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Luke 18. sr. Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the Pro

phets concerning the Son of Man shall be accomplished When he delivered Luke 22. 22. them the blessed Sacrament, the commemoration of his Death, he said, Truly pour bero- the Son of Man goeth as it was determined. After his Resurrection, he chawybor.

stised the dulness of his Disciples, who were so overwhelmed with his Paf

fion, that they could not look back upon the antecedent Predictions ; fayLuke 24. 25, ing unto them, o fools and Now of heart to believe all that the Prophets

have spoken! ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter

into his glory ? After his Ascension S. Peter made this profession before the Afts 3. 18. Jews, who had those Prophecies, and saw his Sufferings; Those things

which God before had Mewed by the mouth of all his Prophets, that Chrift should suffer, he bath fo fulfilled. Whatsoever therefore was determined by the Counsel of God, whatsoever was revealed by the Prophets concerning the Sufferings of the Messias, was all fulfilled by that Jesus whom we believe to be, and worship as the Christ. Which is the fourth and last assertion propounded to express our Saviour's Passion in relation to his Office.

Having considered him that suffered in his Office, we are next to consider him in his Person. And being in all this Article there is no person expreslly named or described, we must look back upon the former, till we find his description and his name. The Article immediately preceding leaves us in the same suspension ; but for our satisfaction refers us to the former, where we find him named Jesus, and described the only-begotten Son of God.

Now this Son of God we have already shewed to be therefore truly called the Only-begotten, because he was from all eternity generated of the Essence

of the Father, and therefore is, as the eternal Son, to also the eternal God. * This is that Wherefore by the * immediate coherence of the Articles, and necessary coninfeparabilis sequence of the Creed, it plainly appeareth that the

eternal Son of God, God of God, very God of very God, fuffered under Pontius Pilate, was critwhich Cassia- cified dead and buried. For it was no other person which suffered under nus urgeth o Pontius Pilate than he which was born of the Virgin Mary, he which Neftorius, De was born of the Virgin Mary was no other person than he which was conIncarn. 1. 6. 'ceived by the Holy Ghost, he which was conceived by the Holy Ghost was

no other person than our Lord, and that our Lord no other than the only

Son of God: therefore by the immediate coherence of the Articles it followI Cor. 2. 8. eth, that the only Son of God, our Lord, suffered under Pontius Pilate. Acts 20. 28. That Word which was in the beginning, which then was with God, and was paffum Sym- God, in the fulness of time being made flesh, did fuffer. For the Princes boli tenet

au- of this world crucified the Lord of glory ; and God purchased his Church Apoftolus

with his own blood. That person which was begotten of the Father before tradidit, di- all Worlds, and so was really the Lord of glory and most truly God, took upcens, Si enim on him the nature of Man, and in that nature being still the same person cognovissent,

which before he was, did suffer. When our Saviour fasted forty days, there

was no other person hungry than that Son of God which made the World; gloriæ crucifixiffent. Vic

when he sat down weary by the Well, there was no other person felt that gil. advers." thirst but he which was eternally begotten of the Father the fountain of kurych. 1. 2. the Deity : when he was buffered and scourged there was no other person

sensible of those pains than that eternal Word which before all Worlds was impassible; when he was crucified and died, there was no other person which gave up the Ghost but the Son of him, and so of the same nature with him, who only hath immortality. And thus we conclude our first Consideration propounded, viz. Who it was which suffered ; affirming that, in respect of his Office, it was the Messias, in respect of his Person, it was God the Son.

But the perfect probation and illustration of this truth requireth first a view of the second Particular propounded, How, or, In what he suffered. For


the Creed,

thoritas, &

nunquam Dominum

while we prove the Person suffering to be God, we may seem to deny the Passion, of which the Perfection of the Godhead is incapable. The Divine Nature is of infinite and eternal happiness, never to be disturbed by the least degree of infelicity, and therefore subject to no sense of misery: Wherefore while we profess that the Son of God did suffer for us, we must so far explain our Assertion, as to deny that the Divine Nature of our Saviour fuffered. For being the Divine Nature of the Son is common to the Father and the Spirit, if that had been the subject of his Passion, then must the Father and the Spirit have suffered. Wherefore as we ascribe the Passion to the Son alone, so must we attribute it to that nature which is his alone, that is, the human. And then neither the Father nor the Spirit will appear to suffer, because neither the Father nor the Spirit, but the Son alone, is Man, and so capable of suffering.

