« PreviousContinue »
of the castle : and the greater part of those who survived, collected themselves together in one of the buildings, set fire to it, and resigned themselves to the flames. A few only, of less courage than their brethren, still remained. These, coming forward upon the ramparts, called out to the assailants, and showed the manner in which their companions had fallen, and offered to receive baptism if their lives might be spared.
This was granted to them; but they no sooner passed the gate than the people flew upon them and slew them, with the exception of one or two who escaped ; which proved that the Rabbi was not far wrong in his calculation. The populace afterwards betook themselves to the destroying and burning of all the houses of the Jews in the city, which had not been previously demolished. Thus perished nearly two thousand Jews at York on this occasion, besides those who fell in the other parts of England.
The elder Disraeli, who drank deeply at this source of information, makes the following remark in his “ Curiosities of Literature," at the conclusion of an article on the above melancholy tragedy :-“My Rabin is a companion for Cato. His history is a tale,
"" Which Cato's self had not disdained to hear.'” Now comes the secret. No sooner did the “ Christians” make an end of butchering our unhappy people, than many gentlemen of the province—who had been debtors to the Jews, and took, therefore, the most active part in the carnage-repaired to the cathedral, where their bonds were deposited, compelled the officer to deliver those obligations, and burned them in the church with great solemnity before the altar.
When the account of these outrages reached the king's ears, he was exceedingly enraged at this insult to his authority, which at the same time affected his revenue ; he sent over immediate directions to the Bishop of Ely, his Chancellor, to apprehend and punish the offenders. The Chancellor accordingly proceeded to York with a strong force, to execute the king's commands. The principal actors in the massacres, however, being warned of his approach, made their escape; some of them taking refuge in Scotland, but the greater number proceeding on their journey to the Holy Land. The governor of the castle and the sheriff were, however, apprehended, and, not being able to clear their conduct, were deprived of their respective offices. A heavy fine was also imposed upon the inhabitants of the city, for which the Chancellor took one hundred hostages with him. Richard (mala bestia, wicked beast), or, as he is called, Mallebisse, was obliged to pay twenty marks for the use of his land, as also for protection to himself and his two esquires till the king's return; but, with these exceptions, it does not appear that any individual was brought to punishment for the part he had taken in the late disturbances.
When Richard returned home after his captivity, the affairs of the Jews were again brought under his consideration, and he appointed justices itinerant to proceed through the different parts of England, for the purpose of making further inquiries concerning the slaughter of the Jews :- Who were the murderers ?—what lands and chattels belonged to them at the time they were slain ?—who took possession of the same ? &c. He established the famous Exchequer of the Jews. The revenues arising from them were placed under the care of an office for the purpose, in which the justiciaries of the Jews presided. To these places Jews and Christians were indifferently appointed. They had not only the Jewish revenues under their care, but were also judges of all civil matters where a Jew was one of the parties. Lord Coke, observed the venerable representative of the house of Paltiel, takes notice of this court, and calls it the “ Court of the Justices of the Jews."
The following is a summary of the regulations of that Court.
“In order to know what were the particular moneys, goods, debts, real and personal estates, belonging to every Jew in the nation, he commanded (something after the manner of the Conqueror’s ‘ Domesday') that all effects belonging to the Jews should be registered.
“ That the concealment of any particular should be forfeiture of body and whole estate.
“That six or seven public places should be appointed, wherein all their contracts were to be made.
“ That all such contracts should be made in the presence of two assigned lawyers who were Jews, and two that were Christians, and two public notaries.
“ That the clerks of William de Sancta Maria and William de Chimelli should likewise be present at all such contracts.
“ That such contracts should likewise be made by indenture ; one part of which was to remain with the Jews, sealed with the seal of him to whom the money was lent; and the other in a common chest, to which there were to be three locks and three keys.
“One key whereof was to be kept by the said Jewish lawyers, the other by the Christian lawyers, and the third by the aforesaid clerks.
“ The chest also was to be sealed with three seals. “The aforesaid clerks were also commanded to keep a transcript-roll of all such contracts : which roll was to be altered as often as the original charters of contract were altered.
“ And the fee for drawing every such charter was to be three pence; one moiety whereof was to be paid by the Jew, and the other moiety by him to whom the money was lent;-whereof the two writers were to have two pence, and the keeper of the rolls the third.
" It was ordained likewise, that as no contracts for money, so no payment of it, or acquittance, or any other alterations in the charters or transcript-rolls were to be made, but in the presence of the aforesaid persons, or the greater part of them.
“ The aforesaid two Jews were to have a copy of the said transcriptroll, and the two Christians another.
