now to explain the Resurrection to come, we shall not need to repeat what we then delivered, or make an addition as to that particular, but referring the Reader to that which is there explained, it will be necessary for us only to consider what is the Resurrection to come, who are they which shall be raised, how we are assured they shall rise, and in what manner all shall be performed. And this Resurrection hath some peculiar difficulties different from those which might seem to obstruct the belief of Christ's Resurrection. For the Body of the Son of God did never see corruption; all the parts thereof

Bb b 2




8, 10.

continued in the fame condition in which they were after his most precious
Soul had left them, they were only deposited in the Sepulchre, otherwise
the Grave had no power over them. But other mortal Bodies, after the Soul

hath deserted them, are left to all the fad effects of their Mortality: We may Joh. 17. 14, say to corruption, thou art my father; to the worm, thou art my mother

and my sister; our Corps go down to the bars of the pit, and rest together
in the dust. Our death is not a simple dissolution, not a bare feparation of
Soul and Body, as Christ's was, but our whole tabernacle is fully dissolved,
and every part thereof crumbled into dust and alhes, scattered, mingled and
confounded with the dust of the Earth. There is a description of a kind of

Resurrection in the Prophet Ezekiel, in which there is supposed a valley
Ezek. 7.1, , full of bones, and there was a noise, and behold a shaking, and the bones

came together, bone to his bone, the finews and the flesh came upon them,
and the skin covered them above, and their breath came into them, and
they lived and stood upon their feet. But in the Resurrection to come we
cannot suppose the Bones in the Valley, for they are. dissolved into dust as
well as the other parts.

We mult therefore undertake to shew that the Bodies of Men, howsoever
corrupted, wheresoever in their parts dispersed, how long foever dead, shall
hereafter be recollected in themselves, and united to their own Souls. And
for the more facil and familiar proceeding in this fo highly concerning truth,
I lhall make use of this method: First, To prove that such a Resurrection is
not in it self impossible. Secondly, To thew that it is upon general Conside-
rations highly probable. Thirdly, To demonstrate that it is upon Christian
Principles infallibly certain. It is not in it self impossible, therefore no Man
can absolutely deny it; it is upon natural and moral grounds highly proba-
ble, therefore all Men may rationally expect it; it is upon Evangelical Princi-
ples infallibly certain, therefore all Christians must firmly believe it.

First, I confefs * Philosophers of old did look upon the Resurrection of the * Pliny reco

Body as impossible, and though some of them thought the Souls of the dead koning up did live again, yet they never conceived that they were united to the fame shole things Bodies, and that their Flesh should rise out of the dust that it might be conthought not to joined to the Spirit of a Man. We read of a certain Philosophers of the

the Epicureans and of the Stoicks, who encountred S. Paul; and when they
Power of God; heard of the resurrection they mocked him, some saying, that he seemed to
two, morta- be a fetter forth of strange Gods, becaufe he preached unto them Jesus and
les æternitate the Resurrection. But as the ancient Philosophers thought a Creation im-
revocare de- possible, because they looked only upon the constant works of Nature, among
functos. 1. 2. which they never find any thing produced out of nothing, and yet we have
Ci 7 And Ef already proved a Creation not only possible, but performed; so did they
Pythagorean, think a Resurrection of corrupted, diffolved and dissipated Bodies to be as
get absolutely impossible, because they could never observe any action or operation in Na-
in the power ture, which did or could produce any fuch effect ; and yet we being not tied
of God, for so to the consideration of Nature only, but estimating things possible and im-
be makes a possible by the power of God, will easily demonstrate that there is no impof-
the Eume- sibility that the dead should rise.

Πίδας κ αν λύσειεν, έσι τάδ' άκα,
Και κάρια πολλή με χανή λυτήριο. .

δ' έπαδαν ειμ' ανασάση κόνις
"Araz Javóv70, štis is' drésaris.
Τέτων επωδας εκ εποίησεν σαλης
Ουμός, τάδ' άλλα πάντ' άνω τε και κάτω
Στρέφων τίθησιν, δεν ασθμαίνων μένα.

fíchyl. Eumenid.
Uti anima interire dicatur, ab Epicureis obfervatur: Ut carnis restitutio negetur, de una omniuin Philofophorum
fcholá sumitur. Tertull.

