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fum, he proceeded to sell the one who was next in beauty, taking it for granted that each man married the maid he purchased. The more affluent of the Babylonian youths contended with much ar. dpor and emulation to obtain the most beautiful: those of the common people who were desirous of marrying, as if they had but little occasion for personal accomplishments, were content to receive the more homely maidens, with a portion annexed to them. For the crier, when he had sold the fairelt, selected next the most ugly, or one that was deformed; she also was pat up to Sale, and assigned to whoever would take her with the least mo. ney. This money was what the sale of the beautiful maidens produced, who were thus obliged to portion out those who were deformed, or less lovely than themselves. No man was permitted to provide a match for his daughter, nor could any one take away the woman whom he purchased, without first giving secu. rity to make her his wife. To this if he did not affent, his money was returned him. There were no restrictions with re. spect to residence; those of another village might also become purchasers. This, although the most wise, of all their institutions, has not been preserved to our time. One of their later ordinances was made to punish violence offered to women, and to prevent their being carried away to other parts; for after the city had been taken, and the inhabitants plundered, the lower people were reduced to such extremities, that they prostituted their daughters for hire.

“ They have also another inftitution, the good tendency of which claims applause. Such as are diseased 254 among them they carry into some public square : they have no professors of media cine, but the passengers in general interrogate the sick person concerning his malady ; that if any person has either been afflicted with a similar disease himself, or feen its operation on another, he may communicate the process by which his own recovery was effected, or by which, in any other instance, he knew the disease to be removed. No one may pass by the afflicted person in silence, or without enquiry into the nature of his complaint.

« Previous to their interment, their dead are anointed with honey, and, like the Ægyptians, they are fond of funeral lamen. tations *. Whenever a man has had communication with his


« 254 Difeafed. -We may from hence observe the first rude commencement of the science of medicine. Syrianus is of opi. nion, that this science originated in Ægypt, from those persons who had been disordered in any part of their bodies writing down the remedies from which they received benefit.-- Larcher." '

Funeral lamentations. ]— The custom of hiring people to lament at funerals is of very great antiquity. Many passages in


wife ?55, he fits over a consecrated velle!, containing burning per. fumes ; the woman does the same. In the morning both of them go into the bath; till they have done this they will neither of them touch any domestic utenfil. This custom is also observed in Arabia.

“ The Babylonians have one custom in the highest degree abo. minable. Every woman who is a native of the country is obliged once in her life to attend at the temple of Venus, and proftitute herself 256 to a stranger. Such women as are of superior rank, do


the Old Testament seem to allude to this.- Jeremiah, xvi. 5. Baruch, vi. 32, “They roar and cry before their gods, as men do at the feast when one is dead.” . “ A similar custom prevails to this day in Ireland, where, as I have been informed, old women are hired to roar and cry at funerals..

« 2;5 Communication with his wife.]-I much approve of the reply of Theano, wife of Pythagoras. A person enquired of her, what time was required for a woman to become pure, after having had communication with a man. “She is pure immediately," answered Theano, " if the man be her husband ; but if he be not her husband, no time will make her so.”-Larcher from Diogenes Laertius. -- Ablution after such a connection is required by the Maho. metan law.-T.

" 256 Preftitute herself. ]- This, as an historical fact, is quer, tioned by sone, and by Voltaire in particular; but it is mentioned by Jeremiah, who lived almost two centuries before Herodotus, and by Strabo, who lived long after him. See Baruch, vi. 42.

"The women also with cords about them fitting in the ways, burn bran for perfume. But if any of them, drawn by some that palleth by, lie with him, she reproacheih her fellow, that the was not thought as worthy as herself, nor her cord broken.”

“ Upon the above Mr. Bryant remarks, that inttead of women, it should probobly be read virgins; and that this custom was universally kept up wherever the Persian religion prevailed. Strabo is more particular : “ Not only,” says he, “the men and maid. servants prostitute themselves, but people of the first fashion devote in the same manner their own daughters. Nor is any body at all scrupulous about cohabiting with a woman who has been thus abused.

Upon the custom itself no comment can be required; Hero. dotus calls it, what it must appear to every delicate mind, in the highest degree base.

* The prostitution of women, considered as a religious inftitution, was not only practised at Babylon, but at Heliopolis : at Aphace, a place betwixt Heliopolis and Biblus; at Sicca Veneria,


not omit even this opportunity of separating themselves from their inferiors; these go to the temple in splendid chariots, accompanied by a numerous train of domeftics, and place themselves near the the entrance. This is the practice with many ; whilst the greater part crowned with garlands, feat themfelves in the veftibule ; and there are always numbers coming and going. The seats have all of them a rope or string annexed to thein, by which the stranger may determine his choice. A woman having once taken this lituation, is not allowed to return home, till some ftranger throws her a piece of money, and leading her to a distance from the temple, enjoys her person. It is usual for the man, when he gives the money, to say, “ May che goddess Mylitta * be auspicious to thee !” Mylitta being the Allyrian name of Venus. The money given is applied to sacred uses, and must not be refused, however small it may be. The woman is not suffered to make any diftinction, but is obliged to accompany whoever offers her money. She afterwards makes some conciliatory oblation to the goddess, and returns to her house, never afterwards to be obtained on similar, or on any terms. Such as are eininent for their elegance and beauty do not concinue long, but those who are of less engaging appearance, have sometimes been known to remain from three to four years, unable to accomplish the terms of law. It is to be remarked that the inhabitants of Cyprus have a limilar observance.”' Vol. I. p. 267.

