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never sanction such an expenditure of animal life,
RULES FOR EMPLOYING TIME. were it not to answer some important end in the well- In the morning, when you awake, accustom yourself to
think first upon God, or something in order to His service; and at night, also, let Him close thine eyes. Let your sleep be necessary and healthful, not idle and expensive of time beyond the needs and conveniences of nature; and sometimes be curious to see the preparation which the sun makes, when coming forth from his chambers of the east.
Let every man that hath a calling be diligent in pursuance of its employment, so as not lightly or without reasonable occasion to neglect it in those times which are usually and by the custom of prudent persons employed in it.
Let all the intervals or void spaces of time be employed in prayer, reading, meditating, works of nature, recreation, charity, friendliness, neighbourhood, and means of spiritual and bodily health; ever remembering so to work in our calling as not to neglect the work of our high calling, but to begin and end the day with God, with such forms of de votion as shall be proper to our necessities.-JEREMY TAYLOR.
A CHILD'S MORNING THOUGHTS
See the sun, how broad and red !
Crimson, blue, and golden clouds,
And the sky above him glows,
'Tis a lark; I saw her fly.
Happy birds ! I'm happy too; being of those plants she has furnished with these
I will skip and sing with you. organs of destruction.
But before I run to play,
Let me not forget to pray bogs and marshes near London, on Hampstead-heath,
To Him who kept me through the night,
Woke me with the morning light, &c., would itself furnish sufficient proof; I have often
Made for sleep the darkness dim, seen several flies and worms in the possession of one
And the day to worship Him. of these small plants, which was flourishing by its
Lord ! may every rising sun prowess, and fattening on the delicacies it had caught.
See a better life begun ! But in the Sarracenia the number is still greater ;
May I love and serve Thee more aften, in the larger plants, so great as, from their
Than I ever loved before ! putrefaction, to cast an offensive smell around. The
In my work and in my play, putrefying, however, is a necessary process;
Be Thou, Lord, with me to-day !--E.S.R.A. it is, probably, both modified and checked by the
“The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom." Here, sugary juices of the plants, which, like the gas- then, we may learn, whether or not we have found the tric Auids of the animal stomach, may be fitted strait gate. But let us take care that we be not contented to not only to digest, but also to retard or regulate remain, like menials, at the entrance; the children and the changes that take place in the food. The water heirs are advanced still further; and their affection is ever in these receptacles, impregnated by the half-putre- leading them forward to reach that perfect love which fying animal matter, doubtless affords a highly casteth out fear.-B. A. nourishing and strengthening drink to the plant ;
LONDON for it is well known that the drainings of dunghills PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTS give a very powerful stimulus to vegetable growth.
PRICE SIXPENCE, BY These speculations would seem, in some measure, to
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND, admit of experimental proof; for the Sarracenia, if
Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvenders in the Kingdom.
and Dealers in Periodical Publications supplied on wholesale terms kept from the access of flies, are said to be less by ORR, Paternoster-row; BERGER, Holywell-street; DOUGLAS,
Portman-street, Loudon ; flourishing in their growth, than when each pouch is
And by the Publisher's Agents in the following places :--truly a sarcophagus; and further, I remember to Aberdeen, Brown & Co. Dundee, Shaw.
Northampton, Birdsall. have heard, or read, of a physiological experiment Birmingham, Langbridge. Edinburgh, Oliver & Boyd. Nottingham, Wright
. made on two plants of Dionæa Muscipula, selected for Bristol, Westley & Co.; Exeter, Penny & Co. 0.xford, Slatter.
Glasgow, Griffin & Co, this purpose, of nearly equal size and health ; both
Bury, Lankester. Gloucester, Jew,
Plymouth, Nettleton. were kept under similar circumstances, save that the Cambridge, Stevenson, Hereford, Child.
Salisbury, Brodie & Co. Hull, Wilson.
Sheffield, Ridge. one was restrained from flies, worms, and all kinds Chelmsford, Guy. Ipswich, Deck. Shrewsbury, Eddowes.