Afts 17.18.

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For, if the Resurrection of the dead be impossible, it must be so in one of these respect; either in reference to the Agent, or in relation to the Patients either because it is a work of so much difficulty, that there neither is nor can be any agent of wisdom, power and activity fufficient to effect it; or else be cause the Soul of Man is so far separated by death from the Body, and the parts of the Body so much dissolv'd from themselves, and altered from their nature, that they are absolutely incapable by any power to be united as they

Either both or one of these two must be the reason of the impossibility, if the Resurrection be impossible ; for if the Body be capable of being raised, and there be any agent of sufficient ability to raise it, the Resurrection of it must be possible.

Now if the Resurrection were impossible in respect of the agent which should effect it, the impossibility must arise * either from an insufficiency of * T adubaloia knowledge or of power; for if either the agent know not what is to be done, mar amb els or if he know it, but hath no power to do it, either he will not attempt it, roõrov i cx or if he do, must fail in the attempt; but that, of which he hath perfect give me the origine knowledge, and full power to effect, cannot be impossible in relation to the ex*iö subeping agent endued with such knowledge, armed with such


αρκεσαν μη

özese wegs as sü il tavo gebúor. Oys de voor to do frezy ogór? av sx év őr" ifaçãous, šts ar viñoue to a crev denbein öreg á vori

ore γινώσκων καλώς το ποιηθησόμενον και πόθεν γένοιτ' άν και πώς, διώαμιν 3 και μηδ' όλως έχων προς το ποιήσαι το γινωσκόμμών και μη αρκήσαν έχων, εκ αν είχωρήσαε τ' άρχω, ζωφρονοίη και τ' ιδίαν επισκέψη δαμιν, είχαρήσας και αισκίπλως και αν ixilehitse to dogav. Athenagoras de Resurrectione.

ποιήσαι καλώς


Now when we say the Resurrection is possible, we say not it is fo to Men or Angels, or any creature of a limited knowledge or finite Power, but we attribure it to God with whom nothing is impossible ; his understanding is infinite, he knoweth all the Men which ever lived since the foundation, or shall live unto the dissolution of the World, he knoweth whereof all things were made, from what dust we came, into what duft we Mall return. Our Pfal.139.15, substance was not hid from thee, O Lord, when we were made in secret, and curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth; thine eye's did see our substance, yet being, imperfect, and in the book were all our members written, which in continuance were fashioned when as yet there was none of them. Thus every particle in our Bodies, every dust and atome which belongeth to us, is known to him that made us. The generation of out flesh is clearly seen by the Father of Spirits, the augmentation of the same is known to him in whom we live, move, and have our being ; the dissolution of our tabernacles is perceived by that God by whom the

very hairs of
our head are all numbred, and without whom one Sparrow Mall not fail mar. 1o. 22;
to the ground. He which numbereth the sands of the Sea, knoweth all the 30.
scattered bones, feeth into all the graves and tombs, searcheth all the repofi-
tories and dormitories in the Earth, knoweth what dust belongeth to each Bo-
dy, what Body to each Soul. Again, As his all-seeing eye observeth every
particle of dissolved and corrupted Man, so doth he also fee and know all ways
and means by which these scattered parts should be united, by which this
ruined Fabrick hould be recompensed; he knoweth how every bone should
be brought to its old Neighbour-bone, how every sinew may be re-embroidered
on it; he understandeth what are the proper parts to be conjoined; what is
the proper gluten by which they may become united. The Resurrection
therefore cannot be impossible in relation to the agent upon any deficiency
of knowledge how to affect it.

And as the wisdom is infinite, so the power of this agent is illimited; for
God is as much omnipotent as omniscient. There can be no opposition made


against hiin, because all power is his ; nor can he receive a check against whoin there is no resistance: All creatures must not only suffer, but do what he will have them; they are not only passively, but actively obediential. There is no atome of the dust ot ashes but must be where it pleaseth God, and be applied and make up what and how it fecmeth good to him. The Resurrection therefore cannot be impossible in relation unto God upon any disability to effect it, and consequently there is no impossibility in reference to the agent, or him who is to raise us.

