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on the former, they are separated by a colon; as, 'Study to acquire a habit of thinking: no study is more im. portant.

II. When the sense of several members of a sentence, which are separated from each other by semicolons, depends on the last clause, that clause is generally separated from the others by a colon; as, 'A divine legislator uttering his voice from heaven; an almighty governor stretching forth his arm to reward or punish; informing us of perpetual rest prepared hereafter for the righteous, and of indignation and misery awaiting the wicked: these are considerations which overawe the world, support integrity, and check guilt.'

III. When an example or a quotation is introduced, it is sometimes separated from the rest of the sentence by a colon; as, 'He was often heard to say:

“ I have done with the world, and I am willing to leave it."


Supply the points omitted in the following sentences:

I. Virtue is too lovely to be immured in a cell the world is the sphere of her action. Do not flatter yourself with the hope of perfect happiness there is no such thing in the world. The three great enemies to tranquillity are vice superstition and idleness vice which poisons and disturbs the mind with bad passions superstition which fills it with imaginary terrors idleness which loads it with tedious. ness and disgust.

II. If he has not been unfaithful to his king if he has not proved a traitor to his country if he has never given cause for such charges as have been preferred against him why then is he afraid to confront his accusers ? By acquiring an humble trust in the mercy and favour of God through Jesus Christ by doing or at least endeavouring to do our duty to God and man by cultivating our minds and properly employing our time and thoughts by governing our passions and our temper by correcting all unreasonable expec. tations from the world and in the midst of worldly business habitu. ating ourselves to calm retreat and serious reflection by such means as these it may be hoped that through the divine blessing our days shall flow in a stream as unruffled as the human state admits.

III. All our conduct towards men should be influenced by this important precept “ Do unto others as you would that others should do unto you." Philip III. king of Spain when he drew near the end of his days seriously reflecting on his past life and greatly affected with the remembrance of his misspent time expressed his deep regret in these terms “ Ah how happy would it have been for me had I spent in retirement these twenty-three years that I have held my kingdom.”



I. The period marks the end of a sentence, unless it is interrogative or exclamatory; as, Cultivate the love of truth.'

II. The period is used after abbreviations ; as, • K. C. B., Knight Commander of the Bath.'


Supply the points omitted in the following passages:

1. The absence of evil is a real good peace quiet and exemption from pain would be a continual feast

The resources of virtue remain entire when the days of trouble come they remain with us in sickness as in health in poverty as in the midst of riches in our dark and solitary hours no less than when surrounded with friends and cheerful society the mind of a good man is a kingdom to him and he can always enjoy it

If we look around us we shall perceive that the whole universe is full of active powers action is indeed the genius of nature by motion and exertion the system of being is preserved in vigour by its different parts always acting in subordination one to another the perfection of the whole is carried on the heavenly bodies perpetu. ally revolve day and night incessantly repeat their appointed course continual operations are going on in the earth and in the waters nothing stands still

II, Constantine the Great was advanced to the sole dominion of the Roman empire A D 325 and soon after openly professed the Christian faith

The letter concludes with this remarkable postscript “PS

Though I am innocent of the charge and have been bitterly per. secuted yet I cordially forgive my enemies and persecutors"

The last edition of that valuable work was carefully compared with the original MS


POINT OF INTERROGATION, &c. The point of Interrogation is used after sentences which ask questions; as, Who will accompany me?'

The point of Exclamation is used after expressions of emotion; as, “O Peace! how desirable thou art !

The Dash is used to mark a break or abrupt turn in a sentence; as,

Here lies the great--False marble, where? Nothing but sordid dust lies here.'

The Parenthesis is used to enclose an explanatory clause or member of a sentence, not absolutely necessary to the sense, but useful in explaining it, or introducing an important idea; as,

· Know then this truth (enough for man to know), Virtue alone is happiness below.'


Supply the points omitted in the following passages :

We wait till to-morrow to be happy alas why not to-day shall we be younger are we sure we shall be healthier

will our passions become feebler and our love of the world less

Beauty and strength combined with virtue and piety how lovely in the sight of men how pleasing to Heaven peculiarly pleasing because with every temptation to deviate they voluntarily walk in the path of duty

On the one hand are the divine approbation and immortal honour on the other remember and beware are the stings of conscience and endless infamy

As in riper years all unseasonable returns to the levity of youth ought to be avoided an admonition which equally belongs to both

sexes still more are we to guard against those intemperate indul. gences of pleasure to which the young are unhappily prone*

III.-Use of Words.
Words are divided, according to their use in expressing
ideas, into nine classes ; namely :-
I. Articles, or words which limit the signification

of other words.
II. Nouns, or names of persons, places, and things.
III. Adjectives, or words which qualify nouns.
IV. Pronouns, or words used in place of nouns.

V. Verbs, or words which affirm.
VI. Adverbs, or words which qualify verbs, adjec-

tives, or other adverbs.
VII. Prepositions, or words which show the rela-

tion of one thing to another. VIII. Conjunctions, or words which connect words

and sentences. IX. Interjections, or words which express sudden

emotion. The following are the changes of termination or form, which words undergo in expressing ideas :

I. The Indefinite Article is written a, before words beginning with the sound of a consonant; an, before words beginning with the sound of a vowel ; as, A book, a youth ; an army, an hour.

II. Nouns change their termination to express Number; as, Book, books; box, boxes ; hero, heroes ; city, cities ; knife, knives ; ox, oxen; cherub, cherubim ; mouse, mice.

Nouns change their form to express Gender; as,

: Punctuation may be also taught by making the Pupils write and point passages from dictation.

Abbot, abbess ; father, mother ; man-servant, maidservant.

Nouns change their termination to express Case; as, Parent, parent's.

III. Adjectives change their form to express Comparison; as, Safe, safer, safest ; great, greater, greatest; useful, more useful, most useful ; good, better, best.

IV. Personal Pronouns change their form to express Number and Case; as, He, his, him ; they, theirs, them.

Possessive Pronouns change their form to express Number; as, My, our.

The Relative Pronoun who changes the termination to express Case; as, Who, whose, whom.

The Demonstrative Pronouns change their form to express Number; as, This, these ; that, those.

V. Verbs change their termination to express Number; as, He writes, they write.

Verbs change their termination in the singular number, to express Person; as, I write, thou writest, he writes.

Verbs change their form to express Time and Mood; as, Write, wrote, writing, written.

VI. Adverbs change their form to express Comparison ; as, Soon, sooner, soonest; nobly, more nobly, most nobly; well, better, best.



Supply the words omitted in the following examples: 1. flower, apple. house. honour.

gar. den. fields. rainbow. clouds. variety. Rhine, abbess. Pope. pens. ornament. sun, earthquake. Thames. rivulet. conti. nent.

laws. II. A good

A wise
A strong

An obe.

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