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He hath commanded me to go to bed,
Des. I have heard it said so.-
Des. It was his bidding; therefore, good Æmi-
Dost thou in conscience think,- el me, Emilia,
Emil. There be some such, no question.
Emil. I would, you had never seen him!
Des. Would'st thou do such a deed for all the
Emil. Why, would not you?
Des. No, by this heavenly light!
That even his stubbornness, his checks, and frowns,-10
Emil. Nor I neither, by this heavenly light; might do 't as well i' the dark.
Des. Would'st thou do such a deed for all the world? [price Emil. The world is a huge thing: 'Tis a great For a small vice.
If I do die before thee, pr'ythee shroud me
Emil. Come, come, you talk.
Des. My mother had a maid, call'd-Barbara;
This Lodovico is a proper man.
Emil. A very handsome man.
Emil. I know a lady in Venice, would have
Sing willow, &c.
[stones; Her salt tears fell from her, and soften'd the Lay by these:
Sing willow, &c.
Sing all a green willow must be my garland.
Would store the world they play'd for.
Yet have we some revenge. Let husbands know, 45 Their wives have sense like them; they see, and smell,
And have their palates both for sweet and sour,
Let nobody blame him, his scorn I approve,
Nay, that's not next. -Hark! who is it that 50I think it is; And doth affection breed it?
Des. In troth, I think thou would'st not.
Emil. In troth, I think I should; and undo 't, when I had done. Marry, I would not do such a 20thing for a joint ring; nor for measures of lawn ;
nor for gowns, petticoats, nor caps, nor any petty exhibition: but, for all the whole world,-Why, who would not make her husband a cuckold, to make him a monarch? I should venture purga25 tory for 't.
Des. Beshrew me, if I would do such a wrong for the whole world.
Emil. Why, the wrong is but a wrong i' the world; and, having the world for your labour, 'tis a wrong in your own world, and you might quickly make it right.
Des. I do not think, there is any such woman. Emil. Yes, a dozen; and as many to the vantage, as
Emil. It is the wind.
Des. I call'd my love, false love: but what said ke then?
Sing willow, &c.
Emil. 'Tis neither here nor there.
I think it doth; Is 't frailty, that thus errs?
Des. Good night, good night: Heaven me such usage send, Not to pick bad from bad; but, by bad, mend! [Exeunt.
1i. e. wild, frantick, uncertain.-We still call a wild girl a mad-cap. * This song is printed in the first volume of Percy's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. ' i. e. to boot, over and above. i. e. our former allowance of expence. Usage is an old word for custom.
Enter Iago, and Roderigo.
will he come:
Jago. HERE, stand behind this bulk; straight| 5 Wear thy good rapier bare, and put it home; Quick, quick; fear nothing; I'll be at thy el
It makes us, or it mars us; think on that, And fix most firm thy resolution.
Rod. Be near at hand; I may miscarry in 't. Iago. Here at thy hand; be bold, and take thy sword.
Rod. I have no great devotion to the deed; And yet he hath given me satisfying reasons:'Tis but a man gone:-forth, my sword; he dies. [Stands apart. Iago. I have rubb'd this young quat almost to the sense,
Thy bed, lust-stain'd, shall with lust's blood be
Rod. O wretched villain!
Lod. Two or three groans; it is a heavy night: These may be counterfeits; let's think 't unsafe To come in to the cry, without more help.
Rod. Nobody come? then shall I bleed to death.
Of gold, and jewels, that I bobb'd from him,
It must not be: if Cassio do remain,
That makes me ugly; and, besides, the Moor
No, he must die :-But so, I hear him coming. Enter Cassio.
Rod. I know his gait, 'tis he;-Villain, thou dy'st.
Forth of my heart those charms, thine eyes, are blotted;
Enter Othello, above.
Oth. The voice of Cassio:-Iago keeps his word. Rod. O, villain that I am!
Oth. Hark! 'tis even so.
[He runs at Cassio, and wounds him. Cas. That thrust had been mine enemy indeed, But that my coat is better than thou think'st; I will make proof of thine.
[Fight. Cassio wounds Roderigo: Iago 40 cuts Cassio behind in the leg, and exit. Rod. O, I am slain !
Cas. I am maim'd for ever;-Help, ho! murder! murder!
Gra. Here's one comes in his shirt, with light and weapons.
Iago. Who's there? whose noise is this, that
cries out murder? Lod. We do not know.
Jago. Did not you hear a cry?
Cas. Here, here; for heaven's sake, help me! Iago. What's the matter?
Gra. This is Othello's ancient, as I take it. Lod. The same, indeed; a very valiant fellow. Jago. What are you here, that cry so grievously? Cas. Iago? O, I'am spoil'd, undone by villains! Give me some help. [this? Iago. O me, lieutenant! what villains have done Cas. I think, that one of them is hereabout, And cannot make away.
Iago. O treacherous villains!
35 What are you there? come in, and give some help. [To Lod. and Gra.
Rod. O, help me here!
