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end, whose "New Testament arranged in chronological and historical order," is at once a magnificent present made to the Church of England, by one of her most enlightened and devoted sons, and an offering of no mean value made to the whole of Christendom, thus entitles the five verses we have just cited;
"The sixth vial is poured out. By this time the end of the 1260 years approaches the emblems under this vial represent the nearer, though still gradual downfal of the Turkish empire, the preparations for the restora. tion of the Jews, and the commencement of the great confederacy of the anti-christian powers against the Church of Christ in Palestine, under the influence of evil principles or false religions."
It would lead us too far from our immediate subject of contemplation, to relate at any length the causes of the origin, progress, and suspension of the conquests of Mahomet; its subsequent temporary revival, the entire loss of its political power, as the dangerous rival of its neighbours, and its present increasing weakness, by the gradual separation and independence of its fairest provinces. But the facts are indubitable, and some of them have often been referred to in the preceding observations. Our writers on prophecy have shown the great probability, that as these two masses of error arose together, their power will also be destroyed at the same time, when the prophetic period of 1260 years, which commenced in the year 606, will have elapsed. We are not desirous, however, in this treatise, of resting any argument on these interpretations. The wise and the good have been unanimous in their verdict, and we bow to their decision. Time and history, however, are the only certain interpreters of prophecy; and though the declining power of the Mohammedan apostasy undoubtedly sanctions this hypothesis, yet the reviving influence of the unscriptural errors and political power of Papacy excites at once our sorrow and surprise, and compels us, if not to hesitate as to the desired interpretation, still to with. hold our full assent, until the veil is yet more withdrawn from the future, and until the passage we have cited shall
more clearly exposed, by opening VOL. XLVI. NO, CCLXXXV,
facts and coming realities. Africa and the East was still lying prostrate before the altars of the dark idolatries of their fathers; but the voice of England was heard in the recesses of their groves-it has resounded through their temples-their gods are trembling in their shrines-and Dagon is falling before the ark of Jehovah, and the crescent is waning as the cross advances. The eventual conversion of the Jews-the final overthrow of the Mohammedan power in the East-the subversion of Popery, the apostasy of the West, and of idolatry and infidelity over the whole world, must be anticipated by every believer in the revelation of God to man. But it is not for man-weakly, feeble, ignorant man, to attempt to lift the veil which his Maker has placed before the future; nor can we know through what variety of untried ways it may please the author of our faith that the visible Church shall pass, in its way to hea
The Millennium, or universal reign of virtue, is the most rational opinion which a man can form who believes in a Providence, and is satisfied of the true Christian doctrine of the original dignity and present degra dation of man as a spiritual though fallen being. The blood of the atonement cannot have been shed in vain. The revolted province of Earth must be recovered from the prince of darkness to the dominion of the King of kings. The time must arrive, when the progress of knowledge shall have banished ignorance; and the influence of holiness and virtue be more prevalent than that of wickedness and vice. Then will the perfection of the human race be completed, and evil be overruled by good. Then the human race shall have attained to the highest state of good which this lower exist ence can afford them; and after the object of man's creation shall have thus been answered, and the tree of life bloom again in this paradise, where it was first planted, the fulness of time will have come, when the enlarged and purified faculties of man shall be prepared for a higher state of existence; and the heaven and the earth shall pass away, but the word of these prophecies shall last for ever, though clouds and darkness and thick darkness may veil his glory from both the reason and the curiosity of man.
We shall abstain from adding another line to the prophetic portion of this Eastern question.
We approach the ermination of our review of the past and present state of the Eastern question. We will resumei t rapidly: and look at the prospects of the future.
First, Is there now to be immediate war between the Pacha of Egypt and Syria and the Sultan Mahmoud? This is doubtful. The Turkish troops are on neutral ground, or on territory considered as such for a long period of time. Turkey is only kept in check by the fear of Russia; Russia is not anxious to press an immediate de nouement, as she always prefers to be occupied with the affairs of the East, when western Europe is engaged with her own affairs.
Second, Is the Pacha of Egypt to be allowed to retain the advantages secured to him by the treaty of Kutahia? Is Syria to continue to be a portion of his dominions? Russia is opposed to this arrangement. So is the Porte. But France, England, and Austria, insist on the status quo. The Pacha, far from consenting to abandon Svria, is perpetually extending hi conquests; and as Russia indulges hope that eventually she shall ca. e dissensions and jealousies between the British and Egyptian governments respecting the overland route to India and the Red Sea, she regards the progress of the Pacha in Syria as an interested, but not an angry spectator.
Third, Is the demand of the Pacha of Egypt to secure to his children, and his children's children, the throne of that country and of Syria, to be conceded by the powers of Europe, and by the Ottoman Porte? This is, after all, the most pressing and important question to be decided. If in the affirmative, then subject to what conditions? If in the negative, then a war between Mehemet and Mahmoud is inevitable.
Fourth, Is the Pacha of Egypt to be suffered to continue to refuse the payment of the khazneh, or tribute to the Porte? If the payment shall be withheld much longer, the Russian Government will aid the Sultan in an attempt to recover it. If it shall be paid, by that payment Mehemet will still admit himself to be only the Pacha
of the Porte, subject to his orders and to his control.