Whereas then the Humanity of Christ consisteth of a Soul and Body, these were the proper subject of his Passion ; nor could he suffer any thing but in both or either of these two. For as the Word was made flesh, though the Word was * never made, (as being in the beginning God) but the flesh, that * o dóla is, the Humanity, was made, and the Word assuming it became flesh ; for fiera, faith S. Peter, - Christ suffered for us in the flesh, in that nature of manufa, which he took upon him : and so God the Son did suffer, not in that nature nei cágra exa

ödérou o in which he was begotten of the Father before all Worlds, but in that flesh

Ý το πάθο. which by his Incarnation he became. For he was put to death in the Jászon flesh, but quickened in the Spirit ; suffered in the weakness of his Huma- ävedia?, cu nity, but rose by the power of his Divinity. As he was made of the feed of

θρωπίνη μίDavid according to the flesh, in the language of S. Paul; so was, he put to zer rápos, nes

. death in the flesh, in the language of S. Peter : and as he was declared to

St. Athanas. be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness; so was de Incarn. he quickened by the spirit. Thus the proper subject and recipient of our Sa- Pet: 4. 1: viour's Passion, which he underwent for us, was that nature which he took Adeo falva elt from us.

utriusque Far be it therefore from us to think that the Deity, which is immutable, Pubilanciæ, ut could suffer ; which only hath immortality, could die. The conjunction & Spiritus res with Humanity could put no imperfection upon the Divinity: nor can that fuas egerit in + infinite Nature by any external acquisition be any way changed in its in- virtutes & otrinsical and essential Perfections. If the bright rays of the Sun áre pera & figna,

& caro pafliothought to insinuate into the most noisome bodies without any pollution of themselves, how can thát spiritual Essence contract the least infirmity by any cta fit, efuriunion with Humanity ? We must neither harbour fo low an estimation of ens sub Diathe Divine Nature; as, to conceive it capable of any diminution ; nor fo fub Šamnarimean esteem of the Essence of the Word, as to imagine it subject to the tide, flens Lafufferings of the flesh he took ; nor yet so groundless an estimation of the zarum, anxia great mystery of the Incarnation, as to make the properties of one nature mortem, demix in confusion with the other. These were the wild Collections of the nique &mor* Arian and Apollinarian Hereticks, whom the Church hath long since fi-tul. aduers. lenced by a sound and sober assertion, That all the sufferings of our Medi- Prax. c. 27.

Clement, Aator were subjected in his human Nature.

lex. Pedag.

1. 1.c. 5.91.C. Το η φύση άφθαρ7ον και αναλλοίωτον αε τοιέτον έσιν, και ζωαλλοι μεμον τη ταπεινή φύση, όταν ο εκείνη και οικονομίαν όν)Greg. Nyffen. Epiít. 1 Ως εδ' ηλιακό φωτις πάθοιέν τι ακτίνες τα πάντα πλυράσει, και Coμάτων νεκρών και ο καθαρων εφαπτόμιμαι πολύ πλέον η ασώμα, τη Θεά διώαμις ότ' αν πάθοι + Εσίαν, εδ' αν βλαβών ζωμα - ασωμάτως επαφές μύη Euseb. Demon. Evang. I. 4. C. 13. * This danger is the rather to be unfolded, because it is not generally understood. The Heresie of Arius, as it was condemned by the Council of Nice, is known to all. But that he made the nature of the Word to suffer in the flesh, is not so frequently or plainly delivered. This Phoebadius (the first of the Latin Church zuho wrote against the Arians,) chargerh them with. Duplicem hunc fatum, non conjunctum, sed confufum, vultis videri; ut etiam unius veftrum, id est Epistola Potami, quæ ad Orientem & Occidentem transmilla est, quà afferit, carne de {piritu Christi coagulatis per sanguinem Mariæ, & in unum corpus redactis, passibilem Deum factum. Hoc ideo, ne quis illum ex eo crederet, quem impassibilem satis conftat. Lib. adv. Arianos, c. 7. And again, Non ergo eft fpiritus caro, nec caro spiritus, quod ifti volunt egregii Doctores, út factus fit scilicet Dominus & Deus noster ex hac fubftantiarum permixtione pallibilis. Ideo autem pallibilem volunt dici, ne ex impassibili credatur. Cap. 8. márka av Aquavor

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Φαντάζον3, Cάρκα μόνο ισολιθέμθμοι αναληφώαι η Σωτήρα, 7 3 τε παθές νόησιν επί τ' απαθή θεότητα αναφέροντες ασεβώς. S. Athan. lib. de. Incarn. Of this S. Hilary is to be understood : Sed eorum omnis hic fenfus, ut opinentur metum mortis in Dei Filium incidiffe, qui asserunt non de æternitate prolatum, neque de infinitate paternæ fubftantiæ exftitiffe, sed ex nullo illum qui omnia creavit effectum; ut affumptus ex nihilo fit, & cæptus ex opere & confirmatus ex tempore. Et ideo in eo doloris anxietas, ideo spiritûs passio cum corporis passione. Can. 31. in Matth. Where clearly be argues against the Arians. The right understanding whereof is the only true way to reconcile those harsh fayings of his, which fo troubled the Master of the Sententes, and the whole Schools ever since.

