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you, Christians, something more is principles of our text allowed to preexpected from your principles and dominate. What domestic alienations, your professions. Shew us wherein what parochial discords, what nathe distinguishing peculiarities of tional animosities, would be extinyour religion consists. You are to guished by theprevalence and triumph rise higher than the smoothness of of these Christian sentiments ! We mere civilization. You are to ex- are all hastening, my brethren, sihibit a magnanimity worthy of the lently, but certainly, to the extreme name you bear. If ye love them goal of our mortal race; and in that that love you, what reward have ye? solemn hour when we must pass from do not even the publicans the same? time into eternity, all men are agreed And if ye salute your brethren only, that rancorous enmities must be laid what do ye more than others ? Do aside. Who would think of putting not even the publicans so ?' You to sea in a storm ? And who would profess more, therefore you should venture into the presence of a righact better than others.

teous Judge, his heart boiling with « 4. This spirit is a pledge and rage, and reeking with the thoughts presage of blessedness, both here and of vengeance. Even savages, who hereafter. · Blessed are the meek, have lived in mutual enmity, interfor they shall inherit the earth. change some tokens of amity when Blessed are ye when men shall revile either of them is about to expire. you and curse you ;' for the curse But we shall find ourselves greatly causelegs shall not come; yea, it mistaken, if we suppose that the shall be turned into a blessing. God habits of revenge, rivetted upon the will make your cause his own, and soul by the cherished practices of a will abundantly repay you for your whole life, can be suddenly renounced lenity and forbearance.

in the valley of the shadow of death. " 5. This leads me to observe, that It is not then, that the Ethiopian can the peace and serenity of our own change his skin, and the leopard his minds will be best consulted, by for- spots ;-It is not then that the sinner bearing to avenge our wrongs, and can doff his evil customs, just as the by acting upon the requirements of serpent slips its scaly folds. Nothe text. The man whose mind me- he who chovses to live in the atmosditates revenge, and cherishes the phere of vengeance, and dies in it, dark designs of retaliation, must be will pass into his own place, the every thing but happy. That 're- place of vengeance; where a cup venge is sweet,' is an accursed maxim mingled with his loved, but deadly of the infernal school; it can only draught, will be wrung out to him, be so, to him, who has been tutored even to the very dregs. Contrast in the malignant rudiments of dia- with this scene, the happiness of the bolical policy, and has sat in blind man who shoots the gulf of eterdocility to learn of him who is ' a nity, loving and beloved, forgiving murderer from the beginning. You and forgiven, remitting all debts and cannot bestow a more charitable injuries, in the hope of a final acservice upon your fellow-creatures, quittal and full remission at the trithan to extirpate from their breasts bunal of his Saviour and his Judge." this root of bitterness; to step in The object of the Fourth and conbetween their vengeful purpose, and cluding division is to meet some its baneful execution; to withhold objections which have been raised their steps from violence, and their against this Christian doctrine. hands from vindictive retribution. Fourthly. I promised to meet a How much greater would be the few of the objections which are raishappiness of families, of neighbour- ed against this Christian doctrine. hoods, and of nations too, were the “1. It may seem to some persons, that the line of conduct here recom- from bad to worse. There is some mended, would argue imbecility, plausibility in this objection, and we cowardice, and meanness. This in- would meet it by saying, that in all susceptibility to the resentment of moral questions we have simply to wrongs, say they, is dastardly, base, ask, what is duty, without anticiand ignoble. I contend that it is the pating consequences, which, pervery reverse. To conquer the spirit chance, may never follow, and thus of revenge in your own bosoms, is a reducing the subject to a mere quesfar more arduous enterprise, a far tion of expediency. It should not more glorious achievement than you be our first enquiry, whether it is can gain from the most studied safe for us to act rightly, but rather and successful acts of retaliation, our fixed determination to do what Prov. xvi. 32. 'He that is slow to God has commanded and Christ has anger is better than the mighty, and sanctioned both by precept and exhe that ruleth his spirit than he that ample, in the face of all consequences

