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because he would not have us deceived, en-|cessive messages of the word "Go," says snared, destroyed-because he would not God to some fiery trial, “go and consume have us take up with this world as our por- such an enjoyment-and he will soon be with tion, but keep our eye upon a better, even a me; soon be upon his knees, saying, ‘Do not heavenly country, and confess ourselves to be condemn me; show me wherefore thou constrangers and pilgrims in the earth. tendest with me. Why am I thus? Lord, what wilt thou have me to do?""

And when the believer comes to himself, and considers these dealings of God with him, he exclaims, "Lord, what is man, that thou art mindful of him, or the son of man, that thou shouldest visit him!' What am I, to engross the attention of the Almighty! Am I worthy of all these pains? Can I ever bring forth fruit to reward this expense of cultivation? What is man, that thou shouldest magnify him? And that thou shouldest set thine heart upon him; and that thou shouldest visit him every morning, and try him every moment?"

III. This brings us to remark THE BENEFIT OF AFFLICTION. This benefit might be exemplified several ways.

Afflictions are designed to be trials. They evidence the reality and the degree of our religion both to ourselves and others. When a person is surrounded with worldly possessions and enjoyments, it is not easy for him to determine whether he is leaning on these or on God. But let them be removed, and his reliance will quickly appear. If he is placing his dependence on these, he will sink when they are removed. But if while he uses them, and is thankful for them, he still makes God "the strength of his heart, and his portion for ever," he will not faint in the day of adversity; but be able to say with former sufferers, "We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed: we are perplexed, but not in despair; persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed. Although the fig-tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the vines; the labour of the olive shall fail, and the fields shall yield no meat; the flocks shall be cut off from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls: yet I will rejoice in the Lord, I will joy in the God of my salvation."

But here we particularly see that afflictions are intended to be spiritual preventions-they are "to keep man from his purpose." The people of God are not always aware of this at first, and therefore, when they meet with these obstructions, they sometimes fret, and think they do well to be angry even unto death: they think he is their enemy, while he is proving himself to be their friend; and that he is opposing their progress, when he is only hindering their wanderings. Disappointments in favourite wishes are trying, and we are not always wise enough to recollectthat disappointments in time are often the means of preventing disappointments in eternity. Our murmurings and repinings arise from our ignorances: we see not the precipice and the pit on the other side of the hedge or of the wall.

I wish you therefore, above all things, to remember, that it is a most singular mercy for God to render the pursuit of sin difficult. If we are going astray-is it not better to have the road filled with thorns than strewed with flowers? Is it not better to have it rough and uninviting, than smooth and alluring? If there are certain things in us, the destruction of which is equally necessary and difficult-is it a blessing to have them fed, or to have them starved? There are some who are now rejoicing because their plans succeed, and every thing favours their wishes, who, if they knew all, would see awful reason to weep and mourn--And there are others, who, if they knew all, would no longer be sorrowful because they cannot advance, but are checked in every path they tread. They would see that they are chastened of the Lord, that they may not be condemned with the world. They would see that the loss Afflictions are excitements. They quicken of creatures is to lead them to ask more earto the exercise of grace, and to the perform-nestly for "God their maker, who giveth ance of duty. When Absalom wished to see Joab, he sent him a messenger, but he would not come-he sent a second time, but he still refused. Well, what was he to do now! Says Absalom to his servants, "See, Joab's field is near mine, and he hath barley there-go and set it on fire;" and he will soon come to know the reason. And so it fell out: "Then Joab arose and came to Absalom, unto his house, and said unto him, Wherefore have thy servants set my field on fire?" Why, says Absalom, Not because I wished to do thee an injury, but wanted an interview, and could obtain it in no other way. Thus, when we become indifferent to communion with God, and disregard the suc

songs in the night." They would see that the sickness of the body is designed to be the cure of the soul. They would see that earth is imbittered, that heaven may be endeared.

Such a discovery of the design and consequences of these exercises would change the whole face of the dispensation, and lead them not only to submit but to give thanks.