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· tem Verbi &
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qux verbi

ενότητα στε

And now the only difficulty will consist in this, how we can reconcile the Person suffering with the Subject of his Paffion; how we can fay that God did suffer, when we profess the Godhead suffered not.

But this seeming difficulty will admit an easie folution, if we consider the intimate conjun* Per indisso- ction of the Divine and Human Nature, and their union in the Person of lubilem unita- the Son. For * hereby those Attributes which properly belong unto the one

are given to the other; and that upon good reason. For being the same quæ carnis individual person is, by the conjunction of the nature of God and the nafunt afcribun- ture of man, really and truly both God and Man; it necessarily followeth, quomodo & that it is true to lay, God is man, and as true, A man is God: because in

this particular he which is man is God, and he which is God is man. Again, cantur in car- being by reason of the Incarnation it is proper to say, God is man, it folne. Orig. in loweth unavoidably, that whatsoever necessarily belongeth to the human Ep. ad Rom.. nature, may be spoken of God; otherwise there would be a man to whom Δια τ' ακριβή

the nature of man did not belong, which were a contradiction. And being *regor.apteions by virtue of the fame Incarnation it is also proper to fay, A man is God, ragnosten by the same necessity of consequence we must acknowledge, that all the efSelb?:105, e- fential Attributes of the Divine Nature may truly be {poken of that man ; Mesbisu) te otherwise there would be one truly and properly God to whom the Nature ονόματα ώστε to di: 02 stor

of God did not belong, which is a clear repugnancy. Again, if the proson tes Jeim, si perties of the Divine Nature, may be truly attributed to that man which is To Señor tu civ- God, then may those actions which flow from those properties be attribuTovouátics. ted to the fame.

And being the properties of the human nature may be Greg. Nyíl

. also attributed to the eternal Son of God, those actions or pafsions which Dad They did proceed from those properties may be attributed to the fame Son of Jos eidsves as God, or God the Son. Wherefore as God the Son is truly man, and as * ivaros noiva man truly passible and mortal; fo God the Son did truly fuffer, and did perex. Thco- truly die. And this is the only true † Communication of Properties.

Not that the essential Properties of one nature are really communicaCalled by the

ted to the other nature, as if the Divinity of Christ were passible and narily Com- mortal, or his Humanity of originał Omnipotence and Omnipresence ; municatio i- but because the same God the Son was also the Son of man, he was at diomatum, by

the same time both mortal and eternal : mortal as the Son of man, in Greek Divines respect of his Humanity ; eternal, as the Son of God, in respect of his

The Sufferings therefore of the Messias were the Sufferings sigur ásaris." of God the Son : not that they were the Sufferings of his Deity, as of

which that was incapable, but the Sufferings of his Humanity, as unto which that was inclinable. "For although the human nature was conjoined to the Divine , yet it suffered as much as if it had been alone; and the Divine as little suffered as if it had not been conjoined: because each kept their respective Properties distinct, without the least confusion in their most intimate conjunction. From whence at last the Person fuffering is reconciled to the Subject of his Passion : For God the Son being not only God, but also man, fuffered, though not in his Deity, by reason of which he is truly God; yet in his Humanity, by which he who is truly God, is as truly Man. And thus we conclude our two first Disquisitions: Who it was that suffered ; in respect of his Office, the Messias, in respect of his Person, God the Son: How it was he suffered; not in his Deity, which

dor. Dial. 3.

Schools ordi

the ancient


, and Divinity

put be

is impassible, but in his Humanity, which he assumed, cloathed with our infirmities.

Our next enquiry is, What this God the Son did fuffer as the Son of man ; not in the latitude of all his sufferings, but fo far as they are comprehended in this Article, which first prescindeth all the antecedent part by the expression of time under Pontius Pilate, who was not Governour of Judæa long before our Saviour's Baptism; and then takes off his concluding Passion, by adding his Crucifixion and his Death. . Looking then

upon the fufferings of our Saviour in the time of his preaching the Gofpel, and especially before his Death, we shall best understand them by considering them in relation to the subject or recipient of them. And being we have already shewed his Passion was wholly subjected in his humane nature, being that nature consisterh of two parts, the Soul and Body; it will be necessary to declare what he suffered in the Body, what in the Soul.

