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he took upon himself the Sins of thofe which otherwise had been damned: yer that Act of his was a most vertuous, charitable, and most glorious Act highly conformable to the Will of God, and confequently coulă not be the Object of Remorse. The Grief and Horror in the Soul of Christ, which we have exprefled in the Explication of his Sufferings antecedent to his Crucifixion, had reference to the Sins and Punilhment of Men, to the Justice and Wrath of God; but clearly of a nature different from the Sting of Conscience in the Souls condemned to eternal Flames. Again, an essential part of the Torments of Hell is a present and constant sense of the everlasting displea

fure of God, and an impossibility of obtaining favour, and avoiding pain : : an absolute and complete defpair of any better condition, or the least re

laxation : But Christ, we know, had never any tuch retentment,
looked upon the reward which was set before him, even upon the Cross
and offered up himself a sweet-fmelling Sacrifice: which could never be ef
ficacious, except offered in Faith. If we should imagine any damned Soul
to have received an exprefs Promise of God, that after 10000 Years he
would releafe him from thofe Torments, and make him everlastingly hap-
py, and to have a true Faith in that Promise, and a firm Hope of receiving
eternal Life; we could not fay that Man was in the fame condit
the rest of the damned, or that he felt all that Hell which they were fen:
fible of, or all that pain which was due unto his Sins : because hope and
confidence, and relying upon God, would not only mitigate all other pains,
but wholly take away the bitter anguifh of Despair. Christ then, who
knew the beginning, continuance, and conclufion of his Sufferings, who
underftood the determinate minute of his own Death and Refurrection, who
had made a Covenant with his father for all the degrees of his Paffion, and
was fully affared that he could fuffer no more than he had freely and deli-
berately undertaken, and should continue no longer in his Paffion than he
had himself determined, he who by those Torments was assured to overcome
all the Powers of Hell, cannot possibly be faid to have been in the same con-
dition with the damned, and strictly and properly to have endured the Pains
of Hell.

Again, If we take the Torments of Hell in a metaphorical sense, for those Terrors and Horrors of Soul which our Saviour felt, which may therefore be called infernal Torments, because they are of greater Extremity than any other Tortures of this Life, and because they were accompanied with a sense of the Wrath of God against the Unrighteousness of Men ; yet be an interpretation of the Descent into Hell, as it is an Article of the Creed, and as that Article is grounded upon the Scriptures. For all thofe Pains which our Saviour felt (whether, as they pretend, properly infernal, or metaphoricaily fuch) were antecedent to his Death; part of them in the Garden, part on the Cross; but all before he commended his Spirit into the hands of his Father, and gave up the Ghost. Whereas it is fufficiently evident that the Descent into Hell, as it now stands in the Creed, fignifieth fomething commenced after his Death, contradiftinguished to his Burial ; and, as it is considered in the Apostle's Explication, is clearly to be understood of that which immediately preceded his Resurrection; and that also grounded upon a confidence totally repugnant to infernal Pains. For it is thus particularly expressed: I forefaw the Lord always before my face; for he is on my right hand, that Pfal.16.9,10. I would not be moved. Therefore did my beart rejoyce, and my tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh Shall rest in hope: because thou wilt not leave my foul in hell. Where the Faith, Hope, Confidence, and Assurance of Chrif is shewn, and his flesh, though laid in the Grave, the place of Corruption, is laid to rejt m bope, for this very reason, because God would not leave his foul in hell. 'I conclude therefore, that the Descent into Hell is not the enduring




the Torments of Hell: because, if strictly taken, it is not true; if metaphorically taken, though it be true, yet it is not pertinent..