Cheltenham, Lovesy. Lancashire and Cheshire, Staffordshire Putteries, of animal food, while the other was daily fed with
Chester, Seacome; Hardsmall strips of rump-steaks, the result of which expe
Chichester, Glover. (ing. Leeds,Robinson. (chester. Sunderland, Marwood.
Colchester, Swinborne & Leicester, Combe. Whitby, Rodgers. riment was, that the Epicurean plant languished on
Liverpool, Hughes. Worcester, Deighton. its lenten diet, while the vegetable beef-eater flourished
Derby, Wilkins & Son. Macclesfield, Swinnerton. Yarmouth, Alexander,
Devonport, Byers. Newcastle-on-Tyne, Fin. York, Bellerby on its more substantial fare.
Dublin, Curry Jun. & Co. lay & Co.; Empson. [Extract from BURNETT's Essay on the adumbrations of a The SUPPLEMENT for NOVEMBER will be ready for delivery Stomach in vegetables.]
with No. 27, on the 1st of December.
Bancks & Co., Man
Watts, Lane End.
APPOINTED BY THE SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE. UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COMMITTEE OF GENERAL LITERATURE AND EDUCATION,
COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE PRINCIPAL RIVERS IN THE FOUR QUARTERS OF THE WORLD,
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON RIVERS. RIVERS are formed by the union of springs, rills, brooks, Springs are of several kinds, according to the preponde&c., and are the means by which the surplus waters of the rating cause of their ongins; as perennial, temporary, interland are conveyed to the ocean. The extensive benefits mitting, or reciprocating. The first, or perennial springs, conferred by rivers upon the regions through which they seem to be supplied by the gases just mentioned; they tlow flow, render the inquiry into their conditions peculiarly continually, with little or no variation in the quantity of interesting. These streams not only form a natural water they emit. Temporary springs flow only during certain boundary between countries and provinces, but afford an seasons of the year, and are probably supplied by rain and easy medium of intercourse to the inhabitants of distant melted snow. Intermitting springs flow and stop alterspots upon their margins. They also assist in fertilizing nately, in consequence, it is presumed, of their connexion the soil, and are essential to the very existence of man; with the sea. Reciprocating springs flow constantly, but while their meanderings render them delightful orna- in a variable manner as to quantity; of which the cause ments, and make landscapes, which without them would has not been well explained. be beautiful, still more enchanting. So bountifully has In the formation of lakes, we see another instance of the the great Father of the Universe provided for the comfort consideration of Providence, for they operate, in most cases, and delight, as well as the support of His creatures. like immense cisterns for receiving these sudden accumu Springs.
lations of waters; so that the rivers forming their outlet are The origin of springs, from which rivers have their not increased, by sudden falls of rain or melting of snow, in source, though involved in much obscurity, may be said, any thing like the degree they otherwise would be, because generaliy, to proceed from the condensation of atmospheric the surface of a lake one foot, would, perhaps, raise the
the quantity of water which is sufficient to raise suddenly cal vapours, the ascent of subterraneous exhalations, the filtering of water from the sea, and the melting of ice and river fifty feet, if it were not so spread out over a large snow. Atmospherical vapours are raised from the sea and space. The winding of rivers, which adds so much to their from the earth by the heat of the sun ; and, being con- beauty and to their fertilizing effects, has also another most densed, by changes in the temperature of the air, descend important effect, which is evidently the work of the Parent again upon the earth in dew and rain. The coldness of of Good, that is to say, it retards the flow, and preserves the elevated regions is well known, and whenever a current of water in them three or four times as long as it would otherwind carries the air of the sea, or of the plains, loaded with wise remain in the channel ; but for this, the formation of moisture, against mountains and mountain-chains, the in- lakes, and the deposit of water in the earth itself, the visible vapour in it becomes precipitated by the cold, either upper part of the course of rivers would be entirely dry in the shape of snow or rain ; owing to which beautiful
after a few weeks' cessation of rain, and the elevated regions arrangement of Providence, the sources of Rivers are always
of the earth would be infinitely less habitable then they are found in high grounds, from whence they flow, by a gradual
at present. descent, towards the sea; and the continents of the world