But how awful is it when afflictions are useless; and even medicine is administered in vain! And there are those, who, like Ahaz in distress, sín more and more against God. When He arms himself to withstand them in their mad career, they "rush upon the thick bosses of his buckler." If they cannot pierce the hedge or the wall by which

But this shall not be the case with the people of God. The grace which employs the means will render them effectual. They shall not only feel-but reflect—and resolve. "Then shall she say, I will go and return to my first husband, for then was it better with me than now!"

he opposes them, they will lie down in sullen | lieving, I entered into rest. Under every obstinacy and sin "as they can"-to use the accusation, he was near that justified me. In words of the prophet, rather than yield. every duty, and in every trial, he encouraged "Thou hast stricken them, but they have me by saying, My grace is sufficient for thee: not grieved; thou hast consumed them, but I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.' they have refused to receive correction; they Now I only see my sins and my enemieshave made their faces harder than a rock- but where is the Saviour and the helper?— they have refused to return." 'then was it better with me than now!' Once I experienced the gracious influences of his Holy Spirit. By these I was enlivened, refreshed, and enlightened. I saw clearly the path of duty. I could harmonize providences and promises. I claimed the privi lege of a child and an heir of God. But now the Comforter, who should relieve my soul, is far from me. I have grieved the Holy Spirit of God, by which I was sealed unto the day of redemption-Then was it better with me than now! O what enlargements of soul had I in his ordinances! How often did I find the sanctuary to be no less than the house of God, and the gate of heaven! How sweet was his word to my taste, yea sweeter than honey to my lips! What a feast did I enjoy at his table! His flesh was meet in


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IV. We observe THE DIFFERENCE THERE IS BETWEEN OUR ADHERING TO GOD, AND OUR FORSAKING HIM. Behold the declining Christian seduced by the world. When he was beginning to deviate-many a Samuel cried, Turn ye not aside for then shall ye go after vain things, which cannot profit or deliver; for they are vain." But he disregarded the friendly counsel. Others had been drawn into this unhappy course; and they had all told him the confusion and re-deed, and his blood was drink indeed!— gret with which it had been attended.-But he would also try for himself-and, says God, Let him try-" that he may know my service and the service of the kingdoms of the countries." By-and-by he heard a voice saying-"O that they had hearkened to my commandments! then had their peace been as a river, and their righteousness as the waves of the sea!-Have I been a wilderness unto Israel? A land of darkness? Wherefore say my people, We are lords; we will come no more unto thee?"

And now he bethinks himself, and begins to compare the present with the past. "How different the scorching sands, the briers, and serpents of this desert, from the green pastures in which I once fed, and the still waters by which I once refreshed my weary soul! O that it was with me as in months past.' Once I walked with God. I could behold his face with confidence. The glory of the Lord was risen upon me, and I walked all the day long in the light of his countenanceThen was it better with me than now!' Once I had free access to the throne of grace. I approached it with humble and holy boldness; and there are many places that can witness to the tears of joy and sorrow with which I poured out my soul before God. But now the recollection fills me with dismay. I have now little heart to pray. Conscience indeed drags me along to the duty, but I enter the presence of my God with a slavish fear or a chilling indifference Then was it better with me than now! Once I had sweet communion with the Saviour of sinners. When oppressed with a sense of guilt, I saw the all-sufficiency of his sacrifice, and the perfection of his righteousness, and by be

Then was it better with me than now! And oh! with what cheerfulness I carried my cross! I could even glory in tribulation also; for as the sufferings abounded, the consolations did also much more abound. The storm without raged in vain-for all was peace within-but now conscience knaws me like a worm-and the promises which should be my support, are neither within reach nor within sight- Then was it better with me than now! There was a time that I could see him not only in ordinances, but also in providences; not only in his word, but also in his works. I could enjoy him in my creature comforts. I relished his love in my daily food; I saw his goodness in all my connexions: but now I know not whether any thing I possess is sent in wrath or mercy; I can find him in nothing: Behold, I go forward, but he is not there; and backward, but I cannot perceive him; on the left hand, where he doth work, but I cannot behold him: he hideth himself on the right hand, that I cannot see him!!

"I cannot fully describe my case. All I know is-and this I feel by an experience too bitter to be expressed-that it is not with me as it once was!"