. taketh a city This is the criterion For there is a watchful Providence by which you are to ascertain the ever at hand to cover with the inquality and measure of true glory. vulnerable shield of its protection, It is the glory of a man,' not to those who confide in God while they revenge, but 'to pass by a transgres- resolutely pursue the line of duty. sion.' Here is a field for the display But supposing that we are enabled of genuine heroism, and sound mag- to 'do good to them that hate us,' nanimity. Shew me the man who if they have a spark of ingenuoushas been taught to subdue his pas- ness remaining in their composition, sions, to forgive his enemies, and to will they not rather be softened, return good for evil, and I will prove shamed, and subdued by the gentleto you, that he stands out to the ness and generosity of the Christian view of all competent judges in hea- temper, than encouraged to new outven and earth, covered with a robe rages, and additional acts of aggresof richer splendour than ever adorned sion ?-And if, on the other hand, it the heroes of Agincourt, or Blenheim, should happen that they have not or Waterloo.

Compared with his a single trace of ingenuous feeling in laurels, the garlands that ' a Cesar their nature, is it not probable that wears are weeds. The preacher may a different line of conduct, on our be tauntingly bid to go and broach part, would goad them into a more these notions, on the markets, and exasperated madness, or harden them the exchanges, in cabinets and courts; into a more unrelenting sternness, to deal out his impracticable and or, at least, produce so dangerous Utopean system in the places of a reaction of the bad passions, as public concourse, and amid the va- ght prove more detrimental to our rious bustle of resort. He can only tranquillity and comfort than the say, he hopes, that were his voice ebullitions of their original indigcapable of being extended to such nation ? places, he should have grace given 3. It may be objected, that all him to be true to the principles he relative duties are mutual and recihas this day avowed, and to maintain procai; so that if there be a violation them, in the teeth of a jeering world, of the obligation on the one part

, even unto blood.

there follows a release from the obli“ 2. It may be objected, that if gation on the other part. This, inthese principles should be acted upon deed, is an hypothesis which has in general society, men of an inju- been gravely maintained, but which, rious character would become more were it admitted to be true, would insolent, violent, and cruel than ever ; overturn the basis

upon and receiving no check, would go on discourse is reared, and sap the

which this

foundation of all moral obligation my sin. What a different spirit did whatsoever. It is making morality St. Paul discover, when he declared nothing more than a covenant, or

to the Corinthians ‘and I will very compact, between two human be gladly spend and be spent for you, ings, and if one of them should fail though the more abundantly I love in fulfilling his part of the indenture, you, the less I be loved.' And to the covenant is broken, and its obli- Timothy, Therefore I enduré all gation is annulled. Whereas, Chris- things for the elect's sakes, that they tian morality has its foundation in also may obtain the salvation which the will of the supreme lawgiver, is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory.' and that will must be my standard, 4. It may be objected, that, after whether other men, in their conduct all that has been said, the plan of towards me, may respect it and ap- feeling and action here submitted, peal to it or not. Christ has said, cannot be avowed, and followed out Love your enemies—there's no reci- in its practical results, without exprocity there; do good to them that posing a man to derision and conhate you—no return of mutual duty tempt. If, my brethren, ridicule were there, and as little of either in what the test of truth, either as to Chrisfollows; 'bless them that curse you,