[lago stabs him. Rod. O damn'd Iago! O inhuman dog!—O! 0,0!
Iago. Kill men i' the dark!-Where be these
45 How silent is this town!-Ho! murder! murder!
Cas. O, help, ho! light! a surgeon!
lago. Signior Lodovico? Lod. He, sir.
[villains. lago. I cry you mercy; Here's Cassio hurt by
Iago. How is it, brother? Cas. My leg is cut in two.
This is a passage much controverted among the editors, who variously propose to read quab (a gudgeon), quail, gnat, and knot.-Dr. Johnson, however, adopts quat, which, he says, in the midland counties is a pimple, that, by rubbing, is made to smart, or is rubbed to sense.-Roderigo, he adds, is called a quat by the same mode of speech, as a low fellow is now termed, in low language, a scab.— To rub to the sense, is to rub to the quick. 2 i. e. No passengers? nobody going by?
Iago. Marry, heaven forbid!Light, gentlemen; I'll bind it with
Bian. What is the matter, ho? who is 't that cry'd?
Iago. Who is 't that cry'd?
Bian. O my dear Cassio! my sweet Cassio!
Bian. Alas, he faints:--O Cassio! Cassio! Cassio! 15
Iago. Even he, sir; did you know him?
Iago. Signior Gratiano? I cry you gentle pardon; 25 These bloody accidents must excuse my manners, That so neglected you.
Iago. Cassio hath here been set on in the dark, 5 By Roderigo, and fellows that are 'scap'd; He's almost slain, and Roderigo dead.
Gra. I am glad to see you.
Iago. How do you, Cassio?-O, a chair, a chair!
lago. He, he, 'tis he :-O, that's well said;-
Iago. [To Bianca.] What, look you pale?-0, bear him out o' the air.[Cassio is borne off Stay you, good gentlemen.-Look you pale, misDo you perceive the gastness of her eye?— Nay, if you stare, we shall hear more anon:Behold her well; I pray you, look upon her; Do you see, gentlemen? nay, guiltiness will speak,| Though tongues were out of use.
Emil. 'Las, what's the matter? what's the matter, husband ?
Amil. Alas, good gentleman! alas, good Cassio!
Go know of Cassio where he supp'd to-night :-
Bian. He supp'd at my house; but I therefore
Iago. O, did he so? I charge you, go with me.
Bian. I am no strumpet; but of life as honest,
Amil. As I? foh! fie upon thee!
Iago. Kind gentlemen, let's go see poor Cassio
Come, mistress, you must tell us another tale.-
A Bed-chamber: Desdemona in bed, asleep. A light burning.
Oth. It is the cause, it is the cause, my soul,Let me not name it to you, you chaste stars!It is the cause.-Yet I'll not shed her blood; Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow, And smooth as monumental alabaster. [Takes off his sword. Yet she must die, else she 'll betray more men 3. 40 Put out the light, and then-Put out the light*! If I quench thee, thou flaming minister, I can again thy former light restore, Should I repent me:-but once put out thy light, Thou cunning'st pattern of excelling nature, 45I know not where is that Promethean heat, That can thy light relumine.- -When I have pluck'd thy rose,
I cannot give it vital growth again,
It needs must wither:-I'll smell it on the tree.500 balmy breath, that dost almost persuade
To fordo, as has been before observed, is to undo, to ruin, to destroy. 2 Dr. Johnson assigns the following meaning to this soliloquy: "I am here (says Othello in his mind) overwhelmed with horror. What is the reason of this perturbation? Is it want of resolution to do justice? Is it the dread of shedding blood? No; it is not the action that shocks me, but it is the cause, it is the cause, my soul; let me not name it to you, ye chaste stars! it is the cause."-Mr. Steevens adds, that "Othello full of horror at the cruel action which he is about to perpetrate, seems at this instant to be seeking his justification, from representing to himself the cause, 1. e. the greatness of the provocation he had received." "This is the second attempt of Othello (continues Mr. Steevens) to justify what he has undertaken. First he says, It is the cause, i. e. his own cause; now he is willing to suppose himself the preventer of succeeding mischief to others." 4 Dr. Farmer observes, that "this has been considered as a very difficult line. Fielding makes Betterton and Booth dispute about it with the author himself in the other world. The punctuation recommended by Dr. Warburton (and which we have adopted), gives a spirit to it which I fear (adds he) was not intended. It seems to have been only a play upon words. To put the light out, was a phrase for to kill.”
Justice herself to break her sword!-Once more.
So sweet was ne'er so fatal. I must weep,
O perjur'd woman! thou dost stone my heart,
Oth. Ay, Desdemona,
Des. Will you come to bed, my lord?
Oth. If you bethink yourself of any crime,
Des. Alas, my lord, what may you mean by
Oth. Ay, I do.
Des. Then, heaven
Have mercy on me!
Des. He found it then;
I never gave it him:-Send for him hither,
Oth. He hath confess'd.
Des. What, my lord?