Some of these feelings, in a lower degree, are common to an apostate professor, who has left off to be wise and to do good. But the experience of such a man differs exceedingly from the feelings of a backsliding believer; for the judgment of the believer was never drawn over from the Lord's side, though it was not suffered for a time to be heard; and he has enjoyments to look back upon which a stranger never intermeddled with. He can remember not only the dread

fulness of a state of utter distance from God by nature, but also the blessedness of being brought nigh by the blood of Christ. He knows what it is to live under his smiles and by his influences. And now that the charm which deceived him is dissolved-now that he has leisure for reflection-now that he is separated from his very idols, no wonder he resolves if possible to return to a state in which it was better with him than now.



Him hath God exalted with his right hand to
be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give re-
pentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins.
Acts v. 31.

ELEVATION is necessary to influence. Of And let those who have been led astray and have fallen by their iniquity, adopt imme- what advantage is "a candle under a bushel?" diately the same resolution. While you con--but place it "in a candlestick, and it giveth sider the melancholy change that has taken place in your experience-remember two things

First, that it cannot be better with you than it is till you return to God; since it is by your departure from him that you have sustained all these losses and incurred all this misery. "Set thee up way-marks, make thee high heaps; set thine heart toward the high way, even the way which thou wentest; turn again, O virgin of Israel, turn to these thy cities."

And, Secondly, while with weeping and supplications you are disposed to seek him again, guard against that despondency which would tell you that it will be in vain. It is not in vain. There is hope in Israel concerning this thing. He waiteth to be gracious, "Reand is exalted to have mercy upon you. turn, ye backsliding children, and I will heal your backslidings. Behold, we come unto thee; for thou art the Lord our God. Truly in vain is salvation hoped for from the hills, and from the multitude of mountains: truly in the Lord our God is the salvation of Israel." Have any of you been restored? Turn not again to folly. Has it not cost you enough already? After all this, will not the very appearance of evil terrify you? Live near to God.-Your welfare depends upon it.

And as for those young converts who have just subscribed with their own hand and surnamed themselves by the name of Israel, let these also beware. Now perhaps you think there is very little danger of this caution. Such at present is your attachment to the Saviour and his way, that it seems to be impossible for you ever to forget the one or forsake the other. But how many who once had the same confidence with yourselves, have since denied him or followed him afar off! "Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth, take heed lest he fall. Watch and pray, lest ye enter into temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak."

"Now unto Him that is able to keep you from falling, and to present you faultless before the presence of his glory with exceeding joy, to the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever!-Amen."


light to all that are in the house." While the
sun is below our earth, all is dark and cold-
but when he arises, there is healing under
his wings;" and from his loftiness in the skies
he scatters his enlightening and enlivening
beams. When the shrub rises up out of the
ground, it rather requires than affords support
and assistance-"but when it is
becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air
come and lodge in the branches thereof." A
man in the obscurity and contractedness of
private life may feel dispositions prompting
him to do good-but he can only pour forth
benevolent wishes and shed ineffectual tears.
But give him pre-eminence, place in his hands
the reins of empire, and at his disposal the
treasures of the state, and lo! thousands are
refreshed by his shadow, protected by his
power, and enriched by his bounty; his fame
spreads encouragement; prayer also shall be
made for him continually, and daily shall he
be praised. Thus Jesus "ascended far above
all heavens, that he might fill all things."

Or take another illustration. The life of Joseph is not only affecting as a history, but also important as a type. Joseph was hated of his brethren; and they sold him as a slave to a company of Ishmaelites in order to prevent the fulfilment of his dreams. But the means used to hinder his advancement terminated in the promotion of it; and in process of time he was made ruler over all the land of Egypt. And it is worthy of our regard, that his elevation was-not only the aggrandizement of himself-but also the preservation of thousands, and in a peculiar manner the salvation of his father's house. He was the only dispenser of supplies to those who were perishing with famine-and "Go unto Joseph"-was the order given by Pharaoh to every petitioner.

