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Such bribes the rapid Greek o'er Asia whirl'd,
Wreaths which at last the dear-bought right convey
On what foundation stands the warrior's pride?
Peace courts his hand, but spreads her charms in vain
Extract from Mr. ELLIOTT'S Address before the Literary and Philosophical Society of South Carolina.
Science gives new skill and value to the labours of the me chanic, new resources to the man of business, new dignity to the leisure hours of the man of wealth, new enjoyments to the man of pleasure, new powers to the man of exertion.
Knowledge is power. How wonderful the difference between the poor naked wandering savage, trembling before the elements which in terror he adores, depending upon his solitary unaided exertions, for food, for arms, for raiment, for shelter; and the civilized man, who strong in the science and resources of society, rides over the ocean, even on the wings of the tempest; disarms the lightning of its power; ascends the airy canopy of heaven; penetrates into the profound caverns of the earth; arms himself with the power of the elements; makes fire and air, and earth and water, his ministering servants; and standing, as it were, on the confines of nature, seems, as by a magic talisman, to give energy and life to the brute elements of
It is not from the simple products of the earth, or from the crude materials, with which a country may abound, that her power and resources must arise. The most productive regions have frequently been the most weak and dependant. The blessings of nature may be blighted by the ignorance and folly of man. A nation must seek for wealth and power, by encouraging that active and profound knowledge, which ascertaining the principles, the proportions, the combinations, the affinities of the mineral; the habits, the productions, the qualities, the uses of the vegetable; and the manners, the instincts, the properties, whether noxious or useful, of the animal kingdom, can give to every substance which it possesses, or can obtain every appropriate use; can procure for them their ultimate value; and can convert them at will into instruments of pleasure, of riches, of grandeur, or power.
It is not easy to determine how far each science contributes in the general class or to estimate its relative value. Forming one radient circle they naturally support, they mutually enlighten each other. The proud fabric of modern science is composed of materials extracted from every quarter, and has been constructed by the labours of hundreds and of thousands, cooperating in one common design. Every ascertained fact, every discovery, in any department, adds to the general mass of knowledge, and enlarges the circle of human observation
and improvement. No enquiry should be abandoned as abstruse and uninteresting, none rejected as obscure and insignificant. No tribute should be withheld as too humble and unimportant. The mighty streams that gladden the earth and diffuse wealth and enjoyment along their extended borders, are formed by the union of small and unnoticed springs. It is not the magnitude of the fountain head, but the number of tributary streams that determine their size and importance. Some branches of knowledge, from the sublimity of their views, from the certainty of their result, or from their extensive application to all the occupations of life, may have the higher claims to our notice; but those which only serve to polish or to decorate, merit also attention. We should no more wish to deface the Corinthian capital of science, than to sap its deep foundation.
Extract from Judge STORY'S Address before the Phi Beta Kappa Society-August, 1826.
If christianity may be said to have given a permanent elevation to woman, as an intellectual and moral being, it is as true, that the present age, above all others, has given play to her genius, and taught us to reverence its influence. It was the fashion of other times to treat the literary acquirements of the sex, as starched pedantry, or vain pretensions; to stigmatize them as inconsistent with those domestic affections and virtues, which constitute the charm of society. We had abundant homilies read upon their amiable weaknesses and sentimental delicacy, upon their timid gentleness and submissive dependence; as if to taste the fruit of knowledge were a deadly sin, and ignorance were the sole guardian of innocence. Their whole lives were sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought," and concealment of intellectual power was often resorted to, to escape the dangerous imputation of masculine strength. In the higher walks of life, the satirist was not without colour for the suggestion, that it was
"A youth of folly, an old age of cards;"
and that elsewhere, "most women had no character at all," beyond that of purity and devotion to their families. Admirable as are these qualities, it seemed an abuse of the gifts of Providence to deny to mothers the power of instructing their children, to wives the privilege of sharing the intellectual pursuits of their husbands, to sisters and daughters the delight of min
istering knowledge in the fireside circle, to youth and beauty the charm of refined sense, to age and infirmity the consolation of studies, which elevate the soul and gladden the listless hours of despondency.