COURSES OF RIVERS. are formed much higher in the interior than towards the Rivers usually rise in elevated regions; and the origin coast : otherwise the falling rain would have produced un- of the largest may generally be traced to a small rill, wholesome, uninhabitable marshes, in those countries oozing from a bed of sand, or clay, and descending from which are now the delightful abodes of man, and supply nearly the summit of some mountainous chain. This in. the means of his subsistence. The source of the Rhine, for significant stream receives in its course the tributary instance, is about 6000 feet above the level of the German waters of numerous brooks and rivulets ; so that by the Ocean, into which it falls after a course of 840 miles. The time it reaches the plain, it becomes a tolerably broad sources of the Danube are in the same mountains, and river. In its progress to the place where it discharges its may be traced up to about the same level ; and this river waters, either into the ocean, or into some river more flow's 1833 miles eastward to the Black Sea. The Rhone considerable than itself, it is increased by many smaller flows southward from the same chain 510 miles; and the streams: thus, the Volga receives the waters of more than various branches of the Po descend from the other declivity two hundred rivers and brooks, before it falls into the of this mountainous region, and, after a course of 430 Caspian ; and the Danube is enriched with an equal miles, reach the Adriatic Sea, or Gulf of Venice, at no number, in its way to the Black Sea. great distance from that celebrated city.
It sometimes happens that two or more rivers have their Springs are merely the outbreaking of water that has springs upon, or near, the summit of the same mountain fallen upon the earth and sunk through the surface, where or chain, but flow down in different directions; which has it was absorbed; so that when the earth is fully charged led to an erroneous notion that they have but one common with water, they are most abundant; and af er a season of source. drought they become exhausted, and in elevated parts of The course, or run, of rivers, is of variable length; ex the country they .entirely cease to flow, and the wells tending from a few to some hundreds, or even thousands of become dry, as has been very generally the case in this miles. It is determined by the several circumstances of country during the latter part of the present summer. distance from the source to the sea, or other mouth; The difference in the fall of rain in elevated and in low the nature and arrangement of the country which it regions, is remarkably shown even in this country ; for by traverses; the number and magnitude of its tributary experiments, continued for a period of years, it has been streams; and the peculiarities of the climate, in respect of found that in Westmoreland, which is mountainous, the temperature, seasons, &c. Generally, the extent is in pro average of rain is sixty-three inches perpendicular depth portion to the height of its source; and it always bears a per annum; while in Middlesex and Hertfordshire, which relation to the surface of the valley, of which it receives are nearly level, the fall does not much exceed twenty the auxiliary waters. inches. The periodical overflow of the Nile, which covers The beds, or channels, of rivers, are partly owing to those the land of Egypt, is well known; but all this water comes revolutions, as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, which, from a range of mountains in the centre of Africa, 3000 at different times, have altered the face of the earth, and miles distant from the Delta of Egypt.
partly to the natural action of the rivers themselves. To Rivers are very much supplied by the melting of snows the former may be ascribed the remarkable examples of in summer, which have fallen on mountainous ranges rocks and large beds of compact strata penetrated by during the preceding winter; and when the changes of rivers, of which the velocity and weight are far from being temperature in the spring of the year are very considerable, considerable. The latter may be naturally expected in the effects upon rivers flowing out of these regions, are loose and soft soil, which readily gives way to a gentle sometimes quite surprising : for instance, in the present pressure of long continuance, assisted by the soaking of the year, the River Ohio, a considerable branch of the Missis- parts acted upon. Great alterations are made in the sides sippi, rose seventy-eight feet in perpendicular height above and bottoms of the beds in the course of time; some parts its ordinary level, and in the Hat country adjoining the being depressed, or worn down, by the force of the current, Mississippi caused an overflow of the water 150 miles while others are raised by the gradual deposition of mud wide.