The Third Opinion, which is also very late, at least in the manner of Explication, is, that in those words, Thou shalt not leave my Soul in Hell; the Soul of Christ is taken for his Body, and Hell for the Grave, and consequently, in the Creed, He defcended into Hell, is no more than this, that Christ'in his Body was laid into the Grave. This Explication ordinarily is

ed, by denying that the Soul is ever taken for the Body, or Hell for the Grave; but in vain: For it must be acknowledged that sometimes the

Scriptures are rightly so, and cannot otherwise be, understood. First, the *The Hebrew fame word in the * Hebrew, which the Psalmist used, and in the Greek, walihe Greek which the Apostle used, and we translate the Soul, is elsewhere used for the Luxor > Body of a dead Man, and translated so. And when we read in Moses of a 19), atyni " WW Prohibition given to the High Priest or the Nazarite, of goi

to or six ixxclamei, coming near a dead Body, and of the Pollution by the Dead; the dead BoYess Luxlu com

les dy in the Hebrew and the Greek is nothing else but that which elsewhere sigM8 bis qolw, ay 11 Pfal. 16. 10. nifieth the Soul. And Mr. Ainsworth, who translated the Pentateuch nearer But both US) the Letter than the Sense, hath so delivered it in compliance with the origiand foxr, are used for the nal Phrase; and may be well interpreted thus by our Translation, o Te båll Body of a dead not make in your flesh any cutting for a foul, that is, for the dead: c For a Man, Num.6. 6. and it is fo Job

.: foul he shall not defile himself among the people, that is, There shall none be translated; do for the dead among bus people : d He that toucheth any thing that is for Moses unclean by a foul, that is, by the dead: e Every one defiled by a foul, that is, Speaking there Upea nazarite, by the dead: F He mall not come at a dead soul, that is, He Mall come at no gives this dead Body. Thus Ainsworth's Translation theweth, that in all these places the Law, All the days that he orig

e original word is that which originally signifieth the Soul; and our Translation separateth teacherh us, that though in other places it signifieth the Soul, yet in himself unto must be taken for the Body, and that Body bereft of the Soul." the Lord he shall come at no dead Body, in the Original 22 na vojny, and in the LXX. éri wéon Luxeh teleadconnue *x BiGENOCIJ. In the same manner the Law for the High-Priest. Lev.21.11. Neither shall he go in to any dead body N a mərupa 53 byi, sjeni mbon Yoxã TEENUTNxúce s'n eigendorg. And the general Law, Lev. 22. 4. And whoso toucheth any thing that is unclean by the dead, VDI NDO )yadin og ó- atlóufu @ wéons exactarias vuxna Which is farther cleared by that of Num. 19.11. He that touches the dead body of any man, Qui tetigerit cadaver hominis; and v. 13. Whosoever toucheth the dead body of any man that is dead, Omnis qui tetigerit humanæ aninæ morticinum. Therefore the way and luxv) in Lev. 29.4. do signifie 'the cadaver or morticinum; as also Num. 5.2, Whosoever is defiled by the Dead, DD2) Nov , wvlce dexábueloyéti fuxñ, pollutum super mortuo. And VD NDU exébazla ini yoxñ, Hag. 2. 13. is rightly translated, one that is unclean by a dead body. Thus several times vg) and foxri are taken for the body of a dead Man; that body which polluted a Man under the Law by the touch thereof.

And Maimonides hath observed, that there is no pollution from the Body till the Soul-be departed. Therefore WD) and Hoxha did signifie the Body after the Separation of the Soul. And this was anciently observed by S. Augustine, that the Soul may be taken for the Body only. Animæ nomine corpus folum poffe fignificari modo quodam locutionis oftenditur, quo significatur per id quod continetur illud quod continet; ficut ait quidam, Vina coronant, cùm coronarentur vasa vinaria; vinum enim continetur, & vas continet. Sicut ergò appellamus Ecclefiam Bafilicam quâ continetur populus, qui verè appellatur Ecclesia, ut nomine Ecclefiæ, id eft, populi qui continetur, fignificemus locum qui con; tinet: ita quod animæ corporibus continentur, intelligi corpora filiornm per nominatas animas possunt. Sic enim meliùs accipitur etiam illud, quòd Lex inquinari dicit eum qui intraverit super animam mortuam, hoc eft, fuper defun&ti cadaver ; ut nomine iniinæ mortuæ mortuum corpus intelligatur, quod animam continebat, quia & absente populo, id est Ecclesiâ, locus tamen ille nihilominus Ecclefia nuncupatur. Epift. 157. ad Optatum, de Animarum Origine.