But a greater than Joseph is here. Thus Jesus suffered from the hands of sinners: and they acted only as enemies-but the curse was turned into a blessing. His sufferings led to his exaltation; and this exaltation was not only a personal reward—but a relative glory. He is made head over all things "unto his body the Church." He has power given him over all flesh, "that he should give eternal life to as many as the Father has given

him." And him, says the Apostle, to the Jews, "him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins."

provided for him a ransom, and through a suf-
fering Saviour is willing to receive him
graciously. This dissolves the heart and
makes him "sorrowful after a godly sort."
For the tear of evangelical penitence drops
from the eye of faith; and faith while it
weeps stands under the cross.
"I will pour
upon the house of David, and upon the inha-
bitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and
of supplications: and they shall look upon me
whom they have pierced, and they shall
mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only
son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one
that is in bitterness for his first-born."

The pressure of these various feelings constitutes what we mean by having the heart broken for sin. But the man has now new dispositions and resolutions; and hence a new

Thus he is advanced as mediator, to the grandeur and resources of his present station, not only to govern, but to save; and to save by governing. Some are exalted as princes who are by no means saviours. They do not study to secure the common rights of mankind. They do not set examples of temperance, humanity, and social affection. They do not cultivate harmony and peace. They seem only raised up to oppress and to destroy. Murder and desolation mark their progress. The ruins of towns and villages, the tears of widows and orphans, are the materials of their glory. They sacrifice the lives of their sub-course of life. He is delivered from the love jects to save their own-yea, they frequently sacrifice them to gratify their pride, their vanity, their avarice, their revenge. But he sacrificed himself for the welfare of his subjects "I give my flesh for the life of the world." They are princes of war-but he is "the Prince of peace." They are princes of death -but he is "the Prince of life." They are princes and destroyers-but he is "a Prince and a Saviour." He takes us under the wing of his protection; redeems us from the curse of the law; delivers us from the wrath to come; saves us from our sins. He makes his subjects holy and happy-For "he gives repentance unto Israel, and forgiveness of sins."

Let us take three views of these blessings. -Let us consider-THEIR MEANING-THEIR CONNEXION and THEIR SOURCE.

of sin, the love of all sin, however dear before. He is freed from the dominion of sinso that it no longer "reigns in his mortal body, that he should obey it in the lusts thereof. Neither yields he his members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin; but yields himself unto God as those that are alive from the dead, and his members as instruments of righteousness unto God." He avoids also the occasions of sin, and "abstains from all appearance of evil."-And this is what we mean by having the heart broken from sin."

And what is forgiveness? It is simply the removal of all obligation to punishment. It does not render a man innocent of the crimes which he has committed; for a man can never appear otherwise to God than he really is; and it will be everlastingly true, that Job cursed the day of his birth, and Peter denied his master. But sin contracts guilt, and guilt binds over to punishment: now, forgiveness cancels this obligation and restores the offender to safety. And frequently, at least among men, forgiveness extends no further. But it does with God. He takes pleasure in those whom he pardons as if they had never sinned, and indulges them with the most intimate friendship.

I. Let us consider THEIR MEANING.-What is repentance? Every one will see the propriety of making this inquiry, who only reflects that every thing excellent admits of counterfeit that there are specious resemblances not only of every moral virtue, but of every Christian grace and that Pharaoh, and Ahab, and Judas, and others, are said to have repented, and after all died in their sins. Perhaps a better definition of repentance was never given than by an old divine, one excel- When two individuals have been at valency of which is, that it is easily remember-riance, the hardest to believe in reconciliation ed. He tells us that "Genuine repentance is the offender. The blame is his: and judg consists in having the heart broken for sin, ing under a consciousness of his desert, he and from it." can hardly be persuaded that the party he has injured does not feel like himself. History informs us that when a man had offended Augustus, the emperor, to show his greatness of mind, declared that he pardoned him. But the poor creature, who expected only destruction, astonished beyond measure, and fearing the declaration was too good to be true, in all the simplicity of nature, instantly desired his majesty to give him some present as a proof that he had really forgiven him. Thus anxious is the awakened mind. Such a free and full forgiveness after all his heinous pro

Be it then remembered, that the subject of repentance is convinced of sin. He sees that it is the greatest evil in the universenot only as it is the cause of his sufferings, and has exposed him to the miseries of hell -but because it is the pollution of his soul, and the degradation of his nature, and has rendered him vile and abominable in the eyes of God. Hence he feels shame, self-loathing, abhorrence, grief, and contrition-especially when he apprehends the goodness of God, which has spared him under all his offences,

vocations seems incredible; he therefore desires a token for good: and many pledges of the most perfect reconciliation the God of all grace affords in his dealings with his people. He hears their prayer; he is with them in every trouble; he delivers them and honours them; he makes all things to work together for their good, and engages to receive them to glory.

have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon."