Secondly, the Resurrection is not impossible in relation to the patient, because where we look upon the power of God, nothing can be impossible but that which involveth a contradiction, as we before have proved ; and there can be no contradiction in this, that he which was, and now is not, should hereafter be what before he was. It is so far from a repugnancy, that it rather containeth a rational and apparent possibility, that Man who was once dust, becoming dust, Thould become Man again. Whatsoever we lose in Death, is not lost to God: As no creature could be made out of nothing but by him, so can it not be reduced into nothing but by the fame : Though

therefore the parts of the body of Man be dissolved, yet they perish not; they Non fola å

lose not their o vn entity when they part with their relation to humanity ; nima seponi- they are * laid up in the secret places, and lodged in the chambers of nature, tur, habet & and it is no more a contradiction that they hould become the parts of the nus interim, fame body of Man to which they did belong, than that after his death they in aquis, in should become the parts of any other body, as we see they do. Howsoalitibus in ever they are scattered, or wheresoever lodged, they are t within the knowtiis ; cùm in ledge and power of God, and can have no repugnancy by their separation to hæc diffolvi be re-united when and how he pleaseth. The firft dust of which Man in vala trant was made, was as far from being flesh as any alhes now or dust can be; it funditur. Ter-,was only an omnipotent Power which could mould that into a human Body, tull. de Refur, and breathe into the nostrils of it the breath of Life. The same Tu perirefore, which must always be, can still make of the dust returning from the Deo credis fi bodies of Men unto the earth, human bones and flesh, as well as of the dust noftris hebeti- which first came from the Earth: For if it be not easier, it is most certainly bus fubtrahi- as easie to make that to be again which once hath been, as to make that tur ? Corpus to be which before was not. When there was no Man, God made him of omne, five arescit'in pul- the Earth; and therefore when he returns to Earth, the fame God can make verem, five in him Man again. The Resurrection therefore cannot be impossible, which is humorem

our first Conclusion: folvitur, vel in cineiem comprimitur, vel in nidorem tenuatur, subducitur nobis, fed Deo elementorum cuftodi reservatur, Minutius Felix in Ottavio. Omnia quæ discèrpuntur, & in favillas quasdain putrefcunt, integra Deo funt, in illa enim elementa nìurdi eunt unde primò venerunt. S. Auguftin in Pfal. enarrar. 62. † Abfit autem üt ad resuscitanda corpora vitæque reddenda non poflit omnipotentia Creatoris omnia revocare quæ vel bestia, vel ignis abfumpfit; vel in pulverem cineremque collapsum, vel in humorem folutum, vel in auras eft exhalatum. Abfit ut sinus ullus, fecretumque naturæ ita recipiat aliquid fubtractum fenfibus noftris, ut omnium Creatoris aut latcat cognitionem, aut effugiat poteftatem. S. Aug. de Civitate Dei, lib. 22, cap. 20.

Recogita quid fueris antequam efses, utique nihil. Meminiffes enim fi quid fuisses. Qui ergo nihil fueras priusquam efses, idem nihil, factus cum effe defieris, cur non pofsis esse rursus de nihilo, ejusdem Authoris voluntátė, qui te voluit elle de nihilo? 'Quid novi tibi eveniet? Qui non eras, factus es; cùm iterum 'non eris, fies. Redde, fi potes, rationem quà factus es, & tunc require quâ fies ? Et tamen faciliùs utique fies quod fuifti aliquando, quia æquè non difficile factus es quod nunquam fuisti aliquando. Ter tull. Apol. c.48. Utique idoneus eft reficere qui fecit. Quanto plus eft feciffe quam refeciffe, initium dediffe quam reddidiffe ; ita restitutionem carnis faciliorem credas inftitutione. Idem de Refur, tarn. c. 11. Difficilius eft id quod non fit incipere, quam id quod fuerit iterare. Minutius Felix in Octavio. : Utique plus est facere quod nunquam fuit, quàm reparare quod fuit

