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are simply such must be contained formally, and all others which imply any mixture of imperfection, virtually.
But were no arguments brought from the infinite perfections of the divine nature able to convince us, yet were the consideration of his supreme Domi
nion sufficient to persuade us. The will of God is infinitely free, and by that • Dan.4. 35. freedom doth he govern and dispose of all things. a He doth according to his
will in the army of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth, faid Nebuchadnezzar out of his experience; and S. Paul expresseth him as working all things after the council of his own will. If then there were more supreme Governours of the world than one, each of them absolute and free, they might have contrary determinations concerning the same thing, than which nothing can be more prejudicial unto Government. God is a
God of order, not confusion; and therefore of unity, not admitting multi* Ta bv e de plication. If it be better that the * Universe should be governed by one than Bóne toll many, we may be assured that it is so, because nothing must be conceived of stay xaxwi God but what is best. He therefore who made all things, by that right is *oXuxoiçavín , Lord of all
, and because all + power is his, he alone ruleth over all. είς κoίρανα, Now God is not only One, but hath an Unity # peculiar to himself by Arif. Metaph. 1.12. c. ult." which he is the Only God; and that not only by way of actuality, but al| Unus omni-fo of possibility. Every individual man is one, but to as there is a second um Dominus eft Deus: ne
and a third, and consequently every one is part of a number, and conque enim illa curring to a multitude. The Sun indeed is one; so as there is neither third sublimitas po- nor second Sun, at least within the fame Vortex: but though there be not, confortem, yet there might have been; neither in the unity of the Solar nature is there cùm fola om- any repugnancy to plurality; for that God which made this world, and nein teneat in this the Sun to rule the day, might have made another world by the S. Cypr. de 1- fame fecundity of his Omnipotency, and another Sun to rule in that. Wheredol. Vanit.
as in the Divine Nature there is an intrinsecal and essential singularity, be117 118 cause no other Being can have any cxistence but from that; and whatso
ever essence hath its existence from another is not God. b I am the Lord, y unr faith he, and there is none else, there is no God besides me : that they may
know from the rising of the Sun, and from the West, that there is none na besides me, I am the Lord, and there is none else. He who hath infinite on knowledge knoweth no other God beside himself. c Is there a God besides 5 Siya me ? yea there is no God, I know not any. And we who believe in him, mand and desire to enjoy him, need for that end to know no other God but him: 5513d For this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God; as certainly One as God.
, than two, but only One : whose Unity is not like to that of the Individuals of this world, neither is he one by way of Species comprehending many individuals, neither one in the manner of a Body which is divisible into parts and extremes : but he is so one, as no Unity like his is to be found in the world. Moses Maim. de Fundam. Legis. Quod autem diximus, Orientis Ecclefias tradere unum Patrem Omnipotentem, & unum Doininum, hoc modo intelligendum eit, unum non numero dici, fed universitate: verbi gratiâ, fi quis dicat unum hominem, aut unum equum, hic unum pro nuinero pofuit, potest enim & alius homo effe, & tertius, vel equus. Ubi autem secundus & tertius non potest jungi, unus fi dicatur, non numeri, sed universitatis est nomen. Ut fi exempli causa dicamus unum Solem, hic unus ità dicitur ut alius vel tertius addi non poffit; multò magis Deus cùm unus dicitur, unus non numeri, sed universitatis vocabulo nuncupatur, id est, qui propterea unus dicatur, quòd alius non fit. Ruffin. in Symb. b Isa. 45. 5,6. Deut. 4.35. and 32. 39. Pfal. 18.31.c Ifai. 45. 18, 21, 22. and 44. 8. d John 17.3.
* Veritas Christiana districtè pronunciavit, Deus fi non unus est, non est; quia dignius crediinus non effe, quodcunque non ità fuerit ut esse debebit. Tertul, adv. Marcion. 1. 1. 6.2. Deus cùm summum magnum sit rectè veritas nostra pronunciavit, Deus fi non unus est, non est. Non quafi dubitemus effe Deum, dicendo, fi non unus, non eft Deus; sed quia, quem confidimus esse, idem definiamus effe, quod fi non eft Deus, non eft, fummum scilicet magnum. Porro summum magnum, unicum fit neceffe eft, ergo & Deus unicus erit non aliter Deus nil fummum magnum, nec aliter summum magnum nisi parem non habens, nec aliter parem non habens nisi unicus fuerit. Ibid.