o Lev. 19. 21. e Lev. 21. 1. d Lev. 22. 4. Num. 5. 2, Num. 6. 6. *The Hebrew Secondly, * The word which the Pfalmift ufed in Hebrew, and the 'Apothe Greek ons. Bows up atyn as in "Ors sx igxcelendistess Huxlu' ris aede, (or visāds as it is read in the AAs and in the Pfalins, alfo by the ancient MS. at S. James's.) And these generally run together, and sometimes fignifi no more than the Grave, as Gen.:37. 35. where Jacob, thinking that his son Joseph had been dead, breaks out into this fad Expreffion, aw baš 12 b onne id, "Ori xc766couas wegs jóy Me Wsvēão eis qe do, which we translate, For I will go down into the grave unto my Son mourning, upon the Authority of the ancient Targums. For although that of Onkelos keep the original word, FUN; yet the Jerusalem Targum and that of Jonathan render it Nmap a), in domum fepulchri; and the Persian Targum, to the fame purpose, 732; as also the Arabick Transation, Imò descendam ad pulverem mæftus de filio meo. so Gen. 42:38. . NW naia inaw na on771.71, xj xa lážité My Thi ya eges Hot númns Mis odzo which we translate, Then shall ye bring down my grey hairs with sorrow to the grave: where the Jerusalem Targum and that of Jonathan have it again 01273 25; and the Perlian again nila in fepulchrum; sho Arabick bar bu ad pulverem, or ad terram. And it is observed by the Jewish Commentators that shofe ChriAians are mistaken 'who interprei those words spoken by Jacob, I will go down into Sheol, of Hell; declaring thar Sheol shere is noshing else but the Grave.. i


Atle in Greek, and is translated Hell, doch certainly in some other places fio. nifie no more than the Grave, and is translated so." As where Mr. Ainsworth

Pa Gen. 37. 35 followeth the Word, a For I will go down unto my Son mourning to hell : our Translation aiming at the Sense, rendreth it; For I will go down into the grave unto my Son mourning. So again he, b Te shall bring down my gray

the grave.

And in th

And in this sense we say, b 42. 38. hairs with forrow unto hell, that is, to the grave. c The Lord killeth and maketh alive ; he bringeth down to the grave, and or Sam. 2.6. bringeth up.

Now being the Soul is sometimes taken for the Body deserted by the Soul. and Hell is also sometimes taken for the Grave, the Receptacle of the Body dead; therefore it is conceived that the Prophet did intend these Significa tions in those Words, Thou shalt not leave my soul in hell; and consequently the Article grounded on that Scripture must import no more than this. Cbrift in respect of his Body bereft of his Soul, which was recommended in to, and deposited in the hands of his Father, descended into the grave.

This Exposition hath that great Advantage, that he which first mentioned this Descent in the Creed, did interpret it of the Burial ; and where this ticle was expressed, there that of the Burial was omitted. But notwithstanding those Advantages, there is no Certainty of this Interpretation : First. Because he *which did so interpret it, at the same time, and in the Tenure * Rufinus, of that Expression, did acknowledge a Descent of the Soul of Christ into who first menHell: and those other + Creeds which did likewise omit the Burial, and ex

tioned this Arpress the Descent, did shew, that by that Descent they understood not that terpret it out of the Body, but of the Soul. Secondly, Because they which put these words the Grave; as into the Roman Creed, in which the Burial was expressed before, must cer- Wanaue al tainly understand a Descent distinct from that ; and therefore though it might ved; but yet perhaps be thought a probable Interpretation of the Words of David, espe- pe uru velieve

he did believe cially taken as belonging to David, yet it cannot pretend to an Exposition of stinct from the Creed, as now it stands.