and other products of the soil brought down from a disBesides these collections of water from external causes, tance. Hence it happens, that the entire course of a river springs and fountains have an extensive origin in an in- is sometimes changed, more especially towards its mouth. ternal formation, caused by the combination of oxygen and As rivers proceed from their sources to their terminations, hydrogen gases, which, whenever they meet, decompose their channels are usually increased in breadth, excep: each other, and produce water.
when they flow through narrow passes between rocks or
mountains, which give the current an increase of velocity that they overflow their banks, and inundate the surrounding proportioned to the compression they occasion at its sides. plains to a great extent. When obstacles of this nature stretch across a valley, so as The greatest velocity of a river is usually about the to leave no immediate outlet for the waters, a lake is middle of its breadth and depth, and the least towards the formed, into which the stream continues to flow, till, rising bottom and sides. above the interposing dam, it rushes down the opposite side
PECULIARITIES OF RIVERS. in a cataract, and resumes its progress through the lower
Several of the rivers in the following list consist of two parts of the succeeding valley, The rapidity with which a river flows depends upon
or more streams, bearing various names in the countries quantity of its waters, the breadth of its channel, and the through which they respectively flow. But the measuredeclivity of its bed: for, as the breadth of the channel is the entrance of the river into the sea, is to be understood as
ment, commencing at the fountain-head and continuing to greatest in a plain country, the current will be there slower comprising the whole, under whatever denomination the than in a sloping mountainous district. The mouths of rivers are various in their appearances. preserve their name from beginning to end, are in them
parts may be geographically known. Some rivers, which In some cases, the water glides smoothly into the sea,
selves inconsiderable; but receiving in their progress the mixing almost immediately with its waves; in others, the force of the river and the volume of its waters are so
waters of larger rivers, they become magnificent streams, considerable, as to preserve a well-marked distinction be- and, by retaining their own title, cast a shade over others
to which they are indebted for their importance. In tween the fresh water and the salt, to a great distance from the place where they meet. Such is the case with the their union to form one large river, which thus appears to
some cases, as of the Nile, two streams contribute by rivers Maranon and La Plata ; the former of which sends have two sources ; and it seems difficult to decide which of an immense body of water into the ocean with such force, the two is the main channel. that it remains unmixed with the briny wave to the distance of eighty leagues. When the current of a river
COMPARATIVE SIZE OF RIVERS. aimost stagnates in a level country, its course is disturbed. In comparing the sizes of different rivers, and the by every tritling obstacle, and a variety of outlets is the masses of water they contain, we must take into account consequence. This diminished velocity also allows the the length of their course, their breadth, and depth ; waters to deposit the earthy particles which the current had together with their velocity at various parts. This is brought down from the higher and more rapid parts obviously a difficult, and, it may be added, almost an of its course; and alluvial tracts are formed at the outlet, unattempted task. It is easy enough, on the whole, to as in the cases of the Rhine, the Volga, the Ganges, the compare many of them together, as to their length, or Nile, the Niger, the Oronoco, and many other large rivers. breadth, or depth, &c., separately; but all these require to Sometimes, these sluggish streams deposit banks of sand, of be combined, in order to exhibit their true relative magnigreater or less extent, through which the water seems tudes and proportions. Major Rennell, in his Memoir on scarcely to find a passage into the ocean. Lastly, there Hindoostan, has given a list of the relative lengths of are some rivers, whose currents are, for a time, so retarded | rivers, the Thames being taken as unity, from which the by the tides of the sea, that their waters are thrown back, so I following scale is constructed :
- La Plata.
00 - Mississippi.--Oronoco.