Oth. That he hath-us'd thee,
Des. He will not say so,
Des. O, my fear interpets then,—What, is he
Des. Alas, he is betray'd, and I undone.
Oth. Amen, with all my heart!
Des. If you say so, I hope you will not kill me. 25
Oth. By heaven, I saw my handkerchief in his hand.
Des. And yet I fear you; for you are fatal then, When your eyes roll so: Why I should fear, Í know not,
Since guiltiness I know not; but yet, I feel, 130
Oth. Think on thy sins.
Des. They are loves I bear to you.
Des. That death's unnatural, that kills for loving. 35
Oth, Peace, and be still!
Des. I will so: What's the matter?
Oth. That handkerchief, which I so lov'd, and
Des, No, by my life and soul;—
Take heed of perjury; thou art on thy death-bed.
Therefore confess thee freely of thy sin;
Des. And have you mercy too!-I never did
Des. O, banish me, my lord, but kill me not.
Des. Kill me to-morrow, let me live to-night.
I, that am cruel, am yet merciful;
Emil. What ho! my lord, my lord!
Amil. O, good my lord, I would speak a word
Oth. Yes; 'tis Æmilia:-by-and-by.-She's
Emil. I do beseech you I may speak with you, O, good my lord!
Oth. I had forgot thee: O, come in, Æmilia: 60/Soft, by-and-by:-Let me the curtains draw.→
The meaning is, (says Dr. Johnson, who adds, that this dreadful scene is not to be endured,) "Thou hast harden'd my heart, and makest me kill thee with the rage of a murderer, when I thought to hace sacrificed thee to justice with the calmness of a priest striking a victim." i, e, has taken measures,
Emil. But now, my lord.
Oth. It is the very error of the moon;
She comes more near the earth than she was wont,
Emil. Cassio, my lord, hath kill'd a young Ve-10 Call'd-Roderigo.
Oth. Roderigo kill'd!
And Cassio kill'd!
Amil. Alas! what cry is that?
Æmil. O, the more angel she,
And you the blacker devil!
An honest man he is, and hates the slime
Emil. My husband?
Oth. What needs this iteration, woman? say, thy husband.
say, thy husband; Do'st understand the word? My friend, thy husband, honest, honest Iago. Emil. If he say so, may his pernicious soul
Emil. No, Cassio is not kill'd.
Oth. Not Cassio kill'd? Then murder's out of 15 Rot half a grain a day! he lies to the heart;
Des. O, falsely, falsely murder'd!
Oth. She turn'd to folly, and she was a whore.
Des. No body; I myself; farewell: Commend me to my kind lord; O,farewell.[Dies. Oth. Why, how should she be murder'd? Emil. Alas, who knows?
Oth. You heard her say herself, it was not I.
Oth. Thy husband.
Emil. That she was false to wedlock?
Emil. My husband?
Oth. Ay, 'twas he that told me first;
Oth. Ay, with Cassio. Nay, had she been truc,
My husband say, that she was false?
Emil. O mistress, villainy hath made mocks with love!
Amil. Do thy worst:
This deed of thine is no more worthy heaven,
Emil. Thou art rash as fire, to say
That she was false; O, she was heavenly true!
O gull! O dolt!
25 As ignorant as dirt! thou hast done a deed,
Oth. Peace, you were best.
Emil. Thou hast not half that power to do me harm,
As I have to be hurt.
Enter Montano, Gratiano, Iago, and others.
That men must lay their murders on your neck.
Amil. Disprove this, villain, if thou be'st a man: He says, thou told'st him that his wife was false; I know, thou did'st not, thou'rt not such a villain; Speak, for my heart is full.
Iago. I told him what I thought; and told no more Than what he found himself was apt and true. Emil. But did you ever tell him, she was false? Iago. I did.
Amil. You told a lie; an odious, damned lie; 45 Upon my soul, a lie; a wicked lie:
She false with Cassio!-Did you say, with Cassio?
Emil. I will not charm my tongue; I am bound to speak;
My mistress here lies murder'd in her bed.
1 Mr. Steevens is of opinion," that some theatrical direction has been omitted; and that when Othello says, Not dead? not yet quite dead? I, that am cruel, am yet merciful; I would not have thee linger in thy pain:-So, so he then stabs her, repeating the two last words, as he repeats the blow. After a repetition of wounds, Desdemona might speak again, with propriety, and yet very soon expire. The first resolution of Othello was to poison her; but from this measure he is dissuaded by the policy of lago. He is next determined to use the poniard; but, his tenderness awaking, he cannot bear to deform those beauties which he had so often approached with other sensations and for different purposes. Therefore, says he,-I'll not shed her blood, nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow, and smooth as monumental alabaster: And this resolution we are to imagine he would have kept, but that he was averse to employing those means again, which had already appeared to be uncertain in their effect." 2 As water, that will support no weight, nor keep any impression. 4 She means to say, 'i. e. Apply some power,
Villainy has taken advantage to play upon the weakness of a violent passion.
I have in this cause power to endure more than thou hast power to inflict.