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6. Are there any traces of rock-basins, or hollows formed in large stones for holding water? Are there any holes in the stones, through which the body of a child or an adult might pass

or are there any stones so placed together that a child, or an adult, could just squeeze through them?

7. Do any of these stones bear traces of fire? Are there any figures or inscriptions on them? or any notches cut at the edges of the stones? If so, these marks should be copied in fac simile, being of great importance.

8. Are there any lines or rows of stones, parallel or nearly so, erect or prostrate, extending for a considerable distance? Are they in straight, curved, or spiral lines?

9. Are there any covered galleries of stones? To which point of the

compass does the entrance lie? 10. Are there any excavations in the ground, or unusual depressions, or marks of a richer soil than in other spots, near any of these stones? Do they stand near any old or modern division of parishes or estates? near any road, old or new? near any British track way or Roman road? near any other British or Roman remains ?

11. In circles of stones, are there two or more concentric circles ? Are there any smaller, and not concentric, circles within, or close without the larger ones? Is there any large stone or heap of stones in the centre of such circles? Are there any single erect stones, track ways, boundaries, heaps of stones, mounds of earth, or depressions of the ground near them?

12. Are there any heaps of stones, carns, (carneddau,) surrounded or not by other and larger stones placed upright ? in single heaps, or in groupes of heaps? Does the heap seem complete, or has it been pulled to pieces ? If so, is there within it a cist-vaen, cromlech, or grave, made with erect side stones and others flat on the top? Does the grave lie east and west, or to what points of the compass? Give the dimensions accurately.

13. Have any bones, axes, spears, or arrow-heads, shields, torques, vases, coins, pins, rings, or other remains been found within or near these carns? Does any British track way, Roman road, or territorial boundary, pass near them?

14, Are there any mounds of earth (tumuli) containing heaps of stone or stone graves ? Give the outline or profile of the mounds accurately, (important,) as well as their dimensions; and their position relatively to other objects, as above. If known, their section should be specified; if a layer of clay occurs at the bottom of all, it should be carefully noted.

15. Are there any Cromlechs, properly so called ? (A drawing should, if possible, be given, as well as a plan with the dimensions of the stones; the bearings of the compass, and their mineralogical character, and relative geological position, being all carefully noted.) Are there

traces of heaps of stone, or carns, or circles of stone, having once surrounded them? Have any remains of human ARCHÆOL, CAMB. VOL.




bodies, or objects of art, arms, coins, &c., been found under or near them?

16. Are there any circular holes dug in the ground, surrounded with low walls of stones, or covered over so as to make rude huts? single or in groups? within enclosures of stones or not? Are there any traces of oyster or other shells within? or any black earth at the bottom.

17. Is there any British military station or town, constructed of stone or turf, with or without a separate citadel or place of refuge ? with how many circuits of walls or trenches? with what entrances ? Are there any traces of vitrification on the stones?

Are there any sharp stones placed erect in front of it to prevent the approach of cavalry? (The geographical position of stations, and their bearings with regard to other stations of which they may be in sight, and their relative position to other remains, should be carefully drawn. Plans and views should be given if possible.)

18. Do any doorways remain with their lintels placed horizontally above them? or in a wedge-like form? Are there any traces of rude or “Cyclopean” masonry visible ? any inscriptions or notches?

any basins or wells for water?

19. Are there any circular houses or low towers, or holes or keeps of stone, or cromlechs, within the stations? any lines of stones approaching them? Have the neighbouring rocks or ground been cut away by the hand of man?

20. Are there any small eminences bearing traces of being rounded off into camps or stations, or posts for cattle, in time of danger ? 21. Are there any artificial or natural caverns to which any

traditions are attached, or which might have served as storehouses, or granaries, or hiding places?

22. Are there any wells, springs, or trees of traditional interest ; and how far do they lie from the parish church? or from any British remains ?

23. Are there any British roads or track ways ? or long trenches cut in the ground, or raised mounds made on the surface for a long extent, as if to form territorial divisions? Are these roadways direct or devious ? Are they cut off by streams, &c.? Do they now serve as boundaries of parishes, townships, estates, or farms ? (Drawings, measurements, and profiles or sections are valuable liere.)

24. Are there any ports or harbours, or posts and camps commanding harbours or entrances to rivers ?

25. What British remains, unconnected with any of the above, have been found on the surface of the ground, or by digging, &c.? and when were they discovered? Where are they now preserved ? (No attempts should be made to clean or polish objects of ancient art, until they have been examined by some competent person.)



[For the following valuable document we are indebted to the kindness of a gentleman who has devoted much time to the elucidation of the antiquities of his native country, and whose archæological researches are thus, with the greatest urbanity, made available to all interested in the history of Wales.]

By “an act for ordering the forces in the several counties of this kingdom" (13 and 14 Ch. II., chap. iii.), the King was empowered “from time to time, as occasion shall require, to issue forth several commissions of lieutenancy to such

person or persons as his Majesty, his heirs and successors, shall think fit to be his Majesty's lieutenants for the several and respective counties, &c., of England, and dominion of Wales, and town of Berwick-upon-Tweed;" &c. It is certain, however, that before the passing of that act, our sovereigns appointed lieutenants both for the English counties, and for Wales.

From the time of the earliest lieutenant for Wales, or for any of its counties, who appears upon record, to the abolilition of the Court of the Marches, at Ludlow, in 1689, the lieutenancy of the Principality appears generally, but not always, to have been committed to the lord president of that court.