tian faith or Christian morals, this and pray for them that despitefully might be deemed a fatal objection ; use you.' The fact is, that Chris- but as it happens, there is no test tianity teaches us, and also enables more unsound, more uncertain, and us to discharge with conscientious more despicable. It is the argument fidelity, our duty to others, though of fools, and is seldom employed till they may fail in their duty to us. the quiver has been exhausted of Their violations of duty towards our- every other dart. In this sense, I selves, will not materially injure us, am sure we may say, ' of laughter it unless we should be drawn or driven is mad, and of mirth, what doth it.' by this means, into a breach of our There is nothing so true, so sacred, own duty. And this would be a so venerable, so sublime, but it may species of retaliation upon others, become the butt of mockery to the which must eventually rebound upon impious and profane. But, I trust, ourselves. No man can essentially you have not so learned Christ as to hurt us, unless he can set God and be laughed out of your principles, our own consciences against us; and your convictions, your duties, and this is only to be done by involving your happiness. Should the universe us in the commission of sin. Though

combine to hiss down the distinctive a father should refuse to fulfil the peculiarities of the Christian scheme, duties of a parent, the son is not

whether in the doctrines it reveals, therefore relieved from the burden or the practice it enjoins, I trust you of filial piety and duty. Though a

would remain moveless as rock child he stubborn and rebellious, the amidst the dashing of the waves and parent is not to relax in the duties the roar of the tempest; or like of patience, compassion, reproof, and Milton's Abdiel, ‘firm though single.' corrective discipline. And this may be The Holy Spirit stands engaged to affirmed of all other duties founded patronize the principles of the Gospel, in the will of God. Away then with and to ensure their ultimate triumph that code of modern ethics, which over the prejudices, the scandals, would devise a method for repealing and the insults of all its fues. In the the divine laws, equally novel and mean time, ‘ if ye are reproached for expeditious, namely, by the violation the name of Christ, happy are ye, for of them ; but violation is no repeal. the Spirit of God and of glory resteth If another fail in duty to me, it is my upon you. On their part he is evil calamity and my cross; but if I fail spoken of, but on your part he is in my duty to him, it is my folly and glorified. But let none of you suffer as a murderer, or as a thief, or as and of more show than wisdom, an evil-doer, or as a busy-body in caused her to disregard the dissuaother men's matters. Yet if any man sions of Cecil; but a more serious suffer as a Christian, let him not be reflection seldom failed to dispel her ashamed, but let him glorify God on illusion. this behalf.' While, therefore, we are “ The moderation and wisdom of looking daily and hourly to the ful- Cecil, in adhering resolutely to a ness in Christ Jesus our Lord, for the pacific system, deserve the more apsuccours of his all-sufficient grace, plause, as the condition of Europe, by which alone we can be qualified at that period, was particularly calfor the performance of this difficult culated to tempt an English minister duty ; let us make it our stedfast into extensive wars. While Scotland resolve, that we will never designedly and France were torn by intestine grieve a friend, never willingly create convulsions, and the rebels often an enemy, and never deliberately re- able to overpower the sovereign ; venge an injury.

the Low Countries, which had revolted against Philip, seemed de

termined to endure the last extremiExtract from the Life of Cecil

ties, rather than again submit to his Lord Burleigh.

dominion. England alone enjoyed To the Editor.

internal tranquillity; and, by uniting SIR,—I am sure you will not be with the insurgents of either country, unwilling to call the attention of might have acquired both a large your readers to the sentiments of so addition of territory, and such other great and wise a statesman as Cecil, concessions as may be wrested from Lord Burleigh, the upright and re

a weaker power.

But Cecil well ligious minister of Queen Elizabeth, knew that conquests were not the on the subject of Peace. I therefore true road to national aggrandisebeg leave to offer for this purpose ment; and that his country would a few extracts from the life of that suffer more in her resources and celebrated man, in “ Macdearmid's real strength from an extensive and Lives of British Statesmen."

protracted war, than she could gain “ Instructed both by history and from its most successful results. observation, that war was the great At one period, while Elizabeth means of wasting the resources of was engaged in the war with Spain, nations, he obstinately resisted the Cecil, who was anxious to bring efforts of those rash and ambitious about a termination of hostilities, spirits, who perpetually endeavoured found in the Earl of Essex a powerto plunge the nation into hostilities, ful enemy to his pacific schemes. with a view of advancing their own This youth, who had acquired some reputation and fortunes.