. Quomodo ergo impoflibile elle dicis, ut Deus, qui hominem formavit ex nihilo reformet ? Quomodo nas. fufcitare non poteft converfos in pulverein, qui etiamfi in nihilum reditemus, facere poterat ut essemus, ficut-effecit nos effe, çům antea nunquam fuiffemus? . Ang. de verbis Apoft. Serm. 19. To the purpose N

: Secondly, The Resurrection is not only in it felf possible, fo thar no Man with any reason can absolutely deny it; but it is also upon many general Considerations highly probable, so that all Men may very rationally expect it.

power there

If we consider the principles of Humanity, the parts of which we all conliit, we cannot conceive this present Life to be proportionable to our composition. The Souls of Mon as they are immaterial, so they are immortal; and being once created by the Father of Spirits, they receive a fubfistence for Eternity; the Body is framed by the fame God to be a Companion for his Spirit, and a Man born into the World confisteth of these two. Now the Life of the most aged Person is but short, and many far ignobler Creatures of a longer duration. Some of the fowls of the air, feveral of the fishes of the sea, many of the beasts of the field, divers of the plants of the earth, are of a more durable constitution, and out-live the Sons of Men. And. can we think that such material and mortal, that such inunderstanding Souls Thould by God and Nature be furnished with Bodies of so long permansion, and that our Spirits should be joined unto Flesh fo subject to corruption, so suddenly dissolvable, were it not that they lived but once, and so enjoyed that life for a longer season, and then went Soul and Body to the same destruction, never to be restored to the same Subsistence ; but when the Soul of man which is immortal, is forced from its Body in a Morter time, nor can by any means conrinue with it half the Years which many other Creatures live, it is because this is not the only Life belonging to the Sons of Men, and so the Soul may at a shorter warning leave the Body' which it shall resume again,

Again, If we look upon our selves as Men, we are free agents, and therefore capable of doing good or evil, and consequently ordinable unto reward or punishment. The Angels who are above us, and did fin, received their punishment without a Death, because being only Spirits they were subject to no other dissolution than annihilation, which cannot consist with longer fuffering Punishment; those who continued in their station were rewarded and confirmed for all Eternity: And thus all the Angels are incapable of a Resurrection. The Creatures which are below us, and for want of freedom cannot sin, or act any thing morally either good or evil, they cannot deserve after this Life either to be punished or rewarded, and therefore when they die they continue in the state of Death for ever. Thus those who are above us shall not rise from the dead, because they are punished or rewarded without dying; and where no death is, there can be no Resurrection from the dead. Thole which are below us, are neither capable of reward or punishment for any thing acted in this Life, and therefore though they die, yet fhall they never rise, because there is no reason for their Resurrection. But Man by the nobleness of his better part being free to do what is good or evil while he liveth, and by the frailty of his Body being subject to death, and yet after that, being capable in another World to receive a reward for what he hath done well, and a punishment for what he hath done ill in the flesh, it is necessary that he should rise from the dead to enjoy the one, or suffer the other. For there is not only no just retribution rendred in this Life to Man, but confidering the ordinary condition of things, it cannot be. For it is possible, and often cometh to pass, * that one Man may commit fuch Sins as all the punish- abyesv ord Com

+ Παρίημι και ments in this World can no way equalizethem. It is just, that he who sheddeth Gousuns in een Man's blood, by Man his blood thould be shed; but what death can sufficiently

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roule sa s dort retaliate the many Murthers committed by one notorious Pirate, who may - Púcis cael cast many thousands over-board; or the Rapines and Assassinations of one Re- xsiy oid Tea bel or Tyrant, who may destroy whole Nations ? It is fit that he

who blaf- Cums? ego diz phemeth God should die; but what equivalent punishment can he receive caçótegar $cin this Life, who shall constantly blafpheme the Name of God, destroy his gapay at higjen Priests and Temples, abolish his worship, and extirpate his Servants? What Athenagords: is then more proper, considering the Providence of a most just God, than to


μέλημάτων. .

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