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a kiss. Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of our petition comports with those warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation? Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled, that force must be called in to win back our love? Let us not deceive ourselves.
These are the implements of war and subjugation-the last arguments to which kings' resort. I ask gentlemen, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for it? Has Great Britain any enemy in this quarter of the world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us: they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains, which the British ministry have been so long forging. And what have we to oppose to them? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we any thing new to offer upon the subject? Nothing. We have held the subject up in every light of which it is capable; but it has been all in vain. Shall we resort to entreaty and humble supplication? What terms shall we find, which have not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech you, deceive ourselves longer. We have done every thing that could be done, to avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned-we have remonstrated-we have supplicated-we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne. In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope. If we wish to be free-if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon, until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained we must fight!-I repeat it, sir, we must fight!! An appeal to arms and to the God of Hosts is all that is left us!
They tell us, sir, that we are weak-unable to cope with SQ formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be sta
tioned in every house? Shall we gather strength by irresolu tion and inaction? Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs, and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot? Sir, we are not weak, if we make a proper use of those means which the God of nature hath placed in our power. Three millions of people armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations; and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat, but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged. Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable-and let it come!! I repeat it, sir, let it come!!!
It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, peace, peace-but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God!—I know not what course others may take; but as for me-GIVE ME LIBERTY, OR GIVE ME DEATH!
Extract from the Speech of Mr. CHARLES GRANT, Jun. in the British Parliament, November, 1813.
The hour of retribution is at length arrived. He who had no mercy upon others, is now reduced to a condition which may excite the pity of his most implacable enemy. He, who has made so many miserable, is now condemned to drink to the very dregs the bitter cup of degradation and sorrow. He is thrown from his elevation, despoiled of his glories, hunted from hill to hill, and river to river; the props with which he had supported his power are falling around him; he finds no defence in the thrones behind which he had entrenched his usurped dominion. By a connection with ancient families, he has hoped to clothe his new greatness with something of pre
scriptive pomp and veneration; but he sees those vanishing before him—Austria renouncing his alliance-Bavaria quitting his ranks-Saxony torn from his grasp the Rhine itself anticipating the hour of deliverance, and that hour will assuredly come. We are now, indeed, too much in contact, too close to these great events, justly to appreciate their grandeur and their effects; for it is with these prodigious displays of moral power, as it is with the grandeur and bolder features of nature. It is not till we are removed from their immediate vicinity, that we can ascertain their dimensions, and appreciate their real magnificence. Yet this we may even now assert, that in the whole range of modern history, there is nothing equal or second to these achievements; and that this is one of those events (of which there are not many in history) which taken singly and by itself, decides the destinies of nations and changes the face of the world. It is true, that the sufferings of humanity were long protracted. It is true, that the hope of all nations was at length wearied out into a dumb and listless despair. We, even we ourselves, began at last to think that there could be no propitious result. We believed that, in favour of one individual, the eternal laws of God and nature, (laws which till then, we had deemed eternal) were reversed. We almost imagined that the lessons of moral wisdom had been false, and the wishes and execrations of so many millions exercised no influence over the fates and fortunes of their fellow men. But if the day was delayed, it must be confessed that it was delayed for a terrible purpose, that it might concentrate its destructive energies and approach at last with redoubled and accumulated horror. If the sufferings of humanity have been prolonged, they were prolonged that they might in the course of a few months be overpaid in ample measure. Now, instead of armies, heartless in the cause, generals corrupt or incapable, sovereigns blind to their interests or their fame, we see nobles and kings fighting in the ranks-we see crowds of accomplished captains, and where we number men, we number heroes and patriots. It seems indeed, if I may venture to say so, as if all the treasures of consolation, all the pomp and glory of recompense, were reserved for this occasion. In this one campaign, is concentred the military renown of ages. All that is great, and illustrious and noble-all that is romantic in bravery and wise in council-all that is venerable in hereditary worth or irresistible in popular opinion-the majesty of thrones -the grandeur of empires-the transcendency of genius-the omnipotence of mind,-all natural-all moral energies, seem to
be thrown together, crowded and heaped upon each other, to form as it were a stage, on which a spectacle at once so consoling and so tremendous might be exhibited to the eyes of an astonished world.