For the first, As we believe the Son of God took upon him the nature of Man, of which the Body is a part ; so we acknowledge that he took a true and real Body, so as to become flesh of our fleth, bone of our bone. This Body of Christ, really and truly humane, was also frail and mortal, as being accompanied with all those natural properties which necessarily flow from the condition of a frail and mortal Body: and though now the same body, exalted above the highest Heavens, by virtue of its glorification be yond all possibility of Passion; yet in the time of his Humiliation it was cloathed with no such glorious perfection ; but as it was subject unto, so it felt weariness, hunger and thirst. Nor was it only liable to those internal weaknesses and natural infirmities, but to all outward injuries and violent impressions. As all our corporal pain consists in that sense which ariseth from the solution of that continuity which is connatural to the parts of our body; so no parts of his sacred body were injuriously violated by any outward impression, but he was truly and fully sensible of the pain arising from that violation. Deep was that sense and grievous was that pain which those Scourges produced, when the plowers ploughed upon his back and made long their furrows: the dilaceration of those nervous parts created a most tharp and dolorous sensation. The coronary Thorns did not only express the scorn of the imposers by that figure into which they were contrived, but did also pierce his render and facred Temples to a multiplicity of pains, by their numerous acuminations. That spear directed by an impertinent malice which opened his fide, though it brought forth water and blood, caused no dolorous sensation, because the Body was then dead: but the Nails which pierced his hands and feet made another kind of impression, while it was yet alive and highly fensible. Thus did the body of the Son of man truly suffer the bitterness of corporal pains and torments inflicted by violent external impressions.

As our Saviour took upon him both parts of the nature of man, so he suf- Qui suscepit fered in them both, that he might be a Saviour of the whole.

scepit anime sense the Soul is capable of suffering, in that he was subject to animal Pas- pallionem. sion. Evil apprehended to come tormented bis Soul with fear, which was S. Ambrof

. de as truly in him in respect of what he was to suffer, as Hope in reference to the recompense of a reward to come after and for his Sufferings. Evil apprehended as present tormented the same with Sadness, Sorrow, and Anguilh of mind. So that he was truly represented to us by the Prophet, as a man Isa. 53. 3. of forrows, and acquainted with grief; and the proper subject of that Grief he hath fully expressed who alone felt it, saying unto his Disciples, My soul is exceeding forrowful, even unto death.

Matt, 26.38.

In what animam, fu



We ought not therefore to question whether he suffered in his Soul or no; but rather to endeavour to reach, if it were possible, the knowledge how far and in what degree he suffered; how bitter that grief, how great that forrow and that anguish was. Which though we can never fully and exactly measure; yet we may infallibly know thus much, both from the expressions of the Spirit of God, and from the occasion of his Sufferings, that the griefs and forrows which he felt, and the anguish which he underwent, were most incomparably far beyond all sorrows of which any person here was sensible or capable.

The Evangelists have in such language expressed his Agony, as cannot but Mar. 26. 37. raise in us the highest admiration at the bitterness of that Passion. He began Mark 14. 33. to be forrowful, faith S. Matthew ; He began to be fore amazed, faith

S. Mark, and to be very heavy, say both: and yet these words in our Trans

lation come far short of the * Original Expression, which render him sud* The words denly, upon a present and immediate apprehension, possessed with fear, hornal are three, ror and amazement, encompassed with grief, and overwhelmed with forrow, Austiat, in- pressed down with consternation and dejection of mind, tormented with and domuover

, anxiety and difquietude of fpirit. Aurea, the first is of a known and ordinary signification, but in this case it is to be raised to the highest degree of its possible significancy, as appears by the words which follow, wenurós isn's Hoxh . For, as the ancient Grammarians observe,'; (act) weýberus étitas dindow and again, s; (mer) wegberig dapéávny arriol (iae) x aósor its ecoérews og bert]órnlos, and therefore aeinuno; of it self must signifie a man possessed with an excessive grief; as in Æschylus, citaçu rqúos, that is, according to the scholiast, aerosās Bague