III. We remark THE SOURCE OF THESE BLESSINGS-" He gives repentance unto Israel and forgiveness of sins.”

Some think repentance a very legal subject, and are ready to condemn the man who preaches it, as a stranger to the Gospel. But there never was a greater mistake than this. For not to mention, that our Lord "came to call sinners to repentance," and that the Apostles "went forth preaching everywhere that men should repent"-I would observe, that repentance is a subject peculiarly evangelical. The law has nothing to do with re

II. Let us glance at THE UNION OF THESE BLESSINGS. Repentance and forgiveness of sins are mentioned together. Now let it be observed, that this is not a meritorious connexion between repentance and forgiveness as if the one deserved the other-for they are both given-and how can one gift merit ano-pentance-it does not even command it-all ther?

it has to do with the transgressor is to condemn. It allows him neither liberty nor ability to repent--but the Gospel gives him both. And indeed to little purpose would it give us the one without the other. But here is our encouragement-the Gospel not only gives us space, but grace for repentance. What in one view is a duty, in another is a privilege: and what is commanded is also promised. The "broken heart and the contrite spirit" is not only a sacrifice which he will not despise, but it is also a sacrifice which he must provide!

But there is between them, First, a connexion of propriety. It would not accord with the wisdom of God to deliver from hell a man who would be miserable in heaven; to forgive one incapable of enjoying or serving him-yea, one who abhors him. Without repentance we should never value the blessing of forgiveness, and therefore we should neither be happy in nor thankful for the possession of it. If a servant or a child were to behave improperly, though goodness may incline you to pardon, you would naturally require a proper state of mind, and signs of And he does provide it. He "gives resorrow, confession, and reformation; other-pentance unto life." For having ascended wise your forgiveness would look like connivance at the transgression, or indifference to the offence, and encourage a repetition of disobedience.

Hence there is between them also, a connexion of certainty. They are indissolubly united-no one ever really enjoyed forgiveness without repentance; and no one ever truly exercised repentance without forgiveness. And hence it follows that the best way to ascertain our state before God is not a reference to dreams and visions, sudden impulses, and accidental occurrences of Scripture to the mind-no-but an examination of our character; a comparison of ourselves with the features of pardoned sinners pourtrayed in the Gospel. To know whether we are justified, let us inquire whether we are renewed in the spirit of our minds: and be assured of this, that he is not the partaker of Divine forgiveness who is not the subject of genuine repentance.

up on high leading captivity captive, "he received gifts for men, even for the rebellious also, that the Lord God might dwell among them." The chief of these was the dispensation of the Holy Ghost. By his influence the understanding is enlightened and the conscience awakened; the heart of stone is taken away and a heart of flesh given; and sinners, before weak and averse to holiness, are enabled to "walk in his statutes, and to keep his judgments to do them." Thus the word is rendered effectual; and the events of Providence are sanctified; afflictions make them "acknowledge their offence; and the goodness of God leadeth them to repentance."

And if repentance be not derived from ourselves can forgiveness of sins? If the former be a gift-can the latter be a purchase?"He gives repentance unto Israel, and forgiveness of sins." And hence two things follow.

First, if we possess these blessings-we learn to whom we are to address our praise. " Surely, shall one say, in the Lord have I righteousness and strength."

On the other hand, as there is an inseparable connexion between these, if you had been humbled for your sins; if your hearts had been broken for them, and from them; Secondly, if we want them-we see to you should not despair of acceptance, but whom we are to address our prayers. Betake view this experience as the authorized evi- yourselves to the Friend of sinners, and say, dence of Divine favour. "Believe in God.""Lord, remember me now thou art come He cannot deny himself. And he has said, into thy kingdom.' 'Heal me, and I shall "He that confesseth, and forsaketh his sins, be healed; save me, and I shall be saved: shall have mercy. Let the wicked forsake for thou art my praise.' 'Lord, if thou wilt his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts; thou canst make me clean.'-And hast and let him return unto the Lord, and he will thou not said, 'him that cometh unto me, I

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