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to be more happy, and complain that upon them alone has fallen the whole load of human sorrows. Would they look with a more impartial eye on the world, they would see themselves surrounded with sufferers, and find that they are only drinking out of that mixed cup, which Providence has prepared for all.


VARIETY OF EXPRESSION (continued.) Vary the expression in the following sentences by using synonymous words and phrases :


Wrath kindles wrath. Anger inflames anger. Strife begets strife. One angry passion excites another.


1. The avaricious man has no friend.
2. It is not easy to love those whom we do not esteem.
3. Few have courage to correct their friends.
4. Passion swells by gratification.
5. The great source of pleasure is variety.
6. Knowledge is to be gained only by study.

7. Listen to the affectionate counsels of your parents; treasure up their precepts ; respect their riper judgment; and enjoy, with gratitude and delight, the advantages resulting from their society.

8. Come, let us go forth into the fields; let us see how the flowers spring; let us listen to the warbling of the birds, and sport ourselves upon the new grass.

The winter is over and gone ; the buds come out upon the trees, and the green leaves sprout. The young animals of every kind are sporting about; they feel themselves happy; they are glad to be alive ; they thank Him that has made them alive. They can thank Him in their hearts, but we can thank Him with our tongues. The birds can warble, and the young lambs can bleat ; but we can open our lips in his praise : we can speak of all his goodness. Therefore we will thank Him for ourselves, and we will thank Him for those that cannot speak.

9. Sir Isaac Newton possessed a remarkably mild and even temper. This great man, on a particular occasion, was called out of his study to an adjoining apartment. A little dog, named Diamond, the constant but incurious attendant of his master's re. searches, happened to be left among the papers, and threw down a lighted candle, which consumed the almost finished labours of some years. Sir Isaac soon returned, and had the mortification to behold his irreparable loss. But with his usual self-possession he only exclaimed, “Oh, Diamond ! Diamond ! thou little knowest the mischief thou hast done.”



Let one Pupil name a subject, and each of the others, at the suggestion of the Teacher, successively give a word or phrase.

Let the words and phrases be written down as they are suggested, and afterwards re-written so as to make

sense :


Name a subject. The horse. A noun common to the horse and all other animals of the same kind ? Quadruped. An adjective descriptive of some property in the horse ? Beautiful. An adverb to increase the signification of beautiful. Most. Is the horse the most beautiful of quadrupeds ? He appears to be so.

The horse, quadruped, beautiful, most, appears.

A noun which refers to the largeness or smallness of the horse ? Size. A noun applicable to his skin? Smoothness. A noun ap. plicable to his motions ? Ease. A noun applicable to his shape? Symmetry. Adjectives descriptive of the horse, to qualify these nuuns? Fine, glossy, graceful, exact. What do all these properties entitle the horse to? Distinction.

Size, skin, smoothness, motions, ease, shape, symmetry, fine, glossy, graceful, exact, entitle, distinction.

* Pupils may be exercised, according to the two preceding sections, on their daily readi


Of all quadrupeds the horse appears to be the most beautiful. His fine size, the glossy smoothness of his skin, the graceful ease of his motions, and the exact symmetry of his shape, entitle him to this distinction.*

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A SENTENCE is any number of words joined together in such a manner as to form a complete proposition.

Every complete proposition or sentence contains a subject, or thing spoken of, and a predicate, or what is said of the subject.

When the affirmation is not limited to the subject, a complete proposition or sentence also contains an object.

The subject of a sentence is always a noun, or two or more nouns joined together; a pronoun, or pronouns ; the infinitive of a verb; or a part of a sentence.

The predicate is always a verb, or a clause containing a verb.

The object is always a noun, a pronoun, the infinitive or present participle of a verb, or a part of a sentence.

The principal rules to be observed in joining words together in sentences, are as follows:

I. A verb agrees with its subject or nominative in


In answer to his suggestions and questions the Teacher will get a variety of words, in selecting the most appropriate of which he may exercise the judgment and taste of his Pupils. He may also make them vary the expression according to Sections VIII. and ix. The exercises in this Section may be extended to any length.

number and person; as,

I write;' " He reads;'

. They learn.'

1. Collective nouns are followed by verbs in the singular or in the plural number, according as unity or plurality of idea is expressed ; as, “The nation is powerful;' "My people do not consider.'

2. When the infinitive mood, or a part of a sentence, is used as the subject of an affirmation, the verb is in the third person singular; as, ' To obey their parents is the duty of children.'

3. Two or more nominatives in the singular number, joined by the conjunction and, take the verb in the plural ; as, ' John and James are at school.'

4. Two or more nominatives in the singular number, joined by or or nor, take the verb in the singular; as, . Either John or James is at school.'

5. Two or more nominatives in different numbers, joined by or or nor, take the verb in the plural ; as, Neither the boys nor I are in fault.'

6. When two or more nominatives in the same number, but of different persons, are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the last ; as, ' Neither thou nor I am in fault.'

7. When two or more nominatives of different persons are joined by the conjunction and, the verb agrees with the first person in preference to the second, and with the second in preference to the third; as, 'You and I have learned our lessons ; ' " You and he have received your reward.'

8. When two nouns in the singular number are connected by the preposition with, or by such words and expressions as like, as well as, &c., the verb is in the singular; as, ' Diligence, with sobriety, secures independence;' Cæsar, as well as Cicero, was eloquent.'

9. A noun or a pronoun joined to a participle, without being dependent on any other word in the sentence, is in the nomina. tive absolute; as, ' The wind being favourable, we set sail.'

II. The indefinite article is placed before nouns in the singular number only; as, A day;' An hour.'

The definite article is placed before nouns in either the singular or the plural number; as, 'The year; « The seasons.

1. The indefinite article is placed before nouns signifying more than one, when they are used collectively; as, A dozen ;' ' A score.'

2. The indefinite article is placed before nouns in the plural number, when they are qualified by numeral adjectives; as, ' A hundred pounds; ' ' A few books.'

3. When several nouns are connected, some of which take a before them, and some an, the indefinite article is repeated before each of them ; as, ' A horse, an ass, an ox, and a mule.'

4. When two or more nouns or adjectives are connected, the article is placed only before the first of them, if they are applied to the same person or thing; as, ' The pious and learned Newton.'

5. When two or more nouns or adjectives are connected, the article is placed before each of them, if they are applied to different persons or things; as, The brave Sydney and the generous Howard.'

6. The definite article is sometimes placed before adverbs in the comparative degree ; as, " The more diligently you learn your lesson, the sooner will you be able to repeat it.'

III. Nouns or Personal Pronouns applied to the same persons or things, are put in the same case; as, Paul the apostle.'

1. A noun and a personal pronoun applied to the same person or thing, cannot be nominatives to the same verb: thus, Julius Cæsar, he was killed in the senate-house,' ought to be, Julius Cæsar was killed in the senate-house.'

2. A noun is sometimes put in apposition with a part of a sentence; as, 'You read very indistinctly, a habit which you should endeavour to correct.'

3. A noun or a pronoun which answers a question must be in the same case with the noun which asks it; as, 'Who told you ? He. "Whose books are these ? Mine.'

IV. When two nouns, or a noun and a pronoun, denote the possessor, and the thing possessed, the name of the former is put in the possessive case; as, “ My brother's book.'

1. The name of the thing possessed is sometimes omitted ; as, · He went to see St Peter's,' that is, 'St Peter's Church.'

2. When the possessor is described by two or more nouns.

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