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persons have extended this doctrine so far, as to assert, that minds very fimilar to those of the greatest modern philosophers, must have existed in the ancient world. Mr Davies is evidently of this opinion ; the primitive ages, according to him, had their

Linnæi and their Buffons,' (p. 19.); and, in the eleventh chapter of Leviticus, he finds a complete systematic arrangement of quadrupeds and fishes.

In page 33. the geographical knowledge of Noah is detailed : · The very idea of Noah's dividing the land amongst his descendants, necessarily presupposes his knowledge of the land that was to be so divided. He must bave described the several fates, their extent and boundaries, by certain names. And these, in general, could have been no other than the names by which the same regions, rivers and mountains had been already known to him, and consequently, which they had borne before the flood. Thus may we account for the identity of the names of several streams and mountains in ancient geography, from India to Britain, and from the Northern Ocean to the Middle of Africa.'

We are surprised that Mr Davies has not drawn the natural inferences from this discovery; and that he has not attributed the invention of maps to the antediluvians; since, without there, Noah could not have made his descriptions so convenient and luminous as he might have done with their allistance. Several other inferences might be drawn, all of which are fo congenial to a Celtic understanding, that we wonder how they could have escaped Mr Davies.

As our author has made it so very probable that Noah kept a regular and full journal or log-book of the occurrences that took place in the ark (p. 43–45.), we would Itrongly adrite him, or his fellow-labourer General Vallancey, who has already been so successful in recovering Irith tree-alphabets, to make diligent search for this valuable relic, which will be very acceptable to all genuine antiquarians, and particularly serviceable to Mr Clarke in the compilation of his · Progress of Maritime Discovery.'

We shall conclude the confideration of the first part of Mr Davies's work, with laying before our readers one of the most notable and curious discoveries which it contains.

Babel, it seems, is not the proper or original name of that tower, during the building of which the confusion of tongues (an event which has afforded so much delight to etymologists, that they have made great exertions to bring it about a second Lime) is recorded to have taken place. Mr Davies deserves great credit, both for having proved that Babel is not ' a play on the original name, or at all similar to it,' (p. 58.); and for having discovered, after the lapse of s000 years, not merely what the lower was actually called, but what the builders meant to have called it, provided they had completed it. Bb 3

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1. The children of men faid, Let us build a city, and a tower, and let us make a name or renown. This was the order by which they ascended the climax of their ambition : but, when they had attained the highest top, they must, from thence, have named their city. They. must have called it Shem, the name, or renown. The other degrees would naturally be subjoined, to make out its description. Thus it became “ Renown, the City of the Tower.” p. 52.

Notwithstanding the originality of these speculations, we must confess that we turn away, with feelings of weariness, from the first part of our author's performance. The objects on which his credulity delights to dwell, are so little varied, and so uninteresting; and his conjectures fo little supported by argument, or adorned by learning, that we are more disposed to lament the weakness of the human understanding, than to be amused with its eccentricities. + In the second part, he treats of the origin of the Celta; their institution of Druidism; and their pretention to the knowledge of letters.' (p. 117.) Of our author's ability to discuss points so remote and obicure, and on which men of real learning have either been filent, or delivered their opinions with diffidence, our readers may judge, by one specimen, taken from his account of tinies better known, and of a peuple with whose progress we are comparatively well acquainted.

The Sarmatæ held these territories (Germany) before the aggrandisement of Gothic power!'- It is not pretended that, at any time, this handful of men (the Venedi or Wendi) penetrated into the posfellions of the Goths, or acquired an establithinent by victories. · The Sarmatæ then, or Sclavone, were those whom the Goths found ia the land of Ripbath, or the eastern division of ancieat Germany." p. 125. 126. :

How such affertions could have been made, in direct opposition to every authority on the subject, we are altogether unable to comprehend

In page 143. Mr Davies presents us with a very delectable fpecimen of a Celtic commentary on Virgil. :. This great bard was borne in Cisalpine Gaul, and seems, in his youth, to have courted the Gaulifin mille', till he found that she would not advance his fortune-a very unpoetical ground of defertion

Galatæa reliquit :
Namque ;--fitebor enim-dum ine Galatæa tenebat,
Nec spes libertatis erat, nec cura peculi.

