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portment throughout the whole busi- What but the wickedness of such ness was perfectly correct.”

conduct can equal its meanness and REMARKS. From the summary inhumanity! which has now been given of the Third. Public war and private duel. origin, progress, and result of the ling are made of the same materials; war between Mason and M'Carty, false principles of honour and justice, some useful lessons may be derived: and savage passions and manners.

First. We may learn the sentiments Fourth. As in the private war under and character of a duellist. He is review, the Newspapers were the one who has so little of the fear of bellows for blowing the spark to God before his eyes, as to despise a flame, so it is in the contests of the command,

"Thou shalt do no nations. One incendiary editor may murder. He has so little regard to diffuse his own bad passions, or the the good of society, as to set the malignant passions of another, and worst example of violating the laws set the world on fire. both of God and his country. He Fifth. In the battle of Mason and is so deluded or so inhuman that, M'Carty we have an illustration of for the momentary gratification of the common principles of defensive war. the vilest passions, he will expose In public war, each party professes his family and dearest friends to years to act in self-defence, and accuses of bitter anguish and distress. He the other of being the aggressor. is one who, under the pretext of So it unquestionably was with Mason superior refinement, adopts some and M'Carty. Whichsoever of the of the worst principles of Gothic two might be first in offending, in barbarity. Disregarding the laws of the course of the contest each becivilized men, the duellists of our

came an aggressor. At the time of country meet each other in the field the decisive battle, it would perhaps of battle “ with all the ferocity of have been difficult for any impartial savages," and settle their foolish man to decide which of them had disputes by sanguinary combat. been most abusive, or most to blame.

But is there no apology for such Each was doubtless correct in acmen ? Should any one of them be cusing the other of injurious treatindicted for murder, committed in ment-each fought in self-defencea duel, might not the plea of insanity and each was a murderer in the sight be successfully urged in his favour of God.

. Is it possible for intelligent men, Sixth. From the statement of Gen. free from insanity, to war like Mason Mason's friends we infer, that, in the and M'Carty? Are not men thus de- opinion of duellists, there is nothing ranged as truly objects of pity, as "indecorous,” nothing beneath their the common residents of a mad- dignity, to meet each other in a field house? And would it not be wise of battle, “ with all the ferocity of and benevolent in the rulers of our savages”-nothing “ indecorous” in nation—instead of multiplying mili- the most wanton, malignant, and detary academies—to provide hospitals liberate murder ;—and that a dispute for the safe-keeping and recovery of between two such gentlemen may

be military maniacs ?-Such are the men “honourably terminated” by one's who render wars inevitable. But, murdering the other !

Second. Such duellists as limit their Whether such sentiments and such war-spirit to private combat, and do conduct are beneath the dignity of their own fighting, may still be called duellists, we shall refer to the judg.

gentlemen of honour,' when com- ment of those who are better acpared with those who needlessly in- quainted than we are with that class volve nations in war, and then seduce of citizens. But we may venture to or compel others to fight their battles. assert, that such sentiments and such

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conduct, are far below the dignity of Mason, is a question on which the civilized, enlightened, and good men, great men of our country seem to be and perfectly unbecoming the cha- divided in opinion; it is therefore racter of any man who deserves the a question which we shall leave for name of a Christian.

the consideration of our readers. Seventh. Notwithstanding all that Finally. How unhappy is the lot the friends of Mason have said in of an amiable woman, when conhis defence, or, their own, this battle nected by marriage with a “gentlehas been generally censured, as man of honour”- !-a professed duellist. malignant, wanton, and barbarous. How great must be her anxiety lest Mason “ died as a fool dieth,” and he should murder or be murdered ! the bloody conqueror, like Cain, has Let the extreme anguish of Mrs. fled to another country. But why Mason have its due influence on all this censure of the war between females, and dispose them to proper Mason and M'Carty ? It was as ne- exertions to put an end to such savage cessary and as just, as public wars in customs, as Duelling and War. Much general, and far less distressing in might be done by the ladies with its effects. Here one man only lost little expense. his life ; one woman was made a widow; one mother was bereaved

The Cloak for Crimes. of a son; and one child lost a father. But in the more horrible contests

“When a nation is in danger, whatever obstructs

its preservation must yield for a time.” of nations, how many thousands of men are murdered in a single battle! Tus principle was advanced by the how many women are made widows! Hon. Alexander Smyth, in his elohow many mothers are bereaved of quent defence of Gen. Jackson. To their sons ! how many children are enforce the principle, he quoted the made fatherless !-And for what is all following maxim