The following list is compiled, excepting where references to the contrary are given, from the original patents of appointment, original appointments of deputies, made by the lieutenants, a collection of the “ Arms and Inscriptions formerly existing in the Castle of Ludlow, and in the Bull Inn there," and other contemporary authorities.

1607. Ralph, Lord Eure, baron of Multon, sent to Ludlow, as lord president of the Marches, 19th July 1607, “constituted the King's lieutenant within the Principality of Wales in 1607.”2

1617. William, Lord Compton, afterwards earl of Northampton, appointed lord president of the Marches, 12th

1 Printed, and called “contemporary evidence," in a work edited by the Hon. Robert Clive, entitled “Documents connected with the History of Ludlow and the Lords Marchers.”

2 Mr. Clive's work, referred to above, p. 205.

November, and lord lieutenant of Wales, and the Marches, the counties of Glamorgan and Monmouth excepted, Rymer, — on 24th November, 1617, “Lo. Lieutenant of Eightene shires." He died in the year 1630.

1633. John, earl of Bridgewater, appointed lord president, 12th May, 1633, held that office, and was “ Lo: lieutena't of the dominion and principall’ye of Walest in 1634.”

11th Feb. 1641–2. (17 Charles I.) Philip, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, nominated, by the House of Commons, to be lord lieutenant of the counties of Wilts, Merioneth, and Caernarvon.

1642. James, Lord Strange, who succeeded his father as Earl of Derby, upon the 29th of September, 1642, held the lieutenancies of Cheshire, Lancashire, and North Wales, in this year, both before and after the death of his father ; but was deprived of the lieutenancies of Cheshire and North Wales prior to the 2d of December ensuing; after which I find no appointment of a lieutenant for Wales, or for either of the Welsh counties, before the Restoration. It is probable that the military commissions issued by the king and parliament to the Royalist and Parliamentary leaders, invested them severally with powers in which those of the lieutenants merged, for the time those commissions were in force. It is stated in an edition of Collins's Peerage, that Edward, second marquis of Worcester, who succeeded his father in 1646, attaching himself to the Royal cause, was constituted lord lieutenant of North Wales, by King Charles I.; but I have little doubt that this is an error, and that North Wales should be South Wales, of which the Marquis of Worcester appears to have been lord lieutenant.

1660. Richard, earl of Carbery, appointed lord president of the Marches "on the restoration of Charles II.,”? appointed lord lieutenant of Wales upon 21 Dec: 1660.

1 Mr. Clive's work, p. 200. 2 Inscription, formerly in the council chamber, Ludlow Castle.

3 Rymer's Fædera gives the date of his appointment as in the text; an inscription formerly in the council chamber of Ludlow Castle stated it to have been made in 1631,-“in hanc prefectur' evectus anno R. R. Caroli, 7° 1631." 4 Inscription formerly existing in the council chamber, Ludlow Castle.

5 List of Lord Lieutenants for Cheshire in Ormerod's Hist. of that county. Ormerod refers to Dug dale's Baronage. See also the former work, General Introduction, vol. i. p. xxxv. ; and vol. iii. p. 441. 6 See Ormerod, vol. iii. p 441. cuments connected with the History of Ludlow, p. 184.

7 Do

24th of Charles II.," Henry, marquis of Worcester, afterwards duke of Beaufort, was appointed lord lieutenant of Wales, and the Marches thereof, according to the act of 13 and 14 Ch: II. above referred to. It is stated in Mr. Clive's work, that he was “constituted lord president of the Council in Wales, in 1672."

1689. In this year, Charles, earl of Macclesfield, was lord president and lord lieutenant of the Principality of Wales and the Marches thereof. In 1689 the court of the Marches was abolished, and the Earl of Macclesfield's “commissions afterwards ran as lord lieutenant of North and South Wales. He died January 7, 1693–4.

1696. Upon the 3d of April in this year, Charles, earl of Macclesfield, son of the abovementioned nobleman, occurs as lord lieutenant of the several counties of North Wales, and of the county of Lancaster. He died at Hanover upon 4th November, 1701.

18 June, 1702, (1st Anne,) William, earl of Derby, was appointed lord lieutenant for the counties of North Wales, and the county of Lancaster. He died 5th November, 1701.

2nd December, 1702, (1st Anne,) Hugh, Lord Cholmondeley, afterwards earl of Cholmondeley, was appointed lord lieutenant of North Wales. He was removed from all his employments under the crown in 1713, but reinstated upon the accession of George I. the following year. He died in Jan., 1724-5.

1707 and 1708. In these years Sir John Wynn, of Rhiwgoch, in Merionethshire, and Watstay (now Wynnstay) in Denbighshire, occurs as custos rotulorum for the county of Merioneth.3

Dec. 1722. (9, Geo. I.) Lewis Owen, of Peniarth, Esq., was appointed custos rotulorum for Merionethshire. He died 31st Dec. 1729.

1724–5. March 20, George, second earl of Cholmondeley, was appointed to succeed his brother as lord lieutenant for Cheshire and North Wales.

The 24th year of King Charles II. commenced upon January 30, 1672. and ended upon 29th January, 1673.

2 Mr. Clive's work, p. 15. 3 By the statute of 34 and 35 Henry VIII. c. 26, it was enacted that there should be “one custos rotulorum in every of the said twelve shires” (of Wales). I have not, however, met with the name of any earlier occupant of that office for Merionethshire than Sir John Wynn.

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