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For the Montbly Magazine,

dows, abound in riches; but most of

their projuctions remain unprofitable, till ACCOUNȚ of the RAW MATERIALS and foreign industry has been exercised upon

MERCANTILE COMMODITIES which them; then they return to the foil which enter into the CONSUMPTION


gave them birth, with the colly improveCOMMERCE of RUSSIA.

ments, however, of faision and manner. R

USSIA contains within its territory Russia might make a far more considerable

an immente quantity of productions, exportation of a multiplicity of articles, . the

greater part of which is to the inha- such as iron, copper, wood, corn, cattle, bitants

, as it were, an unknown treasure. coals, fish, wines, fruits, tobacco, leather, Ita mountains, rivers, forests, and meas heinp, peliry, salt, alumn, sulphur; with


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the productions of the southerly climates, and hides, form a principal article in the fuch as cotton, filk, gold, silver, horses, commerce of Rullia. In 1790, beef was camels, honey, ichthyocolla, or ifinglass, fold to the amount of 81,000 roubles, çaltor, rhubarb, wool, goats horns, feal. and was only purchased to the amount of íkins, peltry, falt petre, linseed, and lin- 25,000 ; leather was sold to the amount feed-oil, pitch, tallow, &c.

of 2,500,000 roubles, and tallow to the The balance of trade, however, always amount of 1,103,009 roubles. The inclines in favour of Russia. However fouthern districts of the Russian Empire, dear the natives may acquire their mer. Alltracan, Orenburg, the Governments cantile commodities, they have nothing to of Asoph, Permi, and Twer, raise a pro, lole, because they do not purchase-they digious number of cattle, the keeping of only exchange. In the year 1789, there which is not to burde fome as agriculture, was shipped from the port of Archangel, because nature defrays the whole charge. for Amiterdam, $1,783 tons of linseed A good management of the Sheries for Hamburgh, 10,987 tons of rye, and would afford very confiderable profits on 17,400 tons of wheat; for Lisbon, 58,812 isinglars and caviar ; these species of sturtons of wheat, and 1803 tons of rye ; for gécn are very common in the Wolga. Barcelona, 24,110 tons of rye ; and for The sale of caviar may produce about Marseilles,' 3673 tons of rye. The tribe, 50,000 roubles ; and that of ifinglass or nation, of Kirguis alone purchase, more than 80,000 ditto. The mouths of every year, five thousand sheep, the tallow the rivers Oby and Jenisci abound like. of which they vend abroad.

wise in this sort of fish. The exportation In 1775, Ruffia gained, by a commer of filh-oil, which amounts to about cial exportation of thirty-two millions, 100,000 rubles annually, is, in like man. the sum of nine millions of roubles; and ner, susceptible of a considerable augmenin 1789, a larger {um, with a commercial tation. There is a whale-fishery at the stock of thirty-fix millions. The expor- entrance of the Gulpli de Kola. tation, from 1780 to 1790, amounted,

Russia sells skins to the value of more for Petersburgh alone, to more than thir: than eight hundred thousand roubles, and teen millions of roubles, and the importa- buys only to the amount of fifty thoui, tion to hardly twelve millions. The fand. The discovery of the Kurile Ifles, reader may form an idea of the augmenta- the Aleutic, and those called the Fox tion of this commerce, by the following Illands, is of incalculable importance for progressive lift :

commerce, in respect of their valuable In 1780, the entries amounted to peltry ; these islands swarın with foxes, 8,600,000 roubles ; and the exportation zibelines, or sables, hares, &c. In 1788, to 10,900,000. In 1785, the entries to a society of Russian merchants brought 10,000,000 roubles ; and the exportation from thence to Kamschatka 585 Olters, to 13,400,000. In 1790, the entries to 2747 blue and black foxes, and 6438 15,600,000 ; and the exportation to common foxes. In


there 19,000,000. And in 1795, to 18,500,000, shipped from the port of Petersburgh and the exportation to 21,300,000. alone $72,843 hare-skins, 42,371 pieces

Rullia has three grand resources, of petit-gris, 1873 bear-skins, 2740 er. whereby she may continually carry on an mines, 6238. foxes-skins, 272 wolvesadvantageous coinmerce with foreigners. skins, and 393 wild-cats-lkins; to which a. The augmentation of her produce. may be added, the beautiful sheep-skins 2. The working up of raw materials, of the Kirguis and of the Kalmucks. hitherto abandoned to the industry of fo. The productions of the forests are no reigners ;-and 3. The inears of prodı- less considerable. Riga furnishes annucing within herself fuch articles as the ally 250,000 mars, and the exportation of now receives from abroad. These three this article alone amounts for all Russia co points require some further illustration.