“Every Jew was to take an oath upon the roll of the Pentateuch, that he would truthfully and faithfully register all his estates, both real and personal, as above directed ; and discover every Jew whom he should know guilty of any concealment : as likewise all forgers or falsifiers of charters, and clippers of money.'
Under these regulations our people live peaceably; for they very seldom, on their part, violate any regulations established between themselves and others, especially when under an oath ; and as it is the king's interest to adhere to the above regulations on his part, the Jews enjoy comparative tranquillity—but at no small expense.
The justices of the Jews at this time are & certain Benedict and Joseph Aaron. Their contracts, or, as they are called, Shtaroth, from the Hebrew-or, rather, Chaldee word Shtar—are written either in indifferent Hebrew or bad Latin, or the same sort of French. That court where all the documents are deposited goes by the name of “The Star Chamber."
(To be continued.)
THE HEBREW CHRISTIAN MUSE. Ar the re-opening of Christ Church, Leicester-after being reseated and restored-on Wednesday, the 19th of last November, special hymns were chosen for the solemn services on the auspicious occasion. The following are from the pen of the Vicar, our gifted Brother, the Rev. A. A. Isaacs. We are always glad to record the work of any Hebrew Christian. These hymns are worthy to be embalmed in our pages; for which purpose we obtained the author's sanction.
HYMN I. WELCOME, with one accord, the joyous
day, When mercy, truth, and love, their
beams display: When gathering saints in happy con
cert meet, To join in praises at the mercy-seat. Welcomes resound from all, from heart
and tongue, In holy concord, and in heavenly song. Welcome, the means of grace, the Gos
pel's sound; The common worship of a common Welcome, the solemn anthem of the
heart; The quickening power, which God
Himself imparts ; The pledge and earnest of eternal rest; The peace which fills the calm and
trusting breast. Here may we thirst, and have our
thirst supplied ; Here may we hunger and green pas
tures find; Here may the light of life and love
divine, From Jesu's presence, on His people
shine: In heart, in voice, in sympathy agree, For us, dear Lord, here it is good to be.
From all the earth arise ;
Throughout the skies.
In sacred cadence swell;
The tidings tell.
The voice of prayer ascends,
Praise and devotion blend,
World without end.
Thine is the sovereign sway,
From day to day.
From heaven to earth resound,
Be Thine, O Lord.
HOLY, holy, holy Lord,
In Thy courts on earth we love represents one empire under four Oft to think of courts above :
different dynasties. In sweet fellowship now given,
4. The Babylonian was the 1st Pledge of fellowship in heaven.
great dynasty : the Persian the 2nd, Blest, supremely blest, since we,
the Grecian the 3rd; some other Our Redeemer then shall see.
the fourth. HYMN IV.
5. The Roman has not been the HARK! the notes of angels swelling
4th, because it never had the doThrough the realms of cloudless day:
minion over Babylon as the others Hark! how each celestial dwelling
had; nor did it arise immediately out Echoes with the heaven-born lay.
of one of the four. Harps of gold in tuneful measure, 6. No 4th kingdom having yet had
Touched by hands divinely skilled : dominion over Babylon, this 4th is Streams of praise roll on for ever,
yet future. All the courts of bliss are filled. 7. This 4th or iron kingdom will Rocks and groves and snow-capt moun.
be divided into ten kingdoms. These tains
will be “partly strong and partly Join the anthem of the skies ; brittle ;" probably in the proportion Foaming floods and silvery fountains, of seven to three. (Dan. vii. 7, 8.) Blend anew their harmonies.
8. A kingdom (little horn) arising From above the sunbeams quiver will, according to Daniel, pluck up
O'er the crested waves below; three of these and rule over all the While each deep melodious river,
rest, another heptarchy resolved into Vocal e'er with praises flow.
a monarchy. Earth and sky and murmuring ocean, Note. John says of the ten horns Onward with the tidings roll: that they are ten kings .
“ reWhispering winds in ceaseless motion, ceive power as kings one hour with
Wend their way from pole to pole. the beast .... have one mind, and Stars in golden clusters sleeping, will give their power and strength Dew-drops bright as summer's tears,
unto the beast ... for God hath All the sacred chorus keeping, Praise--the music of the spheres.
put it into their hearts." (Rev. xvii.
12, 13, 17.) Tribes of earth, of every nation,
9. Another kingdom will be set up Magnify Messiah's name ;
which “shall break in pieces and Faithful heralds of salvation,
consume all these kingdoms, and it Trumpet-tongued proclaim His fame, E'en from hearts with sorrow broken,
shall stand for ever." (Dan. ii. 44.)