- Amidst arms this waste of human life, this bereave- the laws are silent.” ment and wo? To gratify such un- That wars are usually made and worthy passions as are displayed by conducted on the principle and maxim duellists, or to procure employment, now before us, we shall not deny. money and fame for man-butchers, or When the rulers of a nation wish for for men who prefer living on human War, the cry is heard, “ the nation is sacrifices to earning their bread by in danger." But nine times in ten, honest and useful labour !

when this cry is raised, the great It may be proper here to remark, danger of the nation has probably that the battle now reviewed, was consisted in the blindness and renot accompanied with the conflagra- vengeful passions of its own rulers. tion of villages, nor the devastation This remark is intended as applicable of property. The conqueror does not to the aggressors in war, or those boast of hanging captives, nor of who are first in appealing to arms burning 300 houses in one day. He for the decision of a controversy. is satisfied with having murdered his Those who make and conduct a armed adversary, without heaping war on the pretext that “ the nation other mischiefs on a bereaved and is in danger," assume the right of innocent family. Satisfied ! did I say? determining what“ obstructs its preFar from this; he retired from the servation,” and what must“ yield for field of battle with“ feelings amount- a time.” All men are liable to be ing almost to hopeless and black misled by their passions-rulers and despair.”

warriors not excepted. Hence the horWhether the conqueror of the rible atrocities which are committed Seminoles is worthy of more ap- in every war. Under the cloak of preplause than the conqueror of Gen. serving the liberty and independence of

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a nation, war-makers have often sa- with deadly and exterminating rancrificed the lives of their own citizens cour, and for associating our people by thousands, and bound the sure with one tribe of savages to destroy vivors in the chains of despotism. another.

Whatever may be the real design “Amidst arms the laws are silent;" of the war-maker, his avowed object that is, during the ravages of a public is the good of the nation. If the contest, if laws oppose the warrior's principles of religion, virtue, justice, object, they are disregarded, as of or humanity-or the love of God no authority. This is as true of the and man, are supposed to“ obstruct” laws of God as of the civil laws of a his designs, they must all “ yield for state. No command or prohibition a time," and give place to the most of Jehovah is su sacred or important atrocious acts of injustice, violence, as not to be treated as subordinate to and barbarity.

the will of a military commander. On the very principle now in re- But

may we not safely affirm that view were perpetrated all the horrid the principle advanced by Mr. Smyth atrocities of the French revolution. is wicked and immoral, even when Whatever party was in power, to the danger of a nation is real? It is preserve the nation from impending the same as that of doing evil that danger was the professed object. And good may come, or doing certain under this pretext hundreds of thou- injustice to others to save one's self sands of human beings were sacri- from probable calamity. It also inficed to the ungodly ambition or volves the Jesuitical principle—that diabolical fury of a few desperate and a good end will sanctify the basest infatuated demagogues. To the same

If the principle were just, principle we are to attribute the in- when a nation is in danger of war, numerable murders, massacres, and it would be right to employ assassins conscriptions of Napoleon Buona- to destroy the most efficient chaparte. Under the cloak of love to racters in the nation from which the the French people, he ravaged Eu- war is apprehended, or to destroy rope, violated the rights of all within the instigators of war in one's own his reach, caused the death of mil- country. Indeed it is questionable lions, and filled his own country with whether this mode of proceeding oppression, mourning, and wo. would not be less unjust, less ex

The principle which Mr. Smyth has. pensive, and less calamitous, than avowed was the pretext for the of- the usual modes of appealing to fensive acts of Great Britain ;

her

arms; but as it is not common in impressment of seamen, her orders

this age, the bare proposition would in council, her capture of the Danish justly fill the minds of men with fleet, &c. &c.

The nation was in horror. danger, and whatever was supposed When the late war commenced on to obstruct its preservation was made the Indians, the Seminoles were in to “ yield for a time.”

very great danger. Suppose then that, On this principle, the people of on Mr. Smyth's principle, the Semithe United States have established nole chiefs had employed a military despotism as a defence of perate ruffians to assassinate or poison liberty and equal rights, and have Mr. Monroe and General Jackson ; deprived 15 or 18 thousands of our who would not have been shocked citizens of the unalienable rights of at the horrid proceeding? Yet in freemen, and reduced them to the what respect would this have been degraded condition of slaves. This worse than hanging captive chiefs

