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who leave no efforts untried to induce them to join the faith of the more numerous sect. The present church accommodates eight hundred; by a different arrangement it might possibly be made to contain one thousand. Five hundred is the very largest number which could be accommodated, either in the presbyterian or the methodist chapel, in the town; and the protestant population was considered, nearly ten years since, to amount in St. John's to more than five thousand. This evil was very severely felt, and publicly lamented, before the location of the present archdeacon at St. John's. Sir Thomas J. Cochrane, the late governor of the island, endeavoured to induce the British government to assist in the erection of a second church there; but in vain. The committee of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, as long since as 1828 and 1831, lamented, in its reports for the years preceding these dates, the great want of accommodation for protestants, in any existing places of worship in the town of St. John's. The evil has increased as the population of St. John's has increased, until the archdeacon of the island, no longer able to endure the sad reflection of the numerous secessions from the protestant faith, which are hence occasioned, has thought it his imperative duty to set about the erection immediately of a second protestant episcopal church in that town. Its cost is estimated at 2000l.: it is to be fit for divine worship at Easter 1836, and is to be capable of containing seven hundred persons. The church being principally for the poor, it is intended, if the expected aid should be obtained from home, which will make it unnecessary to sell the pews,-that the greater part of the sittings in the new church shall be free. It is earnestly pressed upon the members of the church in England that they will assist him in this undertaking. The Bishop of Nova Scotia, it is expected, will visit this portion of his diocese in the summer of next year. It is anxiously hoped that there may be no incumbrances upon the church which may prevent its being consecrated at that time; and that a large number of candidates for confirmation may be prepared, who may be a kind of first-fruits from this new congregation, who are now ready to be collected. This can only be effected, however, through British liberality. The poor cannot build this church for themselves; nor can adequate funds be raised for such purpose within the island. Shall the scheme languish for want of support?—or shall the missionary whose sense of duty has compelled him to undertake it on his own responsibility be suffered to make the sacrifices which will be necessary if he be left unsupported? The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel has, from its too slender means, liberally granted 100l. for the object; and the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge has also given 1007. Subscriptions for the same will be received by Messrs. Barclay, Lombard Street; Messrs. Drummond, Charing Cross; Messrs. Rivington, Waterloo Place.
LORD BROUGHAM AND THE NATIONAL SOCIETY.
To the Editor of the "British Magazine."
REV. SIR,-In the report of the Education Committee of the House of Commons we find the following charge of exaggeration brought by Lord Brougham against the National Society :
Question 2828. "I understand that the National Society state the number of schools as now in connexion with themselves at 3500, educating about 500,000 children; and the number formed on the same principles, though not in connexion, at as many more; making a total of 7000 schools, and a million of scholars. Whereas, in 1820, there were only 1600 schools in connexion with
the society, educating 200,000 children. I am quite clear that there is some exaggeration in these estimates; for if there be now a million of children taught on the principles of the Church Society, there must be an equal number in all the other schools, endowed and unendowed, taken together; and so we shall have a total of 14,000 schools, or two millions of children; or, in other words, there will appear to be a complete provision for educating all children from seven to fourteen years of age, which no one pretends to believe is the case.'
I. Now, in the first place, this comes with a very ill grace from Lord Brougham, a vice-president of the British and Foreign School Society, which, -with all its activity and exactness-with all its inspectors, agents, and correspondents-with all its grants and aids-cannot tell nor conjecture how many schools are in its connexion. Nor can Lord Brougham, after all his nquiries and labours in education, assist his own society on this point; at least, he does not choose to do so. The National Society, on the other hand, furnishes the means of ascertaining every school which is in union with it, and publishes either an annual summary or individual list. But Lord Brougham says that he is " quite clear that there is some exaggeration in these estimates." What grounds, or counter-estimates, does he produce? On what authority does he venture to impugn a verified document? None! but on his own conjecture. If the estimates of the National Society, he argues, be so large, the schools of all other kinds must be equally large; and, in that case, there will be a complete provision for all children from seven to fourteen years of age, which no one pretends to believe is the fact; and therefore it is "quite clear that there is some exaggeration in these estamates." We are, however, enabled at once to vindicate the National Society from this charge. Its report for this year, lately published, contains an exact list of every place and school in its connexion, and details the amount of children, and what aid each has received. No reasoning or ingenuity can gainsay such a specification. If the society had entertained any wish to exaggerate-which they never did they could not have augmented the precise and definite numbers communicated to them by others. What, then, is the result of that table? It exactly coincides with the statement Lord Brougham questions. There are, in 3642 places, 5559 schools, containing 516,181 scholars, at this moment united with the National Society! The "estimates" of the society are beyond all shadow of a doubt established to the very letter. If anything, they are rather understated than exaggerated: the charge against the society is therefore entirely groundless. The answer of the society is matter of fact, and depends on no reasoning; the list of places and schools precludes the possibility of exaggerating the "estimates;" their inclinations can make them neither more nor less. When Lord Brougham volunteered to contradict the evidence which had previously been given by the friends of the National Society, he ought to have had better grounds for his allegations than he has in this instance presented. It was not very becoming in the Lord Chancellor of England, whose talents and powers are so great, and whose authority in matters of education is so respected, thus to endeavour to throw discredit on the success and efficiency of the National Society, and on the evidence of its honourable friends. It encourages the suspicion that he was stimulated by that feeling of partizanship which distinguishes the whole host of dissenters against every good work connected with the church. There was no provocation for him to call in question these "estimates." It would have been more to the purpose if he could have made a similar statement of the efficiency of his own society. But at any rate, the report of the National Society, to which I refer his lordship, sets the matter at rest, and demonstrates the perfect accuracy of the "estimates," which Lord Brougham impugned. I have said quite sufficient on this-the main point; but a few words on Lord Brougham's argument may not be misplaced.