Don.-St. Lawrence. · Rhine.- Nerbuddah
Maranon, or R. of Amazons,
According to this scale, the Rhône is three-fourths | the best recent authorities, and is at least an approach to Icnger than the Thames; the Seine twice and a half as the truth; subject, nevertheless, to correction from future long; the Tagus three times; and so of the rest. The observations and discoveries. length of the Thames is assumed to be about forty-five The Chart exhibits the rivers as drawn out in straight leagues, or nearly one hundred and fifty-six miles; the lines, or nearly so, for the purpose of comparison; and some multiplication of which by the number standing against remarkable places, as cities or towns, on their banks, and any given river, will show its length in English miles. lakes through which they run, are inserted at their respective But the Major's computations do not exactly accord with distances from the mouth of the river to which they belong. the existing amount of information on the subject. Hence In the following Table, which may be considered as an the Plate at the head of this article will be found to differ Appendix to the Chart, the rivers are set down in their materially from him. Till lately, the Maranon, or River of relative proportions, the Thames being taken as unity; Amazons, was supposed to be the longest river in the world; that is, being reckoned as the number one. This will be but it is now ascertained that the Mississippi (an Indian found convenient for the memory, which more readily name, signifying Father of Waters) and Enesei exceed it. receives and retains a comparative measurement, than a Major Rennell also estimates the extent of the Thames too series of abstract numbers. In addition to this general low; its length being, according to the latest admeasure- method, the measurements are given in English miles; ments, two hundred and fifteen miles.
together with the countries through which the rivers flow, With this explanation, the reader will be able to appre- the sites of their origins, principal towns, &c., by which ciate the motives by which we have been guided in the they pass, and the ocean, &c., into which they discharge construction of our CHART OF THE PRINCIPAL RIVERS IN their waters. The names in italics have been omitted THE FOUR QUARTERS OF THE WORLD. It is formed from on the Chart, for the sake of clearness.
RIVERS OF EUROPE. Ratio of
Eng. Miles } Forth Scotland ........ Ben Lomond Mntns. Glengyle, Stirling, Edinburgh
North Sea, near 110
Dunbar. * Tag ..... Scotland .......... Grampian Hills.... Lochs Pochart and Tay; Dunkeld, Perth, North Sea, by the 185
Firth of Tay. to Trent England .......... Norton, Staffordsh. Stone, Rud eley, Burton, Farndon, North Sea, by the 200
Humber, * Shannon...
Limerick, Tarbert. 1 TIMES ....... England .......... Cotswold Hills
at Reading, Henley, Windsor, Staines, North Sea, 215 Brentford, London, Gravesend...
Eug Mug if Guadalquivir Spain ........ La Mancha Mounts. Andujar, Cordova, Seville ............. Gulf, of Cadiz, 340
uear San Lucar. Severn
350) taius, Montgomerysh. Bewdley, Worcester, Tewkesbury, near Cardify.
Gloucester. 13 Garonne.. France....... .. Mont Perdu
...... Toulouse, Castel Sarrasin, Ageu, Bor. Bay of Biscay, 380 deaux.
thro' the Giroude. Guadiana ...... Spain ...... ... Sierra Morena .... Medelin, Badajoz........
Gulf of Cadiz, 400
Dear Avumone. if Ebro ...... Spain ...... Mounts. of Asturias Reynosa, Prias, Logrovo, Tudela, Sara. Jediterranean 400
gossa, Mequineuz, Tortosa. 14 Douro ... Spain and Portugal Mountains of Soria. Arauda, Tordesillas, Zamora, Miranda, Atlantic ..... 400
Oporto. 2 Po ..... North Italy Mount l'iso ... Turin, Chivasso, Casal, Cremona, Re. Gulf of Venice, at 430
Ilonfleur. 215 Rhône ... France ...
Lake of Geneva, Geneva, Lyous, Vieune, Mediterranean 510
Valence, Montelimart, Avignon, Arles. 2) Loire France ... Mont Gerbier .... Le Puy, Roanne, Nevers, Orléans, Blois, Bay of Biscay,
520 Tours, Nantes.
near Paimbaul. 23 Tagus .... Spain and Portugal Sierra Molina...... Aranjuez, Toledo, Talavera, Abrautes, Atlantic
Santarem, Lisbou. 250 Oder ... Prussia ...........