ואינו לא שנים ולא,
אחרים הרבה : ולא אחר
God is one , not two , or more ככוף שהוא נחלק למחלקזר ולקצוות אלא אחר שאין ייחור אחר כמותו בעולם
It is necessary thus to believe the Unity of the Godhead, that being assured there is a nature worthy of our devotions, and challenging our religious sub
jection, we may learn to know whose that nature is to which we owe our
Unity of God in respect of him who is to be worshipped. Without this acknowledgment we cannot give unto God the things which are God's, it being part of the worship and honour due unto God, to accept of no compartner with him. When the Law was given, in the observance whereof the Religion of the Israelites consisted, the first precept was this prohibition, Thou Malt have no other gods before me ; and who- Exod. 20. 3. soever violateth this, denieth the foundation on which all the rest depend, as the * Jews observe. This is the true reason of that strict precept by which all * Moses Mai, are commanded to give divine worship to God only, a Thou shalt worship the mon. de Fund. Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve ; because he alone is God : a Mart. 4. 10. him only thalt thou fear, because he alone hath infinite power ; in him only shalt thou trust, because he only is our rock and our salvation ; to him a- Psal. 62. 2. lone shalt thou direct thy devotions, because he only knoweth the hearts of 2 Chron.6.30. the children of men. Upon this foundation the whole heart of man is intirely required of him, and engaged to him. Hear, O Israel, the Lordour
Deut. 6.4, 5. God is one God: And (or rather, Therefore) thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might. Whosoever were truly and by nature God, could not chuse but challenge our love upon the ground of an infinite excellency, and transcendent beauty of holiness; and therefore if there were more Gods than one, our love must necessarily be terminated unto +more than one, and consequently divided be- t Numerus
divinitatis tween them; and as our love, so also the proper effect thereof, our chearful
fummâ ratioand ready obedience, which, like the Child propounded to the judgment of So-ne conftare lomon, as soon as 'tis divided, is destroyed, b No man can serve two masters: deberet, vel
quoniam & for either he will hate the one, and love the other : or else he will hold to
cultura ejus the one and despise the other.
deduceretur. Ecce enim duos intuens Deos tàm pares quàm duo summa magna, quid facerem fi ambos colerem? vererer ne abundantia officii fuperftitio potius quam religio crederetur : quia duos tam pares & in altero ambos poffem in uno demereri: hoc ipfo teitimonium praeftans parilitati & unitati eorum, dum alterum in altero venerarer, dum in uno mihi duo sunt. Tertul. adv. Marcion. l. 1. c. 5. b Matth.6.24.
Having thus described the first notion of a God, having demonstrated the Existence and Vnity of that God, and having in these three particulars comprised all which can be contained in this part of the Article, we may now clearly deliver, and every particular Christian understand, whať it is he says when he makes his Confesion in these words, I believe in God; which in correspondence with the precedent discourse may be thus expressed :
Forasmuch as by all things created is made known the eternal power and Godhead, and the dependency of all limited Beings infers an infinite and independent essence ; whereas all things are for some end, and all their operations directed to it, although they cannot apprehend that end for which they are, and in prosecution of which they work, and therefore must be guided by fome universal and over-ruling wisdom; being this collection is so evident, that all the Nations of the Earth have made it; being God hath not only written himself in the lively characters of his Creatures, but hath also made frequent patefections of his Deity by most infallible Predictions and super
natural operations; therefore I fully assent unto, freely acknowledge, and clearly profess this truth, that there is a God.
Again, being a prime and independent Being, supposeth all other to depend, and confequently no other to be God; being the intire fountain of all perfections is capable of a double Head, and the most perfect government of the Univerle speaks the suprenie dominion of one absolute Lord; hence do I acknowledge that God to be but one, and in this Unity, or rather singularity of the Godhead, excluding all actual or possible multiplication of a Deity, I believe in God.
J bclicve in God the Father.