Galatxa was the mother of the Celtæ. APPIAN. Bell. Illyr.? No mere Gothic reader, we wilt venture to alert, ever sufpected the poet to be speaking of a personage lo dignified; nor is it very easy to perceive how the mother of the Celts' and • the Gaulith niuse? should be one and the same person.

As Mr Davies has succeeded so well in this attempt, we would recommend to him to extend his coinmentary to the writings of Ovid, where he will find a great deal more about Galatæa. He who can find Celtic traditions in Virgil, will have a noble field for the exercise of his fancy, and the display of his credulity, in the Metamorphoses of Ovid.

In page 146. Mr Davies considers the antiquities found at Stonhenge, Abury, and other parts of Britain, as Druidical. As this opinion, which appears to us to rest on very questionable grounds, has been very generally received by the writers of this country, it may be worth while to consider the authorities and arguments on which it is founded. It is necessary, however, to premise some few observations on the origin and ancient extent of the Druidical superstition.

No writer, we believe, has ventured to offer any thing more than mere conjecture respecting the origin of Druidism, except Mr Pinkerton. To him, conjecture was almost entirely unknown, since it implied diffidence and modesty. He had gained credit for research and learning: he knew the impoling effects of 4 dogmatical and bold affertion; and, when he was unable to find the very few materials which he required for the fabrication of authority, he came forward with his own oracular and senten, tious decision : · Druidism was palpably, Phænician.' * In proof of this assertion, Mr Pinkerton refers us, in a note, to the 68th page of his Differtation on the Goths, but in this pas, {age, instead of supporting his opinion by authorities, he merely amplifies and repeats the affertion. The god Baal, Bel, Belé, nus; the transmigration of fouls ; the cosmogony and theogony (of the Druids) arę wholly Phænician.' 'As not a Gingle author is quoted, we are at a loss to discover where Mr Pinkerron learn ed all this. The opinion, we believe, is supported by no writes but Baxter, Horsley, or Macpherson: and to them, we can scarcely believe he would refer on such an occasion, when we recollect the anathema he has pronounced against those who are guilty of .blending authors of the first and fixteenth centuries, that is, authorities with no authorities.'t. : Till Mr Pinkerton brings forward the evidence, on which he grounds his affertions, :. B b 4. .i

' that

* Pinkerton's Enquiry, I. 17.

† Enquiry, I. 409. Aufonius, indeed, mentions. Belenus in two passages, in connexion with the Druids ; but it cannot from them be inferred, either that it was the Beleous of the Phæniciaus, or even that he was worshipped by the Druids. Besides, Ausonius, A. D. 37%. is very insufficient evidence of the original and pure, religion of the Druids,

that the transmigration of fouls was a Phoenician doctrine—and that the cosmogony and theogony of the Druids were wholly Phænician; we must be excused for not taking the trouble to prove the contrary. We have been too frequently disappointed in searching for those authorities, to which Mr Pinkerton expressly refers, not to be more than usual suspicious, where he does not preserve even the form of reference. So completely satisfied is this author, however, of the truth of his own hypothesis, that he is obliging enough to explain the whole process of the matter, and to inform-us that the Phænicians gave our ancestors their religion in exchange for tin. • Druidism was taught by the Phænicians to the inhabitants of Cornwall, where they traded for tin. '* But, in the first place, though it is highly probable that the Phænicians were, acquainted with the main land of Britain, yet we have no evidence that this was actually the case. Herodotus, Strabo, &c. mention only the Caffiterides as having been visited by the Phønicians. But, independently of any thing else, it is surely sufficiently improbable, that a few traders, intent only on gain, and, of course, not very zealous about the religion of their native land, Thould take the trouble of establishing any superstitious rites among the barbarous natives of Britain. Druidism, too, with its human sacrifices and gloomy rites, does not seem to have been such an attractive or feducing form of superstition as to be readily introduced into a country by the occasional intercourse of foreign merchants; and, what appears indeed to be decisive of the question, no vestiges of this faith are to be found in Spain, where the Phænicians firmly established themselves, and built the city of Cadiz; and where, of course, it is much more probable, that they would be disposed and able to introduce their ceremonies and belief. .