300,000 mats. It is difficult to conceive Among the mercantile commodities, where they gtt bark enough to fabricate the contumption of which has been aug- them. In timber for building, they exmented in the interior, by luxury, to the port to about 1,500,0000 roubles; ir detriment of exportation, may be reckon. pitch and refin, about 106,900 roubles ed a number of articles, such as oxen, in potath, 78,000 roubles. The forests leather,' "tallow, ifinglass, peltry, tim about Okka, Mokscha, and Kama, faber, hemp, &c. If the quantity of these mous for their lime-trees, furnish fine commodities were augmented, the ha- wax, excellent honey, and much bark. Jance of foreign commerce would be ef- of raw hemp, there is annually exported factually insured ; in fac?, leather, oxen, to the amount of more than 30,000,000



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mubles ; in cordage, about 100,000 ; in about 25,000 roubles. An article equalfail-cloth, about 365,000 ; in linseed oil, ly essential is the hair of the Angora goat; 170,000 ; and in oil, about 320,000 rou. they purchase of it to the amount of about bles.

77,000 roubles, both raw and manufacThe second resource that Ruffia enjoys tured. for the carrying on of a considerable com At Moscow and Petersburgh there are a merce, is the manufacture of its raw pro- number of filk manufactories, but not ductions, as wax, tallow, potash, hair, sufficient for the accommodation of the tye, flax, iron, copper, &c.

country. They import not only to the The annual exportacion of yellow wax amount of more than 1,500,000 roubles is about 112,000 roubles; and in can of Gilk-goods, but likewise about 400,000 dles, about 8,000 roubles. It would be roubles for raw silk. There is no want of highly advantageous to establish wax- mulberry-trees, however, which grow in bleacheries, in order to be able to export great numbers on the banks of the Wol.

In 1792, the exportation of ga, the Sarpa, the Don, and in the tallow amounted to 968,000 roubles ; in Ukraine, &c. It is only at Aftracan, at candles, to 95,000 ; in hogs-bristles, to Czarizin, at Kiow, and át Moskwa on the 89,000 ; and in hares-skins, to 72,000.- Tereck, that filkworms are under proper The art of manufacturing hats is not, as management. Cochineal is found in yet, generally known ; it is only fome Ruffia; it is imported, nevertheless, to German colonies established at Sararaw, the amount of 150,000 roubles, and exat St. Petersburg, and at Jekatarmoflaw, ported to the Persians and Bucharians to that practise it. Russia exports in wheat the value of 130,000. In the country of about 1,000,000 of roubles, and in rye Belgorod, and in the Woronetz, there is about 60,000, including both the con an insect very much like the Indian coveyance of the Black Sea and the Bal:ic. chineal, called smilka or tcherwerz, and

Hemp and flax are here of a very supe. which attaches itself to the roots of will rior qualiiy, and especially that which is strawberries, of rye, of the cinque-foil; brought to Riga and to Denja. The ex this insect yields the same colour, but portation of linseed-oil is about 300,000 with less lustre. Gall nuts, of which to roubles ; of linseed, about 105,000 ; of the value of about 5000 roubles is anhemy, 2,000,000 ; of fax, more than nually imported, are found in great abun3,000,000 ; of fail-cloth and cordage, dance on the oak-leaves in the forests.1,500,000. Were the manufactori, of Russia purchases to the value of about these two last articles multiplied, the pro- 1500 roubles of writing-pens, although fits would be still more considerable. there is no want of geele in the country. Iron might also be rendered more produc The skin of the buffalo, as is well tive for sale than it is; it is exported to known, affords the best leather for shoe. the amount of about 1,897,000 roubles ; foles. It is an important article for the and in hardware, about 25,000 : they im- commerce of Smyrna. Altracan, Oren. port for about 15,000. In copper and burg, Casan, the governments of Azow, lead they export for about 71,000 rou of Woronesch, and of Charkow, abound bles, of which 45,000 is manufactured. in buffaloes and cows; there the climate

