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(R. S. § 3986. Repealed.) This section made it punishable to carry any letter or packet on board any mail vessel otherwise than in the mail, except as provided by R. S. $ 3993, post, § 7476. It was incorporated into the Criminal Code in section 185

thereof, post, $ 10355, and was repealed by section 341 thereof, post, $ 10515. § 7472. (R. S. § 3987.) Foreign letters not to be carried, except;

oath. No vessel departing from the United States for any foreign port shall receive on board or convey any letter or packet originating in the United States which has not been regularly received from the post-office at the port of departure, and which does not relate to the cargo of such vessel, except as provided in section three thousand nine hundred and ninety-three; and every collector, or other officer of the port empowered to grant clearances, shall require from the master of such vessel, as a condition of clearance, an oath that he has not received on board, has not under his care or control, and will not receive or convey any letter or packet contrary to the provisions of this section.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 233, 17 Stat. 311.

R. S. 8 3993, post, $ 7476, mentioned in this section, authorized the carrying of letters in stamped envelopes out of the mail in case the envelopes are duly directed and sealed so that the letter cannot be taken therefrom without defacing the envelopes, but the Postmaster-General was empowered to suspend this section.

(R. S. § 3988. Repealed.) This section made it punishable for any vessel, to make entry or break bulk until all letters on board had been delivered at the nearest post-office and the master had made oath to that effect. It was incorporated into the Criminal Code in section 204 thereof, post, $ 10374, and was repealed by sec

tion 341 thereof, post, $ 10515. $ 7473. (R. S. § 3989.) Searching vessels for letters.

Any (special agent) of the Post-Office Department, when instructed by the Postmaster-General to make examinations and seizures, and the collector or other customs officer of any port, without special instructions, shall carefully search all vessels for letters which may be on board or which have been conveyed contrary to law.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 235, 17 Stat. 312.

The words “special agent," inclosed in brackets in this section, were superseded by the change of designation of those officers from "special agents" to "post-office inspectors" by Act June 11, 1880, c. 206, § 1, amending R. S.

$ 4017, and incorporated in that section as set forth post, $ 7547. § 7474. (R. S. § 3990.) Seizing and detaining letters.

Any (special agent] of the Post-Office Department, collector, or other customs officer, or United States marshal or his deputy, may at all times seize all letters and bags, packets or parcels, containing letters which are being carried contrary to law on board any vessel or on any post-route, and convey the same to the nearest post-office, or may, by the direction of the Postmaster-General or Secretary of the Treasury, detain them until two months after the final determination of all suits and proceedings which may, at any time within six months

after such seizure, be brought against any person for sending or carrying such letters.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 236, 17 Stat. 312.

The words "special agent,” inclosed in brackets in this section, were superseded by the change of the designation of those officers from "special agents" to "post-office inspectors" by Act June 11, 1880, c. 206, § 1, amending

R. S. $ 4017, and incorporated in that section as set forth post, 8 7547. § 7475. (R. S. § 3991.) Disposition of seizures.

Every package or parcel seized by any special agent) of the PostOffice Department, collector, or other customs officer, or United States marshal or his deputies, in which any letter is unlawfully concealed, shall be forfeited to the United States, and the same proceedings may be had to enforce the forfeiture as are authorized in respect to goods, wares, and merchandise forfeited for violation of the revenue laws; and all laws for the benefit and protection of customs officers making seizures for violating revenue laws shall apply to officers making seizures for violating the postal laws.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 237, 17 Stat. 312. The words "special agent,” inclosed in brackets in this section, were superseded by the change of designation of those officers from "special agents" to "post-office inspectors" by Act June 11, 1880, c. 206, § 1, amending R. S. $ 4017, and incorporated in that section as set forth post, $ 7547.

Provisions for the benefit and protection of customs officers making seizures for violations of the revenue laws are contained in Title XXXIV, "Collection of Duties upon Imports," c. 10.

(R. S. § 3992. Repealed.) This section provided that nothing herein contained should be construed to prohibit the transmission of letters or packets by private hands without compensation, or by special messenger employed for the particular occasion only. It was incorporated into the Criminal Code in section 186 thereof, post, $

10356, and was repealed by section 341 thereof, post, $ 10515. § 7476. (R. S. § 3993.) Letters in stamped envelopes may be car

ried out of the mail. All letters inclosed in stamped envelopes, if the postage-stamp is of a denomination sufficient to cover the postage that would be chargeable thereon if the same were sent by mail, may, be sent, conveyed, and delivered otherwise than by mail, provided such envelope shall be duly directed and properly sealed, so that the letter cannot be taken therefrom without defacing the envelope, and the date of the letter or of the transmission or receipt thereof shall be written or stamped upon the envelope. But the Postmaster-General may suspend the operation of this section upon any mail-route where the public interest may require such suspension.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 239, 17 Stat. 312. § 7477. (R. S. § 3994, as amended, Act Feb. 18, 1875, c. 80, § 1.)