These things have in a great measure passed away. The prejudices, which dishonoured the sex, have yielded to the influence of truth. By slow but sure advances, education has extended itself through all ranks of female society. There is no longer any dread, lest the culture of science should foster that masculine boldness or restless independence, which alarms by its sallies, or wounds by its inconsistencies. We have seen that here, as every where else, knowledge is favourable to hu man virtue and human happiness; that the refinement of literature adds lustre to the devotion of piety; that true learning, like true taste, is modest and unostentatious; that grace of manners receives a higher polish from the discipline of the schools; that cultivated genius sheds a cheering light over domestic duties, and its very sparkles, like those of the diamond, attest at once its power and its purity. There is not a rank of female society however high, which does not now pay homage to literature, or that would not blush even at the suspicion of that ignorance, which a half century ago was neither uncom mon nor discreditable. There is not a parent, whose pride may not glow at the thought, that his daughter's happiness is in a great measure within her own command, whether she keeps the cool sequestered vale of life, or visits the busy walks of fashion.
A new path is thus open for female exertion, to alleviate the pressure of misfortune, without any supposed sacrifice of dignity or modesty. Man no longer aspires to an exclusive dominion in authorship. He has rivals or allies in almost every department of knowledge; and they are to be found among those, whose elegance of manners and blamelessness of life command his respect, as much as their talents excite his admiration. Who is there, that does not contemplate with enthusiasm the precious fragments of Elizabeth Smith, the venerable learning of Elizabeth Carter, the elevated piety of Hannah More, the persuasive sense of Mrs. Barbauld, the elegant memoirs of her accomplished niece, the bewitching fictions of Madame D'Arblay, the vivid, picturesque, and terrific imagery of Mrs. Rad cliffe, the glowing poetry of Mrs. Hemans, the matchless wit, the inexhaustible conversations, the fine character painting, the practical instructions of Miss Edgeworth, the great KNOWN, standing in her own department by the side of the great UN KNOWN?
Extract from an Address of T. CHILDS, Esquire, at Rochester, on the Completion of the ERIE CANAL.
We dwell with increasing delight upon the completion of this great enterprise, as the first example of an extensive application of the funds and power of the state, to the purposes of internal improvement.
The wild and uncultivated state of this western country, is nearly within the remembrance of every individual who hears me. He can close his eyes, and the unbroken forest is dark and waving before him: he wakes, and the fruits of every clime are proffered for his acceptance. The wand of the enchanter has passed over the wilderness, and lo! it is filled with life and clothed with verdure. While contemplating the reclaimed and beautiful face of the earth, it should ever be remembered with emotions of gratitude, that religion and literature are occupying every foot of soil from which unsubdued nature is retreating. I say religion and literature; for although legislative provisions look only to the intellectual education, yet the wisdom of the world has seen their inseparable union, and the relation of both to the welfare of society. If it were possible to suppose such an anomalous and revolting contrast as physical nature Bowering and fragrant, in all the profusion and exuberance of its highest cultivation, while the intellectual being who is riotng upon all this bounty, should exhibit himself an object of ignorant and idolatrous abasement; instead of dwelling with delight, we should turn with loathing and abhorrence from the whole picture. No such unnatural union or contrast exists. The parental solicitude of the legislature seeks every child in the loneliest and darkest hut to which poverty can retreat, and Teads him forth to light and knowledge. The human mind here cannot enter upon its state of mortal existence, but it becomes at once the adopted child of the whole community, and has con'centrated upon it every influence calculated to reform the heart, or develope the intellect. While warm and animated with such reflections, it would require but a feeble effort of fancy to ascend some local eminence, from which the whole region destined to be reclaimed and blessed, might be subjected to the view; and a more delightful prospect the eye of the christian or The patriot never rested on. He would behold a great people, from whom industry had driven vice and poverty, whom religion had elevated to christianity, and education to intellectual beings: extending his view to the long line of this artificial navigation, he would behold its channel freighted with the produce