He had glory in the Spanish war, and eagerly ever on his lips the salutary maxims, panted for more, stood forward as • that war is soon kindled, but peace the vehement opposer of Cecil's provery hardly procured ; that war is positions for peace; and his influence the curse, and peace the blessing of over the Queen's affections, joined God upon a nation; and that a realm to the other considerations which we gains more by one year's peace, than have mentioned, was sufficient to by ten years war.' By these pacific counteract the intentions of the micounsels, the Queen, from the sound- nister. ness of her understanding, and her " Cecil was no less interested for aversion to expence, was usually the glory of his country tha: Essex. swayed. On a few occasions, a long- Yet while he felt how much security ing for military glory, or an attach- depends on political reputation, he ment to some favourites who were also perceived the folly of attempting men of more ambition than discretion, to render a nation glorious by wasting

her resources,
or great by reducing

Ancient and Modern Warfare. her to imbecility. Averse to the idle waste of the people's pro

[From the British Essayist, vol. 42.] perty, and detesting the wanton The history of Wars is but a dull effusion of human blood, he remon- theme, involving a number of weastrated against sacrificing the best risome repetitions, and furnishing but interests of the nation to the avarice one mournful inference of a general and ambition of a few individuals; kind. It teaches us only to connor could he, without indignation, clude, that man can cheerfully go on see both prince and people led away to massacre and to plunder, without by the same passions as Essex, and regard to the authority of reason or giving up the reins of their under- religion, in the pursuit of a vain and standing to the delusions of a heated criminal glory, derived from the brain. On one occasion, when the multiplied destruction of his fellowquestion of peace and war was de- creatures. Yet, while we are combated in council, Essex proceeded, pelled to acknowledge that War is in as usual, to declaim in favour of con. itself a proof of the corruption of our tinuing hostilities, urging that the general nature, we may still consider Spaniards, being a subtle people, it as a theatre in which the most ambitious of extending their domi- generous qualities of our minds are nion, implacable enemies to Eng- exercised, and in which virtue meets land, bigotted adherents to the Pope, with more splendid and trying opporand professing that no faith was to tunities of exertion, than in the combe observed with heretics, were paratively calm and equable course incapable of maintaining the rela- of common life. This remark, intions of peace. Cecil, who felt that deed, holds most in regard to the if such arguments were accounted tumultuous warfare of ancient times, solid, the sword would never be in which, though carried on with sheathed, could not help indignantly greater national ferocity and personal exclaiming, in the midst of this ha- rancour than in our days, yet, from rangue, that the speaker seemed the looser principles on which the intent on nothing but blood and art was grounded, fortitude was enslaughter. At the close of the de- compassed with more difficulties and bate, perceiving that his arguments perils, honour was provoked by were of no avail against the impulses loftier occasions, and compassion was of passion, he pulled out à Common excited by more eminent sorrows Prayer-book from his pocket, and and distresses. Thus the history of pointed in silence to the words, 'Men ancient wars creates interest of blood shall not live out half their greatly above what we feel in modays. Though he could only hope dern details of the same nature. that time and further experience

- The business of war is now rewould effectually dispel the present duced to a perfect science, and men delusion; yet still he endeavoured to go gravely and coolly to the bloody accelerate this desirable event, by employment, contend without emuthe publication of a tract, in which Jation, and slaughter without resenthis arguments for peace, though dis- ment. This mode of destroying our regarded by the multitude, were too fellow-creatures, the delicacy and distinct and forcible not to impress the refinement of the moderns has disreflecting and moderate." A.L.T. covered to be more humane : but

perhaps it would be difficult to prove, * If A. L. T. can favour us with the loan

on any rational grounds, that to of the tract alluded to, or with extracts from it, we shall feel' much obliged to destroy from motives of interest, is him. Ed.

less culpable than to do it with the

an

VOL, III.

9 X

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