From Mr. JEFFREY'S Character of Mr. WATT.
We have said that Mr. Watt was the great improver of the Steam Engine; but in truth, as to all that is admirable in its structure, or vast in its utility, he should rather be described as its inventor. It was by his inventions, that its action was so regulated as to make it capable of being applied to the finest and most delicate manufactures, and its power so increased as to set weight and solidity at defiance. By his admirable contrivances, it has become a thing stupendous alike, for its force and flexibility, for the prodigious power which it can exert, and the ease, and precision and ductility, with which they can be varied, distributed and applied. The trunk of an elephant that can pick up a pin, or rend an oak, is nothing to it. It can engrave a seal, and crush masses of obdurate metal like wax before it, draw out, without breaking, a thread as fine as gossamer, and lift up a ship of war like a bauble in the air. It can embroider muslin, and forge anchors, cut steel into ribbands, and impel loaded vessels against the fury of the winds and waves.
It would be difficult to estimate the value of the benefits which these inventions have conferred upon the country. There is no branch of industry that has not been indebted to them, and in all the most material, they have not only widened most magnificently the field of its exertions, but multiplied a thousand fold the amount of its productions. It is our improved steam engine, that has fought the battles of Europe, and exalted and sustained, through the late tremendous contest, the political greatness of our land. It is the same great power which now enables us to pay the interest of our debt, and to maintain the arduous struggle in which we are still engaged, with the skill and capital of countries less oppressed with taxation. But these are poor and narrow views of its importance. It has increased indefinitely the mass of human comforts and enjoyments, and rendered cheap and accessible all over the world, the materials of wealth and property. It has armed the feeble hand of man, in short, with a power to which no limits can be assigned, completed the dominion of mind
over the most refractory qualities of matter, and laid a sure foundation for those future miracles of mechanical power, whish are to aid and reward the labours of after generations. It is to the genius of one man,too that all this is mainly owing, and certainly no man before bestowed such a gift on his kind. The blessing is not only universal, but unbounded, and the fabled inventors of the plough and the loom, who were deified by the erring gratitude of their rude contemporaries, conferred less important benefits on mankind, than the inventor of the présent steam engine.
This will be the fame of Watt with future generations, and it is sufficient for his race and his country.
From Smith's Lectures on the Sacred Office.
Theodorus had the pastoral care of the vale of Ormay. The tenour of his life was smooth like the stream which stole through his valley. The path which he trod was always clean; nobody could say, Behold the black spot on the linen ephod of Theodorus. His flock listened with attention to his voice; for his voice was pleasant. His speech dropped from his lips as honey from the summer oak; his words were as dew on the rose of Ormay. The spirit of heodorus was alsó meek, and his heart appeared to be tender. But if it was in some degree tender, it was in a higher degree timid. If his soft whisper could not awaken the sleeping lamb, he had not the spirit to lift up his voice and disturb it; no, not even if the lion and the bear should be nigh it. If a thoughtless sheep wandered too near the precipice or the brook, Theodorus would perhaps warn it gently to return. But rather than terrify, alarm, or use any exertion, he would leave it to its fate, and suffer it quietly to tumble over. The danger of precipices and brooks in general, Theodorus often sung on his melodious reed; but this or that brook he could scarce venture to mention, lest such of his flock as were near them, might consider themselves as reproved, and so be offend ed. He could say in general, Beware of the lion and the bear; but could not tell a poor wandering sheep, Thou art particularly in danger: Nor could he say, In such and such paths the enemy lies in wait to devour thee.
The voice of history should be the voice of truth, and when the motives of actions are doubtful, they should be interpreted with candour. Let, therefore, the conduct of Theodorus be al