Fter the Confession of a Deity, and Assertion of the Divine Vnity, Eph. 4.6.
the next Consideration is concerning God's Paternity ; for that one i Cor. 8. 6. God is Father of all, and to us there is but one God, the Father.
Now, although the Christian notion of the divine Paternity be some * Omnem
way peculiar to the Evangelical Patefaction; yet * wherefoever God hath Deum qui ab
been acknowledged, he hath been understood and worshipped as a Fahomine colitur necelle est ther: the very Heathen † Poets so describe, their Gods, and their vulinter folennes
gar names did carry father † in them, as the most popular and universal rilus & preca
notion. ones Patrem nuncupari; non tantum honoris gratiâ, fed & rationis, & quòd antiquior est homine, & quòd vitam, falutem, victum præstat ut pater. Itaque & Jupiter à precantibus Pater vocatur, & Saturnus, & Janus, & Liber, & cæteri deinceps. Laitan. de ver. Sap. l. 4. c. 3. † That fo frequent in Homer, wairis ordão TE JE Wv te eundemque appellans dicit Ennius, Divumque hominumque pater rex. Ver. de L. L. 1. 4. As Servius obferves of Virgil, à Pocta penè omnibus Diis nomen Paternum additur, ut fiant venerabiliores : And before him Lucilius,
Ut neino fit noftrûin quin pater optimu' Divum,
* As Jupiter, which is Jovis Pater, or Zóz útwz, otherwise Diespater, or Aüüdtwe, and Marspiter, of whom Servius apud Pontifices Marípiter dicitur, Æneid. I. 3. So Semipater for Semo, and Euçdo útwe for Sardus, the proper Deity of Sardinia, Ptolem.
This name of Father is a relative; and the proper foundation of Paternity, as of a Relation, is Generation. As therefore the phrase of generating is diversy attributed unto several acts of the same nature with Generation properly taken, or by consequence attending on it : fo the title of Father is given unto divers persons or things, and for several reasons unto the fame God. These are the generations of the heavens and the earth, when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, faith Mofes. So that the creation or production of any thing by which
it is, and before was not, is a kind of generation, and consequently the Job 38.28. Creator or Producer of it a kind of Father. Hath the rain a Father? or
who hath begotten the drops of dew? By which words Job significs, that as
there is no other cause allignable of the Rain but God, fo may he as the * 'Eréqws ordée cause be called the Father of it, though not in the most proper sense, Tiş vsto "- he is the Father of his Son : and so the f Philosophers of old, who thought xbet, xi irigas that God did make the World, called him expressly, as the Maker, so the un, severus in Father of it. And thus a to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are Plutarch of all things; to which the words following in the Creed may seem to have rcPlato, calling lation, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth. But in this mass of God wat velice Creatures and body of the Universe, some works of the Crcation more pro70127W, savs, perly call him Father as being more rightly fons: such are all the rational of the cutes and intellectual off-spring of the Deity. Of merely natural Beings and irra: asuse es wes, i aitiova 276204 tuổ córpo réxanze. Platon. Quaft. And Alcimus, une dé, ési Tad airr@ live wav7ww.
I Cor. 8.6,
tional agents he is * the Creator of rational, as fo, the Father also ; they * so Plutarch are his Creatures, these his Sons. Hence he is stiled the a Father of Sp- aeftion, why rits, and the blessed Angels, when he laid the foundations of the Earth, Flato terms his Sons ; • When the morning stars sang together, and all the fons of God the Maker God mouted for joy : hence Man, whom he created after his own image, is all things. called his coff-Spring; and Adam, the immediate work of his hands, the life is são Son of God: hence may we all cry out with the Ifraelites taught by the
ανθρώπων παProphet so to speak; * Have we not all one Father ? hath not one God the isi voin created us ? Thus the first and most universal Notion of God's Paternity in Tus a borrowed or metaphorical sense is founded rather upon Creation than
χων και αψύ
Yow; Fashir Procreation.