II. It appears that the National Society have stated their belief that there
are as many schools and children professing the principles of the church of England not in union with them as there are in union. This inference was drawn from returns, the accuracy of which there was no reason to doubt. The National Society therefore concluded that there were about one million children brought up in connexion and out of connexion according to the principles of the church of England. Lord Brougham, alarmed at the vast influence of the church which this number manifested, was provoked to accuse the society of exaggeration, and to intimate that there were as many brought up not according to the principles of the church society. And how did he attempt to make this as clear to others as it was to himself? Because, says he, "if there be now a million of children taught on the principles of the church society, there must be an equal number in all the other schools, endowed and unendowed, taken together." Do I rightly understand Lord Brougham in this argument? Because the church has a million of children, therefore dissenters of all kinds, taken together, must also have a million! This seems to me to depend on fact, the result of inquiry, and not on necessity. I see no natural consequence, no demonstrative conviction, resulting from the proposition, nor what connexion there is which insists upon such an equality. We shall at once refer to the true records, by which we must form our judgment. The government returns furnish us with the number of dissenting children in day schools, and what number attend their Sunday schools.
Thus there are in 925 infant and daily schools "established
51,822 children 750,107
So that, in fact, all the dissenters together do not equal, as stated by Lord Brougham, the "estimates" of church children made by the National Society. But perhaps Lord Brougham did not mean to contrast the church with the dissenters, but spoke generally, that if there were a million taught on the principles of the church society there must be an equal number in all others, whether they were church schools or not. Amongst these he includes "endowed" schools; but it is notorious that all these, almost without exception, are on church principles. If, however, he spoke thus generally, the fact proves that his calculation was equally inaccurate; for, after the schools in connexion with the National Society and the dissenting schools shall have been deducted from the aggregate at present under instruction, there would still remain unappropriated to any religious profession the following numbers :-
So that the National Society, in calculating that there might be as many more on their principles who were not united with them, instead of exaggerating,
were, in my opinion, far too moderate. There are nearly a million day scholars, nearly all of whom may be reckoned as more or less instructed in accordance with the church,—at least they do not attend schools "established by dissenters."
III. We come now, in the third place, to the conclusion which Lord Brougham deduces; and that is, that if two millions of children are under instruction, there is "a complete provision for educating all children from seven to fourteen years” old, “ which no one pretends to believe is the case;" and therefore, he argues farther, in the estimates of the National Society, which form the ground of this calculation, there must be "some exaggeration." Now, we have already shewn that the statements of the National Society are true to the very letter, and that, from the government returns, the number of day scholars (1,276,947) and of Sunday scholars (1,548,890), amounting together to 2,825,837, far exceeds what Lord Brougham said was incredible. He, indeed, seemed amazed at the extravagance of the notion which could imagine that there could be 14,000 schools; but there are in reality four times that number (55,799) in actual operation! But still it by no means follows, that therefore there is already secured a I complete provision for all children from seven to fourteen years of age." Lord Brougham calculates the proportion of these at one-seventh of the population-viz., 2,000,000. Now the returns shew that the actual number of day scholars is 1,276,947, which, in a population of 14,000,000, is about one in eleven, or, if infants (89,005) are deducted, nearly one in twelve. With respect to day schools, then, there is a very great deficiency-between 7 and 800,000. The proportion in Sunday schools is about one in nine. I cannot, however, regard the Sunday scholars (those who attend on that day only) as receiving a sufficient education; nor do I think Lord Brougham meant to include them in his calculation. It is clear the other Sunday scholars (who attend weekly schools) have no right to be reckoned twice over. What numbers may be in this condition cannot be ascertained. It is a great pity that the government queries were not submitted, before their distribution, to the revision of some practical and disinterested men, who would at once have foreseen and obviated the difficulty which has rendered the Sunday returns not merely useless, but unjust. Where the suggestions of the dissenters were received, it was not to be expected that precision on this point would be enforced. But, at any rate, though the number of schools and of scholars, in daily and Sunday schools, exceed together 2,000,000, yet there is still great need of further exertions before we can approach to any prospect of a "complete provision:" and so the argument fails entirely.
I think every one will perceive that Lord Brougham's accusation against the National Society, of exaggeration, was gratuitous, unjust, and illiberal.
I am, Rev. Sir, yours respectfully,
R. W. B.
"CATHOLIC SCHOOL BOOK."