That this passage has the ease of original composition no man of taste will controvert; whill every scholar, by turning to the original text of Lib. 1. $ 196—200, may satisfy himself that it is a faithíul transcript of the author's ideas, in a style and manner of writing as similar to his as the different idioms of the two languages will eally adorit. The following exe tract is of the same character, and sufficiently curious to authorize its infertion here.

« The art of medicine 155 in Ægypt is thus exercised: one phy, fician is confined to one disease ; there are of course a great number


in Africa, and also in the ille of Cyprus. It was at Aphace that Venus was suppos:d, according to the author of the Eryinologicum Magnum, to have first received the embraces of Adonis.-T."

* Mylitta, or rather, according to Scaliger, Mylitaih, which in the Chaldæan tongue, is the same as Genetrix.--The Mylitta of the Affyrians, the Mithra of the Persians, and the Alitta of the Arabians, have the same signification. See Hesy. chius at the word Monta.”

so 155 Art of medicine. )-- It is remarkable, with regard to medi. cipe, that none of the sciences sooner arrived at perfection ; for in


#kw practise this art; fome attend to disorders of the eyes *, others to those of the head; some take care of the teeth, others are converfant with all diseases of the bowels; whilft many attend to the cure of maladies which are less conspicuous.

“ With respect to their funerals and ceremonies of mourning; whenever a man of any importance dies, the females of his fa. mily 156, disfiguring their heads and faces with dirt, leave the corpse in the house, and run publicly about, accompanied by their female relations, with their garments in disorder, their breasts ex

the space of two thousand years, elapsed since the time of Hippocrates, there has scarcely been added a new aphorism to those of that great man, notwithstanding all the care and application of so many ingenious men as have since studied that science.-Duters.

« The Ægyptians were always famed for their knowledge in medicine, and their physicians were held in great repute. We find even in latter times, when their country was in a manner ruined, that a king of Persia, upon a grievous hurt received, applied to the adepts in Ægypt for allistance, in preference to those of other coun. tries.

“ With respect to the state of chirurgery amongst the ancients, a perusal of Homer alone will be sufficient to satisfy every candid reader, that their knowledge and skill was far from contemptible. Celsus gives an exact account and description of the operation for the stone, which implies both a knowledge of anatomy, and some degree of perfection in the art of instrument-making.

* The three qualities, says Bayle, of a good physician, are probity, learning, and good fortune; and whoever peruse's the oath which anciently every professor of medicine was obliged to take, maít both acknowledge its merit as a composition, and admire the amiable disposition which it inculcates.-T."

"* This, with one other passage, c. 1, of this book, are the only allusions to that most cruel disease, the ophthalmia, with which Ægypt is now so much tormented.”

“ 156 Females of his famil;. " I was awakened before day. break by the same troop of women! their dismal cries suited very well with the lonely hour of the night. This mourning lasts for the space of seven days, during which interval the female relations of the deceased make a tour through the town morning and night, beauing their breasts, throwing athes on their heads, and display. ing every artificial token of forrow."'--Irwin.

The assembling together of multitudes to the place where persons have lately expired, and bewailing them in a noisy manner, is a custom still retained in the East, and seems to be considered as an honour done to the deceased.Harmer. This writer relates a curious circumstance corroborative of the above, from the MS. of Chardin; see val. ii. 136."

posed, posed, and beating themselves severely; the men on their parts do the same, after which the body is carried to the embalmers 157.

« There are certain persons appointed by law to the exercise of this profeífion. When a dead body is brought to them, they exhibit to the friends of the dece:fed, different models highly finished in wood. The most perfect of these they say resembles one whom I do not think it religious to name in such a matter ; the second is of less price, and interior in point of execution; another is ftill more mean; they then enquire after which model the deceased Thall be represented; when the price is determined, the relations retire, and the embalmers thus proceed: In the most perfect speci. mens of their art, they draw the brain through the nostrils, partly

16 157 Embalmers. ]—The following remarks on the subject of embalming are compiled from different authors.

" The Jews embalmed their dead, but instead of emboweling, were contented with an external unction. The present way in Ægypt, according to Maillet, is to waih the body repeatedly with rose-water.

« Diodorus Siculus is very minute on this subject: after de. fcribing the expence and ceremony of embalming, he adds, that the relations of the deceased, till the body was buried, used neither baths, wine, delicate food, nor fine clothes. · « The same author describes three methods of embalming, with the firft of which our author does not appear to have been ac. Quainted. The form and appearance of the whole body was so well preserved, that the deceased might be known by their fea. tures.

• The Romans had the art of embalming as well as the Ægyptians; and if what is related of them be true, this art had arrived to greater perfection in Rome than in Ægypt.-See Montfaucon. A modern author remarks, that the numberless mummies which fill endure, after so long a course of ages, ought to ascertain to che Ægyptians the glory of having carried chemistry to a degree of perfe&tion attained but by few. Some moderns have attempted by certain preparations to preserve dead bodies entire, but to no purpose.-T."

is Whoever wishes to know more on the subject of embalming, will do well to consult M. Rouelle's Memoir in the Academy of Sciences, for 1750, p. 150, and Dr. Hadley's Dissertation in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. liv. p. 3. 14. The firit calls the wrapper cotton, the other determines it to be likelong lawn, woven after the manner of Russia sheeting. A great deal of farther in. formation may also be had from Larcher. The words of Herodo. tus are remarkable and precise ; ondoros Busonins, linen of cotton, or cotton linen. Thus Pollux and also Arcian define, what we have now so common, Indian cotton,"

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