, principle has also been a pretext for after the alleged danger of our nation wars on the diminished tribes of our was supposed to be at an end ? red brethren, for pursuing them The rights and dangers of a

some des

community are the rights and dan- example and précepts of the Prince gers of its individual members. If of Peace ; it may then appear a no individual may righteously adopt crime of the deepest die, proceeding and apply the principle of Mr. Smyth from motives abhorrent to the befor his own preservation, no com- nevolent mind, and to every Christian munity has a right to adopt and feeling: recluce it to practice. If a coinmu- How very small is that portion nity has a right to adopt it, so has of the conduct of nations at war, every individual ; and it may as pro- which can possibly be reconciled perly be urged in defence of piracy, to this heavenly precept - All things highway robbery, and private mur- whatsoever ye would that men should der, as the more enormous crimes do unto you, do even the same unto of public war. The principle is not them !'. Is it not then a disgrace for only unjust and immoral in its nature, Christians to support a custom that but it

opens the door to every species so flagrantly violates the precepts of of abuse, injustice, and atrocity. On that benevolent and humane religion some account and in some degree, which they profess? Is it not a shame every nation is always in danger. But for them to attempt to justify by the when no peculiar dangers really exist, law of nations, a course of conduct such dangers may be imagined or which is positively forbidden by the pretended. Then every thing which law of God? ambition, avarice, or malignity shall By disregarding the laws of Heasay“ obstructs its preservation, must ven, as they relate to rulers and yield for a time.” The histories of nations, and by making the precewars, both ancient and modern, dents of former barbarians and the clearly show, that this abominable fallible law of nations the directory, principle has been the bane of human and the criterion of right or wrong, happiness, the pretext for the most the Christian world has been for ages fagitious deeds of rapine, violence, filled with violence and wo;-miland devastation, and the refuge of lons of men have been annually the most abandoned murderers. trained to the business of human

We shall not deny that the prin- butchery, and the reproach of man has ciple is authorized by the law of been accounted his greatest glory. nations ; but we may boldly assert, If such are the principles and that what is called the law of nations, maxims of war; such their direful is to a dreadful extent the law of effects, and such the law of nations, barbarity and injustice. Though is it not time that they should be some improvements have been made discarded and abolished by every within a few centuries; it is still Christian people ?, but a barbarous code. It authorizes It may truly be said of the people deeds of violence and injustice far of the United States, even at the premore horrible than those for which sent time, the nation is in danger." pirates and highwaymen are usually With equal truth it may be affirmed, hanged in our country.

that its greatest danger results from There can hardly be a deed com- its guilt, and from the popularity of mitted in the wars of our times, so the principles and spirit of War atrocious, as not to find an apology among ourselves. These endanger in the examples of former ages, and the nation a hundred fold more than in the law of nations; and when all the savages of our forests, or the such authority is found, many ap- armies of foreign countries. But it pear as well satisfied, as though the should be understood, that the very deed had been expressly enjoined by things which endanger the nation, the God of Heaven. But let the are the things which "obstruct its same deed be compared with the preservation, and which should “ yield for a time." Let it then be posed to justify, or than all our milithe aim of every man who has the tary and naval establishments. welfare of the country at heart, to do all in his power to eradicate the The foregoing Remarks have not fatal principles and spirit of war, and been designed to reproach either the make them « yield for a time,” and Hon. Mr. Smyth, Gen. Jackson, or for ever, to the benign principles any other man; but to expose a and spirit of Him who“ suffered for principle, which has been the ruin us, leaving us an example that we of nations, which has licensed this should follow his steps.” Such a globe as a vast slaughter-house for construction and application of Mr. human victims, and licensed men to Smyth's principle, would do more to become the tormentors and destroyers preserve the nation, than millions of their own species. of such inhuman acts as he was dis

SONNET

BY JOHN DAWES MORGAN,

Written in a Grotto containing the Busts of illustrious Heroes.

DECK'd with bright guerdons of immortal fame,

In native splendour Albion's heroes shine;
A wondering world resounds their boasted name,

And twining laurels deck their brilliant shrine.
But say, cherubic train, whose flaming choir

Fill with ecstatic lays the vocal sky;
Are these the race, whom heav'n's eternal Sire

Views with peculiar smile and fav’ring eye?
Go,—to yon moss-clad cell direct thy feet,

There shall thine eyes a nobler Hero view ;
See suppliant Faith infernal powers defeat,

And heavenly Grace Corruption's might subdue.
This lowly Conqueror of himself survey,
And ah! how mean is Grandeur's dazzling ray!

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