Separating letter-mail for expedition. When the amount of mail-matter to be carried on any mail-route is so great as to seriously retard the progress or endanger the security of the letter-mail, or materially increase the cost of carriage at the ordinary rate of speed, the Postmaster-General may provide for the separate carriage of the letter-mail at the usual rate of speed: but the other mail-matter shall not be delayed any more than is

absolutely necessary, having due regard to the cost of expedition and the means at his disposal for effecting the same.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 240, 17 Stat. 312. Act Feb. 18, 1875, c. 80, 8 1, 18 Stat. 319.

This section was amended by Act Feb. 18, 1875, c. 80, 81, cited above, by striking out, after the words "the means at his disposal for," the word "affecting,” and inserting in place thereof the word "effecting," as set forth here.

(R. S. § 3995. Repealed.) This section made punishable the obstructing or retarding the passage of the mail. It was incorporated into the Criminal Code in section 201 thereof, post, $ 10371, and was repealed by section 341 thereof, post, $ 10515.

(R. S. § 3996. Repealed.) This section made it punishable for a ferryman to delay the mail at a ferry. It was incorporated into the Criminal Code in section 202 thereof, post, $ 10372, and was repealed by section 341 thereof, post, $ 10515.

cars.

CHAPTER TEN

Railway Service Sec.

Sec. 7478. When mail may be carried on 7493. Readjustment of pay for mail railway routes by horse-express.

diverted after weighing periods. 7479. Transportation of official matter 7494. Additional pay for extra weight by railway, etc., companies.

of mails caused by parcel post. 7480. Railway companies to carry mat 7495. Weighing of mails on railroad ter on any train.

routes; payment of expenses of 7481. Selection of trains to carry mail.

computations. 7482. Pay for carrying mail on rail 7496. Style, construction, maintenance, ways receiving Government aid:

etc., of railway post-office cars. 7483. Conditions of railway service. 7497. Refusal to provide postal cars. 7484. Reduction of compensation of 7498. Rates of additional pay for postal

railroads for mail transporta-
tion.

7499. Railroads failing to furnish post7485. Compensation of land-grant rail

office cars; penalty. roads.

7500. Failure of railroad companies to 7486. Reduction of compensation of

carry mails on fastest trains. railroads for mail transporta 7501. Railroads carrying mails to maintion.

tain regular schedules as to 7487. Rates for transportation of mail

time of arrival and departure; railroad routes carrying

fines for delay. average weight per day of up 7502. Sending second-class matter by ward of 5000 pounds.

freight restricted. 7488. Amendment of Act March 2, 7503. Post-office cars; material, con1907, c. 2513; rates for trans

struction, and equipment, portation of mail on land-grant 7504. Steel railway post-office cars rerailroads.

quired after July 1, 1917. 7489. Weighing of mails on railroad 7505. Special transfer between St. routes.

Louis and East St. Louis. 7490. Periods for weighing of mails on 7506. Mail messengers in connection railroad routes.

with railroad, etc., service. 7491. Weighing of mails on railroad 7507. Additional division superintendroutes; withdrawal of freight

ents. able lots of postal supplies. 7508. Assistant superintendents; allow7492. Return to mails, in cases of emer

ance for traveling expenses. gency, of empty mail bags pre 7509. Railway postal clerks; appointviously withdrawn; payment

ment; number; classification for transportation.

and compensation.

on

Sec.
7518. Railway postal clerks to reside

on route; exception; no salary

to be reduced; repeal. 7519. Railway postal clerks on duty

over ten hours; travel allow

ances.

Sec.
7510. Classification of railway post-of-

fices, terminal railway post of-
fices and transfer offices; as-

signment of clerks.
7511. Railway postal clerks, promo-

tions. 7512. Railway postal clerks may be

transferred. 7513. Railway postal clerks in charge

of crews; grades; promotion. 7514. Railway postal clerks failing of

promotion. 7515. Railway postal clerks in highest

grades of their lines; promo

tions. 7516. Railway postal clerks; restora

tion after reduction in grade. 7517. Railway postal clerks; advance

ment restricted.

7520. Preference in transfers from rail

way mail service to Department or post-offices, of persons who

served in civil war. 7521. Railway postal clerks; leave of

absence when sick. 7522. Railway postal clerks; annual

vacation. 7523. Railway postal clerks; leave of

absence when substitute is provided.