of Gods and
men, Maker of all things inanimate and irrational. ου και χωρίς φησί κρύσιππ5 πατέρα καλείο ή αχόν7α το αστέρμα, xzitie in Tð réguce? Oylovóra. Non enim agri pater, fi Chryfippo credimus, is dicitur qui eum consevit, quanquain è semine deinde fruges nafcantur : as the Latin Translation most absurdly. For there is neither corn, nor any field, nor seed belonging to them in the words of Plutarch. But xóesor i not xwesov) is the Secunda, the coat (or rather coats in the acception of Chryfippus, and the language of those times) in which the Foetus is involved in the mother's womb. Though thereforé both the Secunda and the Foetus be madle of the seed of the male in the Philosophy of Chrylippus, yet he is not called the Father of the after-birth, but of the child; the one being endued with life and reafóri; and the other not.
b Job 38. 7. į Alts 17. 28. Luke 3. 38. e Malac. 2. IÒ.
a Heb. 12. 9.
μ, ας το παν
Unto this act of Creation is annexed that of Conservation, by which God doth uphold and preserve in being that which ar first he made, and to which he gave its Being
its Being. As therefore it is the Duty of the Parent to educate and preserve the Child, as that which had its Being from him; so this paternal education doth give the name of* Father unto Man, and Conservation gives *So Eustathius
obferves out of the same to God.
an ingenious Again, Redemption from a state of misery, by which a people hath become Etymologist : worle than nothing, unto a happy condition, is a kind of Generation, which dalag Osos: joined with love, care, and indulgence in the Redeemer, is fufficient to found
της ών άνθρωa new Paternity, and give him another title of a Father. Well might Mofes wê gas tos
παιδα, τηρών. tell the people of Israel , now brought out of the land of Egypt from their
ilo. brick and straw,
unto their Quails and Manna, unto their Milk and Honey, a is not be thy Father that hath bought thee ? hath he not made thee, and. Deut. 32. established thee? Well might God speak unto the same people as to b his b Exod. 4. 22. Šon, even his first-born, « Thus faith the Lord thy Redeemer; and he that c Isa. 44. 24. formed thee from the womb; Hearken untome, O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel, which are born by me from the belly, which are carried from the womb. And just is the acknowledgement made by that people instructed by the Prophet, a Doubtless thou art our Father, d Ifa. 63. 16. though Abraham be ignorant of us, and Ifrael acknowledge us not ; thou, O Lord, art our Father, our Redeemer, from everlasting is thy Name. And thus another kind of paternal Relation of God unto the sons of men is founded on a Restitution or temporal Redemption.
Besides, if to be born causeth Relation to a Father, then to be born again maketh an addition of another: and if to generate foundeth, then to regenerate addeth a Paternity. Now though we cannot enter the second time into our mother's womb, nor pass through the same door into the Scene of Life again ; yet we believe and are persuaded, that e except a man be born again, o John 3. 3. he cannot see the Kingdom of God. A double birth there is, and the world | Totum hoconsists of two, the first and the second man. And though the incorruptible minum genus seed be the Word of God, and the dispensers of it in some sense may fay, as do funt hoSt. Paul spake unto the Corinthians, * I have begotten you through the Go- mines duo spel: yet he is the true Father, whose Word it is, and that is God, even : the primus & seFather of lights, who of his own will begat us with the word of truth. Prop.Thush whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ, is born of God; which Cor. 4. 15.
& Fam. 1.17, Regeneration is as it were a second Creation : 1 for we are God's workmanShip, created in Christ Jesus unto good works. And he alone who did create h 1. John 5.1.
Ć Luke 20.35,
us out of nothing, can beget us again, and make us of the new Creation. When A Gen. 30.1,2. Rachel called to Jacob, - Give me Children, or else I die; he answered her
sufficiently with this question, Am I in God's stead? And if he only openeth Ou qS es? the womb, who else can make the * Soul to bear ? Hence hath he the name Oið bys tipes of Father, and they of Sons who are born of him; and so from that intermere og mesta nal act of spiritual Regeneration another title of paternity redoundeth unto xav pútog's the Divinity. arollvevcu, ug Nor is this the only second Birth or sole Regeneration in a Christian sense; னப்பy dutais dzenas, *
the Soul, which after its natural Being requires a birth into the life of Grace, Folévénzývo- is also after that born again into a life of Glory. Our Saviour puts us in vates osoas mind of the Regeneration, bwhen the Son of man shall fit in the throne of Philo de Allez. his glory. The Resurrection of our Bodies is a kind of coming out of the • Matt.19,28
. womb of the earth, and entring upon immortality, a nativity into another 36. life. For © they which mall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and • Rom. 8. 17. the resurrection from the dead, are the fons of God, being the fons of the 0.0.3.7+ resurrection; and then as fons, they become heirs, co-heirs with Christ, ere† 1 John 3.2. ceiving the promise and reward of eternal inheritance. Beloved, now we em BTW $ave are the fons of God, faith S. John, even in this life by Regeneration, and it pén.