Carpathian Mounts. Ratibor, Kosel, Oppela, Breslau, Glogau, Baltic, between 590
Crossen, Frankfort, Custrin, Stettin, Usedom aud Wol.
lin. 3. Vistula
Elbing & Dauizic.
tween Odessit and
Sudetic, or Giants' Konigingratz, Nimberg. Dresden, Torgan, North Sea, near 770
Witteubery, Magdeburgh, Luneuburghi, Cuxhaven,
Ilamburgli. 376 Rhine... ...... Germany
Mont St. Gothard., Chur, Lake of Constance, Constance, North Sca 840
Schafl'hauseu, Hasle, Old Brisaclı,
.... Dankor, Voroneiz, Bougautch, Khopersk, Sea of Azof 980
Doubouka, Tcherkask, Azof. 47 Dwina, or Duna Russia..... lieights of Vologda Lake Koubinsk, Kaluikor, Vologda, White Sea, by 1000
Totma, Veliko-Oustiug, Krasnoborsk, Archangel Bay,
Kholmogor, Archangel. 614 Dnieper .... Russia..... ... Heights of Smolensk Dorogobouj. Smolensko, Moghilev, Ko. Black Sea ... 1390
gulcher, Kier, Tcherkasy, Ekaterino.
slav, Alexandrovsk, Kherson.
Ulm, Donauworth, Ingolstadt, Katis.
RIVERS OF ASIA. 31's Kistna, or Krishna Deccan ... Ghauts Mountains, Sattarah, Kadloor, Colapilly
Bay of Bengal .. 650 31 Nerbuddah..... Hindoostan.... Near Ajmeergur Gurrah, Hoosingabad, Hindia, Bur- Gulf of Cambay 700
waunee, Hansoot. 33 Godavery Hindoostan........ Ghauts Mountains. Nassnck, Nundere, Gerapoorum, Muu- Bay of Bengal, 800
aud Masulipatam. Asiatic Turkey .... Mounts. of Armenia Ardis, Diarbekir, Jezireh, Mousoul, Euphrates
800 Treitt, Samara, Bagdad, Modniu,
Gebel. .... Caubul & Moultan Himalay Mountains Gortope, Chassircough, Durras, At. Bay of Orman .. 1700
tock, Maree, Dureea Khan, Backor,
Schwaun, Hyderabad, Tattah. 811 Irrawadi, or Ava .... Tibet and Pegu.... Desert of Cobi Painenduaen, Bhanmo, Moyeen, Hentha, Bay of Bengal, 1800
Amarapura, Ara, Patanagoh, Prome, between Cape Ne-
grais & Rangoon. 85 Euphrates .... Asiatic Turkey Mounts. of Armenia Turba Caleh, Malazerd, Askola, Kibban Persian Gulf.... 1840
Madan, Tomsieh, Ilija, Snmisat, Bir,
Gorna, Bassora. 876 Amur, or Saghalien .. Mongolia
Khan Ola Mountains Nertchinsk, Yaczn, Saghalien-Oula. Sea of Okotsk, op- 1850
prosite Saghalien I.
nares, Patna, Monghir, Comercolly, 93 Lena
tween Olensk and
Borghai Bay, 101 Volga (sometimes rec- Russia. .......... Heights of Valdai, Tver, Jaroslav, Kostroma, Niznei-gorod, Caspian Sea 2190 koned among European
Kazan, Simbirsk, Samara, Saratov, rivers.)
Astrachan, 103 Burrampooter, or San. Tibet
Himalay Mountains Rincapou. Sameri, Tacpouuoi, Tchamca, Bay of Bengal .. 2200 poo.
Poolce Guttealı, Kollong, Rangamutty,
Altai Mountains Alvichai, Nor Zaizan Lake, Semipolatni, Arctic Ocean, by 2890
Omsk, Tara, Tobolsk, Samarova, Bere. the Naolim Gulf.
Desert of Cobi Lakes Tcharing and Oring: Great Wall, Yellow Sea 3040
Lantchoo, Polootching. Pautchoo, Kai.
fongfoo, Siutchoo, Hoinganfoo. Desert of Cobi .... Kela Mountains, Paha-tom-khol, Ma. Yellow Sea, below 3290
hoofoo, Tchonkinfoo, Queitchoofoo, Nankin,
kal Lake, Irkoutsk, Euoseisk, Tourou. tween Cape Matzol chansk,
1634 Enesei, or Yenesei .. Siberia.......