It cannot be denied that Ruffia might and the pasturage are alike excellent. manufacture within herself a great num. The bark of oak, so useful in tanning, is ber of articles that have been hitherto found in fufficient quantities; and were bought of foreigners. Her commercial it carried in the English manner, might exports would not be thereby diminished, fave to Russia 5 or 6000 roubles, which as the exports only objects of prime ne. are annually paid for the importation of ceflity, and such as are not early to be leather. The butter and cheese of the found elsewhere. From the negligence buffalo are excellent, and by augmenting that generally prevails in Russia, with these productions, they might keep at regard to the keeping of sheep, there is an home to the value of 40,000 roubles, annual import to the value of 300,000 which are now expended for these articles roubles, both for wool and for stuffs. in foreign countries. The Russian horses The Kirguis, in the government of Oren are firm and compact in their make; they burg, have a sort of theep, with thick have a large chelt, and a very long and tails, whose wool is soft and long; some meagre neck; they run quick, and Jast a individuals have not lefe than two thou- long time; but they are seldom either fand in their possession ; of thele they fell large-fized or handsome : they are all very to the European Russians to the value of headstrong. The best are in the Ukraine, MONTHLY MAG. No. 111.



and these form the bulk of the Prussian at the rate of about 80 or 90,000 roubles, cavalry. There are many wild horses in as well in cainbrick as in lawn. Very the government of Orenburg. Those of good and very fine linen-cloth is made the Isle of Oefel are very small, but will here, but it yields in wḥiteness to that of long remain serviceable. There are some Silesia. On the isle of Oesel is a manuhories in the south west provinces of the facture of cambrick, which has risen to empire; they cost from 50 to 70 roubles, fome celebrity. As there is plenty of will carry from eight to ten quintals, and good and very fine rags, paper ought to will travel nearly twenty leagues a-day. be


fine here, and in great abundance ; The commerce of herrings is pretty they import, however, to the amount of considerable ; they import to the value of 33,000 roubles. The paper-mills of Li125,000 roubles from Holland, Sweden, vonia, and of the Mofkaw, work it pretty and Denmark , they export to the value fine, but in very small quantities, not. of 10,000 roubles. They export, like- withstanding the cold weather, which is wise, salmon, eels, lampreys, and, above very favourable to the process. The paall, Iturgeon, after the ra'e of 15,000 per of Repin is tolerably good for com. roubles. In 1791, there was exported of inon use, but it is dear. Pretty large ilinglass to the amount of 139,846 pounds quantities are made, and very cheap, of weight. There are large quantities of common paper, such as blotting-paper, herrings in the White Sea, and other filh packing-paper, and pasteboard. Coloured of nearly the fame description in the and marbled-papers, which formerly came Black Sea, and in that of Azow, in the from abroad, have been manufactured Wolga, the Okka, and the Don ; they here for some years palt. fport there in large shoals, and some In raw cotton they import to the value are even found in the Dnieper.

of 30,000 roubles ; in cotton spun, abou Vegetables for dyeing are very abun 10,000 ditto ; and in cotton-Ituffs, mor dant in Russia ; they import, however, to than 1,000,000 of roubles. Russia is the amount of about 140,000 roubles, for however, supplied with the necessary madder, Brasil-wood,' saffron, indigo, &c. means of diminishing this expence. Thi The plant rubia tinctorum of Linnæus cotton-tree grows very well in Altracaj grows in abundance in the parts about and in Orenburg. It is even cultivate Astracan, on the banks of the Tereck, at Killar, and the Tartar-women of th of the Kuma, and of the Kura. There two former countries know how to fpin i are in the country of Altiacan, as like, very well. It would only require to aug wife in those of Orenburg, Kasan, Wo ment the culture of it, to be sufficient t ronesch, and Azow, wild plants, which fupply the wants of home consumption.might very well be ufed as substitutes for The root of swallow-wort, the linagoftri. maduer, and especially the cruciata pa- and the hundskol, which are found in abun luftris maxima. 'The Origanum, or wilddance about A stracan, in the Ukraine marjoram, yields a very fine crimson.- the province of Ufa, and on the Don, ai The saffron-plant, which is used to the very valuable. The linagoftris grow value of more than 6000 roubles, grows abundantly in Livonia, in Ingermanland ipontaneously near odolk, on the Cau. the districts of Zoer, Novogorod, Arch cafus, and on the Tereck.. Indigo is im- angel, and Siberia. In the month of Au ported to the value of 50,000 roubles, guit they might reap an enormous barve and is experted into Asia to the value of of it. The down of these plants, mixe 60,000 roubles. The broom, or furze, with a quarterly proportion of cotton, (adonis vernalis,) which is found be well calculated to make excellent stuff tween the Wolga, the Dnieper, and the bonnets, and flockings. Nerprum, gives to filk a colour equally The manna which is gathered in fun beautiful and durable ; the young leaves mer on the falks of herbs, and of whic of the bouban, with alum, are made use a fort of gruel is made, is the particul of to dye woollen-ituffs yellow. Thele produce of Livonia. The manna-pla plants and shrubs cannot become articles of grows in marshy places, and it is found commerce, but the using them may pre- the districts of Pietkow, Polozki, Wof vent the importation of these fame plour's wai, Twer, and Smolenski. Abundan from abroad.