doth not yet appear, or, it hath not been yet made manifeft, what we shall
but we know, that if he appear, we Jhall be like him : the manifestation
of the Father being a sufficient declaration of the condition of the Sons, when f 1 Pet. 1.3, 4. the Sonship it self consisteth in a similitude of the Father. And blessed be
the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope, by the Resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead ; to an inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for us. Why may not then a second kind of Regeneration be thought a fit addition of this paternal relation ?
Neither is there only a natural, but also a voluntary and civil foundation
of Paternity ; for the Laws have found a way by which a man may be| Caii Inf. 1. come a Father without procreation : and this imitation of Nature is cal.
led Adoption, taken in the general * signification. Although therefore maAdoptio naturæ fimilitu- ny ways God be a Father, yet lest any way might seem to exclude us from doelt, ut ali- being his Sons, he hath made us fo also by Adoption. Others are wont habere poflit, to fly to this, as to a comfort of their folitary condition, when either quem non † Nature hath denied them, or death bereft them of their off-spring. generavit.
Whereas God doth it not for his own, but for our fakes; nor is the adti iso jodesia; vokien vantage his, but ours. 8 Behold what manner of Love the Father hath area tus maius- bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God; that we,
the fons of disobedient and condemned Adam by natural generation, should αμυθίαν be translated into the glorious liberty of the fons of God by Adoption ;
even pleine that we, who were aliens, strangers and enemies, should be assumed - una Theoph. inft.
to the Father of our Lord Jefus Christ, on whom all the * family of hea* 'H yodocia ven and earth is named, and be made partakers of i the riches of the glory of Puuixa pa. his inheritance in the Saints. For as in the legal Adoption, the Father hath Oct 110v cúrn as full and absolute power over his adopted lon as over his own issue ; goce gfuixor the spiritual, the adopted fons have a clear and undoubted right of inheriovoua sis dúas drawęca), cis údegy alsóva, xj opóvumov adorlóa. Theoph. ibid. Caii Inf. 2. tit. 5. 5. 4. Spadones autem qui generare non poffunt, adoptare poffunt; & licet filios generare non poflint, quos adoptaverunt filios habere poffunt, Ulp. tit. $, 6. Hi qui generare non poffunt, velut spado, utroque modo poffunt adoptare. Idem juris eft in cælebe. Theoph. tit. 11. τυχόν έκ έχει τις παϊδας Alg το μη ελθείν επί γάμων, ή ελεεινά, μη παιδοποιήσαι 3, και παιδοποιήσαι , λίπβάλλες 3 τέτες, το οκ τ φύσεως ελάττωμα ή π ζυμβαν δυσύχημα βελό δρG- επικεφίσαι, έλαβεν είς και οθεσίαν τινώ. Leonis Novel. 27, τοίς ατυχέσιν άπαιδίαν λύα, βελό μόνο το δυστύχημα νόμΘ- οβελία, προσάας, και γνώμη εκάνο καλή, ο μη εύπορος λαβές ay is purews. $1 Joh. 3.1. h Eph. 3. 15. * In alienam familiam tranfitus, is the description in Agellius, 1.5.19. Cùm . in alienam familiam inque liberorum locum extranei fumuntur, aut per prætorem fit, aut per populum : quod per prætorem fit, adoptio dicitur; quod per populum, arrogatio, ib. i Eph. 1.18. † As appears out of the form of Rogation yet extant in this manner : Velitis, jubeatis, Quirites, uti Lucius Valerius Lucio Titio, tam jure legcque filius fibi liet, quam fi ex eo patre matreque familias ejus natus esset, utique ei vitæ necisque in eo potestas fiet, uti patri endo fic lio est : 1b.