that, in the . Exposition of

the Creed : , Sed & quòd in infernum descendit, evidenter prænunciatur in Pfalmis, &c. and then citing that of s. Peter, Unde & Petrus dixit, Quia Christus mortificatus carne, vivificatus autem fpiritu, in ipso, ait, & eis qui in carcere inclusi erant in diebus Noe, in quo etiam quid operis egerit in inferno declaratur, as we before more largely cited the same place. ti Mewed before, that in the Creed made at Sirmium there was the Descent mentioned, and the Burial omitted, and net that Descent was so expressed that it could not be taken for the Burial : Besides now I add, That it was made by the Arians, who in few Years before had given in another Creed, in which both the Burial and the Descent were mentioned: as that of Nice in Thracia, Lizberovia, rj Tapivia, sej sis ta xalazbóvia valendova, öv cu tos ó dns éreguaţsv. Theodoret. Hilt. k. 2. c. 21. and not long after gave in another at Constantinople to the fame purpose, sowewbeya, si dicerón Tupávid, sy eis na xee7cezeórice dreānaubóta, or two rj autos o çons ég?nger. Socrat. lib. 2. c. 4.

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The next Opinion is, That the Soul may well be understood either for the Noble part of Man distinguished from the Bódy; or else for the Person of Man consisting of both Soul and Body, as it often is; or for the Living Soul, as it is distinguished from the Immortal Spirit: but then the term Het shall signifie no Place, neither of the Man, nor of the Body, nor of the Soul; but only the State or Condition of-Men in Death, during the Separation of the Soul from the Body. So that the Prophecy fhall run thus, Thou shalt not leave my Soul in Hell, that is, Thou shalt not suffer me to remain in the common State of the Dead, to be long deprived of my Natural Life, to continue without Exercise, or Power of exercising my vital Faculty: And then the Creed will have this Sense, that Christ was crucified, dead and buried, and defcended into Hell; that is, he went unto the Dead, and remained for a Time in the State of Death, as other Men do.

But this Interpretation supposeth that which can never appear, that Hades signifieth not Death it felf, nor the Place where Souls departed are, but the State and Condition of the Dead, or their Permansion in Death; which is a Notion wholly new, and consequently cannot interpret that which repre



* The Opinion senteth something known and believed of old, according to the Notions and of the ancient Conceptions of those Times. And that this Notion is wholly new, will apGreeks in this

has pear, because not any of the ancient Fathers is produced to avow it, nor lently expref- any of the Heathen Authors which are produced do affirm it : Nay, it is sed by Tertul- evident that the Greeks did always by Hades understand a Place into which lian, who thews three the Souls of Men were carried and conveyed, distinct and separate from that kinds of men Place in which we live ; and that their different Opinions shew, placing it, to be thought, fome in the Earth, some under it, fome in one unknown place of it, some not to descend ad inferos in another. But especially Hades, in the Judgment of the ancient Greeks, when they cannot consist in this notion of the State of Death, and the Permansion Infepulti, me in that Condition, because there were many which they believed to be second Aori, dead, and to continue in the State of Death, which yet they believed not the third Bix- to be in Haděs, as * those who died before their Time, and those whose othanati. Creditum eft, in- Bodies were unburied. Thus likewise the ancient Fathers differed much consepultos non cerning the Place of the Infernus ; but never any doubted but that it figniante ad inferos redigi quam justa perceperint. De Anim. c. 56. Aiunt & immaturâ morte præventas eousque vagari ifthic, donec reliquatio compleatur ætatis quâcum pervixissent fi non intempestivè obiiffent. Ibid. Proinde extorres inferûm habebantur, quas vi ereptas arbitrantur, præcipuè per atrocitates suppliciorum ; crucis dico & fecuris, & gladii, & feræ. 1b. The Souls then of those whose Bodies were unburied were thought to be kept out of Hades till their Funerals were performed, and the Souls of them who died an untimely or a violent Death, were kept from the Same Place until the Time of their natural Death should come. This he farther expresses in the Terms of the Magicians, whose Art was conversant about Souls departed. Aut optimum eft hic retinere fecundùm ahoros, (i, e. døg8s) aut peffimum, secundùm Biæothanatos, (Bidsweaveétos) ut ipfis jam vocabulis utar, quibus auctrix opinionum iftaruin Magica sonat, Hoftanes, & Typhon, & Dardanus, & Damigeron, & Nectabis, & Bernice. Publica jam literatura eft quæ animas etiam jufta ætate lopitas, etiam probâ morte disjunctas, etiam promptâ humatione difpunctas, evocaturam fe ab inferûm incolatu pollicetur, cap. 57. Of that of the Insepulti, he produceth the Example of Patroclus : Secundùm Homericum Patroclum funus in fomnis de Achille flagitantem, quòd non alias adire portas inferûm posset, arcentibus eum longè animabus fepultorum, The Place he intended is that, Iliad. .