WE are often told in these days that Romanists no longer teach the unscriptural absurdities with which they might once have been justly charged, Let those who think so read the following extracts from the "Catholic School Book," now used in the school at Gloucester, and noticed in an excellent pamphlet called "Considerations for the Protestant Inhabitants of Gloucester."
66 OF DEVOTION TO THE BLESSED VIRGIN.
"One of the last means which I assign, but also one of the most effectual, for acquiring Virtue in youth, is devotion to the Blessed Virgin. It is infallible to such who assiduously employ it, because it affords at the same time THE MOST powerful intercession in the sight of God for obtaining his favour, and THE MOST perfect model for our imitation.
VOL. IX.-Feb. 1836.
"Next to God, and the most adorable humanity of his Son Jesus Christ, it is she whom we must chiefly honour and love, by reason of that most sublime and excellent dignity of Mother of God, which raises her above all creatures which God has ever created."
By her we may receive all the assistance which is necessary for us."
She is most powerful with God to obtain from him all that she shall ask of him. She
is all goodness in regard of us, by applying to God for us.'
Being Mother of God, He cannot refuse her request: being our Mother, she cannot deny us her intercession, when we have recourse to her."
"Our miseries move her, our necessities urge her; the prayers we offer HER FOR OUR SALVATION, bring to us all that we desire."
"And St. Bernard is not afraid to say, that never any person invoked that Mother of Mercy in his necessities, who has not been sensible of the effects of her assistance."
"Although the Blessed Virgin extends her goodness to all men, yet we may say she has a particular regard for young people, whose frailty she knows to be greatest, and necessities the most urgent, especially for the preservation of chastity, which is most assaulted in that age, and of which she is a singular protectress."
History is full of examples of Saints, who have preserved this great virtue in their youth by the assistance of this Queen of Virgins, and experience affords us daily examples of those who have gained great victories by the recourse they have had to her intercession, and who have happily advanced themselves in virtue, under the protection, and by the graces she obtains of God for them."
"Be therefore devout to the Blessed Virgin, dear Theotime; but let it not be the devotion of many, who think themselves so, in offering some prayer to her more by custom than devotion; and on the other side exceedingly displease her by a life of mortal sin, which they commit without remorse. What devotion is this, to desire to please the mother, and daily crucify the son, trampling his blood under their feet, and contemning his grace and favour. Is not this to be an enemy both to son and mother?"
"O dear Theotime, your devotion to the Blessed Virgin must not be like that; it must be more generous and more holy; and, to speak plainly, if you will be a true child and a sincere servant of the Blessed Virgin, you must be careful to perform four things. 1.-Have a great apprehension of displeasing her by mortal sin, and of afflicting her motherly heart, by dishonouring her son, and destroying your soul; and if you chance to fall into that misfortune, have recourse readily to her, that she may be your intercessor, in reconciling you to her son, whom you have extremely provoked."
"She is the refuge of sinners as well as of the just, on condition they have recourse to her with a true desire of converting themselves, as St. Bernard says."
"2.-Love and imitate her virtues, principally her humility and virtue. These two virtues, among others, rendered her most pleasing to God; she loves them particularly in children, and is pleased to assist with her prayers those whom she finds particularly inclined to those virtues, according to the same Saint."
"3.-Have recourse to her in ALL your spiritual necessities; and for that end offer to her daily some particular prayers."
"Say your beads, or the little office, sometimes in the week; perform something in her honour every Saturday, whether prayers, abstinence, or alms; honour particularly her feasts by confession and COMMUNION.'
"4.-Be mindful to invoke her in temptations, and in the danger you find yourself in of offending God. You cannot shew your respect better than by applying yourself to her in these urgent necessities, and you can find no succour more ready and favourable than hers.' "It is the counsel of St. Bernard, If the winds of temptations be raised against you, if you run upon the rocks of adversity, lift up your eyes towards that star, invoke the Blessed Virgin. In dangers, in extremities, in doubtful affairs, think upon the Blessed Virgin, let her not depart from your mouth, nor from your heart, and that you may obtain the assistance of her intercession, be sure to follow her example."
If you perform this, you will have a true devotion to the Blessed Virgin, you will be of the number of her real children, and she will be your mother, UNDER WHOSE PROTECTION
YOU SHALL NEVER PERISH."
"Remember well that most excellent sentence of Saint Anselm, who feared not to say, That as he must unavoidably perish, who has no affection to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and forsakes her; so it is impossible he should perish who has recourse to her, and WHOM
SHE REGARDS WITH THE EYES OF MERCY.
"I shall conclude with an excellent example, which I shall produce for a proof of this truth. St. Bridget had a son who followed the profession of a soldier, and died in the wars. Hearing the news of his death, she was much concerned for the salvation of her son, dead in so dangerous a condition; and as she was often favoured by God with revelations, of which she has composed a book, she was assured of the salvation of her son, by two subsequent revelations. In the first, the Blessed Virgin revealed to her, that she had assisted her son with a particular protection at the hour of death, having strengthened him against temptation, and obtained all necessary graces for him to make a holy and a happy end. In the following