(R. S. $$ 3997, 3998. Superseded.) R. S. § 3997, required the Postmaster-General to classify the railway routes according to the size of the mails, and the speed and frequency of carriage, into three classes.

R. S. § 3998, fixed the maximum compensation per mile per annum for the railways of each class.

These sections were superseded by the system of compensation according to weight carried, established by R. S. $ 4002, and subsequent acts, post, $8

7483–7496. § 7478. (R. S. § 3999.) When mail may be carried on railway

routes by horse-express. If the Postmaster-General is unable to contract for carrying the mail on any railway-route at a compensation not exceeding the maximum rates herein provided, or for what he may deem a reasonable and fair compensation, he may separate the letter-mail from the other mail, and contract, either with or without advertising, for carrying such letter-mail by horse-express or otherwise, at the greatest speed that can reasonably be obtained, and for carrying the other mail in wagons, or otherwise, at a slower rate of speed.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 212, 17 Stat. 309.

Provisions for the transportation of official matter by railroad or express companies were made by Act July 13, 1892, c. 165, § 5, post, $ 7479. § 7479. (Act July 13, 1892, c. 165, § 5.) Transportation of official

matter by railway, etc., companies. Hereafter the Postmaster-General is authorized to provide for the transportation of official matter of any Department of the Government, over any railroad or express company, whenever he can do so at a saving to the Government and without detriment to the public service: Provided, That nothing in this section shall apply to official matter franked by members of Congress.

Act July 13, 1892, c. 165, § 5, 27 Stat. 148.

This was a section following appropriations for the postal service in the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1893, cited above.

Provisions for the franking of official matter by members of Congress are set forth ante, under chapter 4 of this Title.

§ 7480. (R. S. § 4000.) Railway companies to carry matter on any

train. Every railway company carrying the mail shall carry on any train which may run over its road, and without extra charge therefor, all mailable matter directed to be carried thereon, with the person in charge of the same.

Act June 8, 1872, e. 335, $ 213, 17 Stat. 309. The Postmaster-General was authorized to decide upon what trains and in what manner the mails are to be conveyed by Act March 3, 1879, c. 180, $

3, post, $ 7481. § 7481. (Act March 3, 1879, c. 180, § 3.) Selection of trains to

carry mail.

The Postmaster General shall, in all cases, decide upon what trains and in what manner the mails shall be conveyed. (20 Stat. 358.)

This section was part of the postal service appropriation act for the fiscal year 1880, cited above.

Provisions for the reduction of the compensation of a railroad company failing to transport the mails on its fastest trains, as required by the Post

Office Department, were made by Act July 5, 1884, c. 234, § 1, post, $ 7500. $ 7482. (R. S. $ 4001.) Pay for carrying mail on railways receiv

ing Government aid. All railway companies to which the United States have furnished aid by grant of lands, right of way, or otherwise, shall carry the mail at such prices as Congress may by law provide; and, until such price is fixed by law, the Postmaster-General may fix the rate of compensation.

Act June 8, 1872, c. 335, $ 214, 17 Stat. 309.

Provisions for the reduction of the compensation of railroads for mail transportation were made by Act July 12, 1876, c. 179, § 1, post, $ 7484, and section 13 of that act, post, $ 7485, limited the compensation of land-grant roads to 80 per cent of the compensation fixed by section 1. Provisions for

a further reduction were made by Act June 17, 1878, c. 259, § 1, post, $ 7486. § 7483. (R. S. $ 4002.) Conditions of railway service.

The Postmaster-General is authorized and directed to readjust the compensation hereafter to be paid for the transportation of mails on railroad-routes upon the conditions and at the rates hereinafter mentioned :

First. That the mails shall be conveyed with due frequency and speed; and that sufficient and suitable room, fixtures, and furniture, in a car or apartment properly lighted and warmed, shall be provided for route-agents to accompany and distribute the mails.

Second. That the pay per mile per annum shall not exceed the following rates, namely: On routes carrying their whole length an average weight of mails per day of two hundred pounds, fifty dollars; five hundred pounds, seventy-five dollars; one thousand pounds, one hundred dollars; one thousand five hundred pounds, one hundred and twenty-five dollars; two thousand pounds, one hundred and fifty dollars; three thousand five hundred pounds, one hundred and seventy-five dollars; five thousand pounds, two hundred dollars, and twenty-five dollars additional for every additional two thousand pounds, the average weight to be ascertained, in every case, by the actual weighing of the mails for such a number of successive working

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