Θάπλεμε, ότι τάχισα πύλας αίδιο περήσω.
Τηλέ με ειργάσιν ψυχαι, άδωλα καμόνων.

Oudi mé tows uioleaf wie wolapoio éãos. in the same manner he describes Elpenor, Odyff. a.

Ilgas on ö Yuxa 'EXTívoga lage étaigo,

Ou ráę w w étédarlo twò xbords iuguodeins. Where it is the observation of Eustathius, "Oro dóžce ho toñs "Eranou, tais of dibeba love you gods ple diyapiyouas tais 2017 xüs. And the same Eustathius observes an extraordinary Accurateness in that Question of Penelope concerning Ulysses, upon shat same ground, Odyff. de

Eltr pro Çad, w ogão ga jenioso.

"H éto teduaxed, vej tiv äideo dóvoir.. To 5, sj ogą oãs sais, di, özgórnia crvoices ról. as dewelog ör sono mai pesa Baérov . Oūtw Ở , civ äid no dówortl, Tegs ακρίβσαν λόΓε ερρέθη και τα τοις εξής δηλοθησόμενον Ελλωικών μύθον, και πάς τεθνηκως και ν αδε γίνε , και μη και πυρά δοση, rabe sej Evertido fu aiud nonúdwegs: üst to, by Tí Jynxe, xj biv aidao dópoloty ávnd 78, non rébinxe, rj Tičar). It is here very observable tbat, according to the Opinion of the Greeks, to be dead is one thing, and to be in Hades is another : and that every one which died was not in Hades, ý wäs te Jurkais se cv dy give y, as Eustathius speaks. Legimus præterea in Sexto insepultorum animas vagas esse, Serv. in Æneid. 3. The place which he intended I suppose is this,

Hæc omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataque turba eft ;
Fortitor ille Charon; hi quos vehit undâ sepulti,
Nec ripas datur horrendas nec rauca fluenta
Transportare priùs quàm fedibus offa quiêrunt.

Centum errant annos, volitantque hæc littora circum. Virg. Æn. 6. :
Thus he is to be understood in the Description of the Funeral of Polydorus, Æneid. 3.

Érgo instauramus Polydoro funus, & ingens
Aggeritur tumulo tellus, animamque sepulchro

Condimus.Not that anima does there fignifie the body, as some have observed; but that the Soul of Polydorus was then in rell when his Body received Funeral Rites, as Servius, Legimus præterea in Sexto insepultorum animas vagas esse, & hinc conftat non legitimè fepultum fuisse. Ritè ergo redditâ legitimâ sepulturà; redit ad quietem sepulchri, faith Servius; or rather, in the sense of Virgil, ad quietem inferni, according to the Petition of Palinurus,

Sedibus ut faltem placidis in morte quiescam. And that the Soul of Polydorus was fo wandring about the place where his Body lay unburied, appeareth out of Euripides in Hecuba, where he speaketh thus, New tale Mondeos Qiang 'Exáons clara, Cãpi ignuáras (ror, Texañor en Dégro aiweó felves. And in the Troades of the fame Poet this ään, or erratio vagabunda infepultorum, is acknowledged by the Chorus in these Words, 12 piac, a Téco uos, Ej phimile a divers "AJA710, avvero. And when their Bodies were buried, then their souls passed into Hades, to the resi. so was it with Polydorus, and that Man mentioned in the History of the Philosopher Athenodorus, whose umbra or phasma walked after his Death. Inveniuntur offa inserta.catenis & implicita, quæ corpus ævo terrâq; putrefactum, nuda & exesa reliquerat vinculis : collecta publicè fepeliuntur ; domus poftea ritè conditis manibus caruit. Plin. l. 7. Epift. 27. This was the Case of the Insepulti. And for that of the Biæos thanati, it is remarkable that Dido threatneth Æneas,