Fifth, Is the Pacha of Egypt to be allowed to proclaim the independence of that country, and to found with that and Syria an independent and powerful empire? This question is wholly unconnected with that of the hereditary succession to the throne of Egypt being vested in his family. The Porte is opposed to both. So is Russia. England, France, and Austria oppose the independence of Egypt, but not the hereditary succession. They look only at the question of the khazneh or tribute money. A nominal suzeraineté on the part of the Porte, and a real tribute money annually paid to it by the Pacha and his descendants, would for the moment satisfy these powers. Yet what would that settlement amount to? To nothing more than the adjournment of the independence, with all the advantage in favour of the Pacha of his hereditary rights having been first recognised by Europe. But will the Ottoman Porte acknowledge the hereditary throne of Egypt, vested in the family of the Pacha? Never-unless Syria shouldbe restored, and unless a treaty should be entered into between the Pacha and the Porte, under the guarantees of the allied powers of Europe, including Russia, by which any attempt at an invasion of Syria by Egypt should be declared to amount to a declaration of war against the guaranteeing powers. But would the Pacha submit to those conditions? Never. "I was a Pacha without Syria," said Mehemet; "but with Syria I am a sovereign." Nor would Russia adhere to such a guarantee. She will do nothing, sign nothing, agree to nothing, which shall bind her to the policy of other governments in the affairs of the East. She assented to an expedition in favour of Greece, and joined that expedition, because its tendency was to weaken the Porte, and to increase the influence of the Czar in the north of Europe. But she will not sign any other treaty, or guarantee the fulfilment of any other arrangement, which shall diminish her influence over the Porte, and her independent and isolated position.
Sixth, Is the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi to remain the bond of amity or of alliance between the Czar and
The interests of Russia
are unquestionably bound up in its permanence and developement. The interests of the Porte are actually sacrificed by its provisions. The interests of Great Britain, France, and Austria are necessarily compromised by the Russian possession of the Bosphorus, which virtually that treaty ensures. By the treaty of Adrianople, Turkey obliged herself to pay to the autocrat ten millions of ducats. By the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, she sold her freedom for a mess of pottage. As she was unable to defend herself, and as her "faithful" allies would not defend her, therefore, by an everlasting law of life among nations, she is no longer an independent state-she is no more. Is this treaty, then, to be suffered to remain as the political nightshade over the destinies of the Porte? If so, Turkey must expire, Russia announces her fixed resolution to maintain the integrity of the treaty, and to make war for its preservation. England has refused, by the Whigs, to go to war with Russia. She has sacrificed the freedom of the Black Sea, and the independence of the Bosphorus, to her policy in Ireland and her internal squabbles about pretended reform. France looks on. Austria imitates her example. treaty of Unkiar Skelessi exists, and Turkey is gradually expiring beneath the "protection" of the Czar.
Seventh, and finally, Is the Turkish empire to be reconstituted? or is an Egyptian and Syrian empire to be founded? Are we approaching the period when that mighty Mohammedan colossus which bestrode the world is for ever to disappear, and when new states and empires are to arise on the ruins of error, vice, and superstition?
or has the world yet to witness new phases in this Eastern question, and are centuries still to elapse before "the river Euphrates shall be dried up, that the way of the kings of the East may be prepared?" The status quo is next to impossible; not perhaps for the hour, the month, or the year, but for almost the shortest period of a nation's history. We count our lives by moments-those of nations by years. The Eastern question cannot be SETTLED without war and conflagration. It may be postponed not long-but for a short space of time, its settlement by diplomacy is impossible. The decline and fall of empires, long since unknown but in the works of the historian, should teach us that the present position of the affairs of the East is only preparatory to a mighty catastrophe. The Mohammedan empire is reaching the closing period of its eventful history. But what is to supersede it? Is the Stamboul of the past to be inhabited by advancing Cossacks, and the yet uncivilized hordes of the Russian forests ? Is the ancient Byzantium, once the seat of the Roman empire in the east, to become the capital of another despotism, not less tyrannical, but far less enlightened? Is the Archipelago to become the private property of the Russian Czars? Is the Sea of Marmora to be closed to all pendants but that of the eagle of the north? Are the Turks to saunter, as strangers in a strange land, amongst the ruins of their former glories? Are their children to feel that they are ruled by a stranger's hand as they walk on the Hippodrome, or enter the temple of St Sophia? We cannot answer these questions; but appearances are all in favour of the affirmative.
THE BOWER OF PEACE.
WHEN Hope's illusions all have waned,
When Sorrow's clouds have gloom'd, and rain'd
The time-taught spirit loves to wend
Up to the gates of day:
While earth, outspread to childhood's glance, Glow'd like a dream of bright romance.
'Twas in the depth of dazzling May,
When bland the air, and blue the skies;
Each in its turn, some witching note:
Such was the summer feeling there,
Rear'd up their crowns all freshly green,
The ox reclined his stately head,
From brakes the linnets caroll'd loud,
On an oak stump mine elbow laid,
And bearing on its side
Rich cherry-trees, whose blossoms white
His night-watch finish'd; and, elate,
Sin, strife, or sorrow, cannot come,
Far from the hum of crowds remote,
Life's silent tenor here to know; To banish every thought of sin,
and blameless eyes;
To nurse those holy thoughts within
Which fit us for the skies,
And to regenerate hearts dispense
Our fate for frailties all our own,
Plunge we in sin's black flood, yet dream
To keep the heart from earthly stain ;
Or dim the impress bright and grand,
This cloudland were his final home;
To Pride" Behold, I must, and can !"
To Gold" Thou art my talisman
And necromantic rod!"
Down Time's far stream he darts his eye,
Oh, fool, fool, fool!—and is it thus
Or dost thou hope, in frenzied pride,