10. The little horn arises out of E'en amidst the din of strife, Rise to heaven in words unspoken,
one of the four horns which succeed Songs of everlasting life.
the horn of the goat, or Greece (* &
horn of sight," in the margin: comOpen wide ye gates of glory;
pare Dan. vii. 20, “that horn that Lo ! the hosts triumphant come. List ! they sing redemption's story,
had eyes "). All the work of God is done.
11. This horn is to be traced Now in humble adoration,
through Lysimachus king of Thrace; One seraphic chant they raise ;
and afterwards of Macedonia or Christ is all,-complete salvation ;
Greece. Perfect, full, eternal PRAISE.
Note. Antiochus Epiphanes was not the little horn, for his kingdom
(Syria) was a component part of one OUTLINES OF PROPHECY.
of the four, not a new oth kingdom 1. The vision of Daniel (in the main), arising out of one of them. the prophecy on Olivet; and the scrip- 12. Lysimachus lodged his treasure tures concerning the man of sin, are in Pergamos, and entrusted it to all future in application.
Philetarus, who made himself inde2. With the return of the Jews
pendent, ruled at Pergamos, and left will recommence the fulfilment of
it to his posterity. prophecy.
13. Five kings reigned at Pergamos. 3. The image of Nebuchadnezzar Note. Seven had rule, but only five
of these were crowned. The seven Dan. vii. 7, 19, 23; vüi. 10-13; Rev. are Philetærus, Eumenes 1st, Attalus xii. 4. 1st, Eumenes 2nd, Attalus 2nd, Atta- 22. The conquests of “the little lus 3rd, Aristonicus. The last five horn" from Pergamos, are " toward were crowned.
the south (Egypt); toward the east 14. These five are the kings of (Babylonia, Persia, Media, &c.)," and whom it is said, “ five are fallen." toward the pleasant land" (Pales
15. Attalus 3rd left his kingdom tine): thus establishing the 4th dy. to the Romans. Aristonicus seized nasty, the legs of the image, iron and it, but he was defeated by the Roman clay-hellish strength with human general.
weakness, which cannot cleave to16. Thus Rome became the 6th, of gether (Daniel ii. 40), except for evil whom it is said, one is," viz., when concurrent. John wrote.
23. The beast will probably be a 17. Pergamos passed from the man raised from the dead. (Rev. xiii. Romans to the Turks—the 7th, of 3, 12, 14; xvii. 8, 11; xix. 20.) which it is said, “when he cometh, 24. The Messiah mentioned in he must continue a short space." Daniel, may be the false Messiah
18. “The 8th (the beast) is of the Antichrist. “If another shall the seven,” combining and concen- come in his own name, him, ye will trating all their characteristics. Thus receive." “Ye have heard that the John saw a beast “like unto a leo- Antichrist shall come.” pard, with the feet of a bear, and the 25. The events predicted in Dan. mouth of a lion," with ten horns." ix. date from " the going forth of the Daniel saw one diverse from all," commandment to restore (return) and and with “ten horns." Also in build Jerusalem.” Daniel, we have the first three, a Note. May not the beast, having lion, a bear, and a leopard. Daniel acquired some name in the earth, saw the beast in his unearthly mag- like another Cyrus, issue this comnate character; John, as uniting all mand. the four earthly dynasties, Greece 27. The following has been propredominant: the finger of prophecy posed as a new translation of Dan. thus pointing to Constantinople, as ix, 25, &c. · From the going forth the metropolis once
more of the
of the commandment to restore (repolished subtle Greek.
turn) and build Jerusalem unto the 19. The dragon appears with seven Messiah the prince shall be seven crowned heads and ten uncrowned weeks. And threescore and two horns: the beast with seven weeks the street shall be built again, crowned heads and ten crowned and the wall even in troublous horns. In the 1st dominion, at Per- times." gamos, Satan had no delegate, the Note 1. One MS. gives this verb heads are therefore crowned as being “shall return" in the masculine supreme in the earth under him. In gender; then it must be read, “he the second dominion, the beast is the (Messiah, the prince) will return and delegated supreme authority in the the street shall be built.” earth, and the horns are crowned, as Note 2. “Even in troublous times ;" subordinate to him.
strictly literal it will be “and in Note. Horns, in Scripture, symbo- strait of the times.” The Greek verlise power, but subordinate and de- sion reads, "and the times shall be pendent.
emptied out.” Is this synchronous 20. The 4th kingdom is hellish in with “the days of the voice of the its nature, origin, and agencies—" di- seventh angel, when : verse from all the others, exceeding tery of God should be finished ?" dreadful, and shall devour the whole (Rev. x. 7.) The ancient Latin reads, earth, tread it down and break it in " and the times shall be renewed." pieces."
And unto the end war is deter21. The "little horn” and “the mined, even desolations. And he fourth beast" are identical. Comp. shall confirm a covenant with many