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sequar atris ignibus absens,
Et cum frigida mors animâ feduxerit artus;
Omnibus umbra locis adero.-

Ihon bich place Servius obferves, Dicunt Physici Biæothanatorum animas non recipi in originem suam, nisi vagantes Pagirimum tempus fati compleverint ; quod Poetæ ad sepulturam transferunt, ut, Centum errant annos. Hoc ergo nunc dicit Dido, Occisura me ante diem sum ; vaganti mihi dabis pænas : Nam te persequar, & adero quàm diu erravero semper.

fied fome * Place or other : and if they had conceived any such Notion as *"Adng ' the

to quão ciesthe State of Death, and the Permansion of the Dead in that State, they need

-dris, nygu cipied not to have fallen into Doubts or Questions; the Patriarchs and the Pro- unistjáguas, phets being as certainly in the State of Death, and remaining so, as Corah, tas yuxas

mpeão Me D.FEV Dathan, and Abiram, are, or any Person which is certainly condemned to indmpéras deeverlasting Flames. Though therefore it be certainly true that Christ did cópsu@: Antruly and properly die, as other Men are wont to do, and that after Expi-dreas. Cæfar:

Xple in Apocal. ration he was in the State or Condition of the Dead, in deadlihood, as fome have learned to speak ; yet the Creed had spoken as much as this before, when it delivered that he was dead. And although 'tis true that he

Igh ’ris true that he might have died, and in the next Minute of Time revived, and consequently his Death not (precisely taken) signifie any Permansion or Duration in the State of Death, and therefore it might be added, he descended into Hell, to fignifie farther a Permansion or Duration in that Condition : yet if Hell do fignifie nothing else but the State of the Dead, as this Opinion doth suppose, then to defcend into Hell is no more than to be dead; and so notwithstanding any Ďuration implied in that Expression, Christ might have ascended the next Minute after he descended thither, as well as he might be imagined to revive the next Minute after he died. Being then to descend into Hell, according to this Interpretation is no more than to be dead; being no Man ever doubted but that Person was dead who died ; being it was before delivered in the Creed that Christ died, or, as we render it, was dead: we cannot imagine but they which did add this part of the Article to the Creed, did intend something more than this, and therefore we cannot admit this Notion as a full or proper Exposition.

There is yet left another Interpreration grounded upon the general Opinion of the Church of Christ in all Ages, and upon a probable Exposition of the Prophecy of the Pfalmift, taking the Soul in the most proper sense for the Spirit or Rational part of Christ, that part of a Man which, according to our Saviour's Doctrine, the Jews could not kill; and looking upon Hell as a Place distinct from this part of the World where we live, and distinguished from those Heavens whither Christ ascended, into which Place the Souls of Men were conveyed after or upon their Death ; and therefore thus expounding the Words of the Psalmist in the Person of Christ; Thou shalt not suffer that Soul of mine which shall be forced from my Body by the Violence of Pain upon the Cross, but resigned into thy hands, when it shall go into that Place below where the Souls of Men departed are detained : I say, thou shalt not suffer that Soul to continue there as theirs have done ; but shalt bring it shortly from thence, and re-unite it to my Body. For the better understanding of this E

of this Exposition, there are several things to be observed, both in respect to the Matter of it, and in reference to the Authority of the Fathers. First therefore, this must be laid down as a certain and necessary Truth, That the Soul of Man, when he dieth, dieth not, but returneth unto him that gave it, to be disposed of at his Will and Pleasure; according to the ground of our Saviour's Counsel, Fear not them which kill the Matt. 10:28; body, but cannot kill the foul. Thar better part of us therefore in and after Death doth exist and live, either by virtue of its spiritual and immortal Nature, as we believe ; or at least the Will of God: and his Power upholding and pre

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