of this feed is gathered in Silefia, Polan Fine linen-yarn, the flax of which is and Pruffia ; it is smaller than popp bought in Russia, and which is frequenily feed. Beek-wheat is cultivated in for bleached with alles brought from tlie eítates of the noblefie, but in too fm: fame country, finds its way back again quantities to admit of being experted.


following expression in one of these let was also suitable to the existence of such ters (of which there is, in the Addi. a relation between them ; Addison's befoniana, a copy from a fac-simile en- ing then from feven to nine-and-twenty graving), shews that Mr. Addison became years; Montagu's, who died in 1961, first acquainted with Mr. Montagu on the very old, scarce more than twenty. Ada Continent. “ I shall only afsure you, dison stayed abroad more than a year after (fays he) that I think Mr. Montagu's the date of his letter from Geneva, in acquaintince the luckiest adventure that expectation of diplomatic employment. I could possibly have met with in my tra. After his return to England, and for the vels."- Another of the letters in the same remainder of his life, he lived in an intia volume is addressed by Mr. Addison to mate and familiar friendship with Mr. Mr. Montagu, from the Three Kings Montagu, such as was likely to be the Inn at Chateau d'un, on the 23d of July; conlequence of their having lived togeand it must have been in the year 1699, ther abroad. It appears from another of as Addison had not at the date of the the same letters, that Mr. Montagu agreed letter yet departed for Italy. Mr. Addi- to pass the winter, 1711-12, in Mr. Adson there mentions that he expected Mr. dison's house at Kensington. Montagu to join him at Chateau d’un, Another part of Mr. Addison's Life, « about a week hence ;” but begs him of which the accounts may be corrected

not to halten against his own inclina. from the Addisoniana, is that of his courttions.”-From the beginning of Au. ship to the Countess Dowager of Wargult, 1699, till that of December in wick. The story, that he had been tutor the same year, Mr. Addison and Mr. to her son, is quite falfe. How he beMontagu probably passed their time to came first acquainted with that lady, does gether ; for, in the letter which I first not appear. But here are two letters, quoted, and which is dated from Geneva written in the month of May, 1708, to the on the joth of December, 1701, Ad- young Earl, then a boy of not more than dison mentions, that Mr. Montagu and eight or nine years of age; from which it he had “about two years ago" been ex. appears, that the Earl had then a domestic posed together to a tempest in the port of tutor, and was reading some of the easier Genoa. It is to be inferred that they classics; that Addison had a house of his failed in the same vessel from Marseilles own in the country, nearly adjacent to for Genoa, in the beginning of December, the Countess's seat; and that Addison, in 1699. But, if they joined company in the country, and perhaps willing thus to France in the beginning of August, and ingratiate himself with the Countess, could left it together in December, nothing can amuse himself by going out with the little be more likely than that they should have boy in search of bird's nests. Addison passed also the intermediate time together. was then under-secretary of state, so that Mr. Montagu appears to have returned he could not have leisure to take upon from Italy sooner than Mr. Addison, and him the office of teaching the young not to have taken, in his return, the way Earl the elements of the Latin language. over the Alps; for Mr. Addison, in his From about that time, however, he beletter from Geneva, speaks of his own came probably a suitor to the Countess. journey over the Alps, as one to the dif- A passage in a letter to Mr. Montagu, ficulties of which his friend was a Itranger; dated on the 21st of July, 1711, feems to and mentions that he supposed Mr. Mon- explain the progress of the courthip. “I tagu to be then in England. In a short have within this twelvemonth (lays Ad. poftcript he indicates that there was a dison) lost a place of 2000l. a.year, an confidential kindness between them ; faye estate in the Indies of 14,000l. and, wliat ing, “ I have taken care to manage my- is more than all the rest, my mistress.”felf according to your kind intimation.” From this information it is fair to infer, Words which may, very possibly, have a

that the Countess had very probably regard to pecuniary matters. If it be agreed to give him her hand before the considered that Addison had obtained his time when, by the dilmiffal of the Whig pengon for travelling by the patronage of ministers, and its effects on his situation, Lord Halifax, and that Wortley Monta. he became, in his own, or in the lady's gu was Lord Halifax's cousin, we shall opinion, too poor to marry a Countess. find ourselves so much the more inclined Another fact, of which we are here into think it natural for Wortley Montagu formed, is, that he was either absolutely to have travelled in part under Addron's disappointed of the fortune of his brother, direction, The difference of their ages who died in India, or made, at least for a



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