. But beside this Greek notation, here is to be observed a reference to the words of David, Psal. 42.5. Iya7i wesauró; as a fuxans; inn'nun . 7. so that it doth not only signifie an excess of sorrow furrounding and encompassing the soul; but also fuch as brings a confternation and dejection of mind, bowing the Soul under the pressure and burthen of it. And if neither the notation of the word, nor the relation to that place in the Psalms did express that forrow, yet the following part of our Saviour's words would sufficiently evidence it, Javéty, it was a forrow which like the pangs of death compassed him, and like the pains of hell got hold upon him, Pfal. 116. 3. The second word used by S. Mark alone, is cnbaubria, which with the Vulgar Latin is Pavere, but in the Language of the Greeks bears a higher sense. Ośubos Coroaiver Téxtintiv, Says Etymologus : and Hesychius, Odreßos, Samus, xxAmbis Gloff. l'et. Oáybos, ftupor. Philoponus, preserved by Eustathius ’ın. ré. Oárbos sjóxtranžis

. Joerbos xa7" ötchen tárin o cxince[eis

. From whence the Verb Oxybav, in termination active, in signification passive, perculfum effe, in Homer; Θάμβησεν η 'Αχιλλος: where it is the obfervation of Euftathius, Το έθάμβησεν νερΓολικών και νεωτέρα χρήσις εκ έχα: θαμβάμψοι δ, και εθαμέθη, και τεθάμβημαι, φασίν οι μεθ' "Ομηρον· but not univerfally true. For (as to our purpose). we have boih the use and sense of this word in the Old Testament. As I Sam. 14. 15. 1371, p787 vej it déje Sarev a vn, and the earth quaked. And Pfal. 48. 3. 1989. Aquila, idarebáono av, Symmachus, itensályocer as Pfal

. 31.22. 'Eyas ģ eina co si cascos Mo, Aquila, gaubtok, Symmachus, carnýže. The like is also in the passive termination : as Daniel expresses his fear in a vision, édoubu Ilw, sy wi77w iti wewtoy M8, Dan. 8. 17. and the wicked are described by the wife man, Stereotypes desvãs, rj irode a pece one in taeg osówfuos,

Sap. 17. 3. From whence it appeareth that suplenty of it self sig nifieth a high degree of fear, horror, and amazement. Gloj. Vet. Oaubgrou, Obstupeo, ftupeo, pavesco. And by the addition of the preposition is the signification is augmented. ""Exbausos, ixt anx?os, Hefych. passively; Onelor mobiegi sei i xD ayboy. Dan. 7. 7. actively, i.e. extinxborov. Such an augmentation in this word is juftifiable by that rule left us in Eustathius ad liad. έ. η (εξ) πρόθεσις και μόνον τ' έξω δηλοί χέσιν, άλλα ύψωμα πολλάκις Cημαίνει. Of which he gives an example in c'zvoulws, used by Aristophanes in Pluto, though not named by him. And again, ad Iliad. . (i) Peris iritacion noi, ozolcev sj to recénesa. 'Exmye bei as therefore is noénose Scuotias, to be surprized with horror in the highest degree, even unto ftupefaction. Gloff. Vet. 'ExFauboucu, obstupesco. The third word is 'Adamoveis, Vulg. Lat. tædere in S.Mark, inccilus esse in s. Matthew: but it hath yet a farther sense. ’Admuovã, áxndrã, cywvi, says Hesychius. 'Admuovã, có aicev dogólecu, Suidas. It signifieth therefore grief and anguish in excess, as appeareth also by the origination of it. For, as Εuftathius obferves, τα αδημονείν πρωτότυπον αδήμων αδήμονος, ο οκ λύπης ως οία και τινος κόρε, ός άδος λέγε, αναπεπλοxas. Iliad. a'. From adão ád how admmwv, from köpare ádnuovã. It hath therefore in it the signification of äðh or aíær, satiety, or extremity. From whence it is ordinarily so expounded, as if it contained the consequence of the greatest fear or forrow, that is, anxiety of mind, difquietude and reftlessness. Adapcoveiv, arómy sej drogeiv, a uryavešv, Etymol. As Antony is expressed by Plutarch, after the loss of 8000 men, being in want of all things necessary for the rest, Kacorátegu

materé jifus, rj Bogdwoons, adopovezo örve. So where the Heb. Siniwn is by the Lxx. translated intrarás, by Symmachus it is rendred compovas, Ecclef. 7. 16.

This he first expressed to his Disciples, saying, My Soul is exceeding forrowful; and left they should not fully apprehend the excess, adding even unto death, as if the pangs of death had already encompassed him, and, as the Psalmist speaks, the pains of Hell had got hold upon him. He went but a little farther before he expressed the same to his Father, falling on his face and praying, even with strong crying and tears, unto him that was able to save him from death. Nor were his cries or tears fufficient evidences of his inward Sufferings, nor could the Sorrows of his breast be poured forth either at his

Heb. 5. 7.

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