The conjecture, that the Druidical superstition was taught the Gauls by Pythagoras, rests on no better foundation than the opinion of Mr Pinkerton. The Druids, indeed, coincided with that philosopher, in the belief of a transmigration of the foul; though it appears, from the practical use which they made of this doctrine, in inciting their followers to a contempt of death, and to the practice of virtue, that they differed from Pythagoras, by confining the transmigration of the soul to human bodies. ¢ But the coincidence of two fuperftitions in a point like this, certainly affords a very weak presumption, that the one

by continractice of their fortical ule migratio



* Enquiry, 1. 17. . . Keyller. Antig. Celtic. p. 116. 117. and the authors quoted by

was borrowed from the other. If, however, we suppose this to have been the case, we should rather be inclined to adopt the opinion advanced by. Clemens Alexandrinus, and Eusebius, * thar Pythagoras in his travels went into Gaul, and there learned the doctrine of the Metemprichosis. It is but fair, however, to mention that there is a paffage of Ammianus Marcellinus, which seems to favour the Pythagorean origin of the Druids. This par. sage has hitherto obtained less attention and credit than it deferves, from having been supposed to contain only the opinion or evidence of Marcellinus himself, who lived A. D. 360, when the ceremonies and traditions of the Druids were wearing out: but whoever examines the context, t will be convinced, that Mar. cellinus derived the whole of the information which he gives respecting the Gauls, from Timagenes, who lived in the time of Auguftus, and appears to have been a diligent, well-inforined, and learned author. The passage to which we allude, is the following: “Inter hos Druidæ ingenii celsiores, ut autoritas Pysbogoræ decrevit, fodalitiis aditriati confortiis, quæftionibus occuliarum rerum altarumque erecti sunt, et despectantes humana pronuntiarunt animas immortales. ' I It may be doubted, how. ever, whether Timagenes did not intend merely to point out a resemblance between the Druids and Pythagoreans, in the infti. tution of fraternities; though, certainly, if we adhere to the obvious meaning of the words, we must conclude, that, at least in the opinion of Timagenes, the Druids acknowledged the authority of Pythagoras.

We are ignorant of the reason which has led antiquarians to reject or to overlook the opinion which is stated by Cæsar to have been generally entertained, in his time, in Gaul, respect. ing the origin of Druidism. To us, it appears the best support


• Clement. Alexand. Stromata, lib. VI. & Eufebii Præpar. Evangel. lib. X. c. 2.

† Ambigentes fuper origine prima Gallorum scriptores veteres, notiriam reliquere negotii femiplenam : fed poftea Timagenes et diligentia Græcus et lingua, quæ diu sunt ignorala, collegit ex multiplicibus li. bris : cujus fidem fequuti obscuritate dimota, eadem diftincte ducebimus et aperie. Amm. Marcell. lib. XV. Ø 9. edit. Lugd. 1591.-For the character of Timagenes, fee Quinctilian, lib. X. c. 1. and Horace, Epift, lib. I. Epift. 19. l. 15, 16.

I A palage of similar import is to be found in Diodorus Siculus, lib. V. p. 212, where he is speaking of the religion of the Celts • The opinion of Pythagoras prevails among them (8YXUH seg «v70159 Dufayoes logos) that the souls of men are immortal, and live again after a certain period, entering into different bodies.!

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