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modifications and distinc scribed to the Supreme tions are found out to Deity, are either epithets clear up the difficulty. taken from the qualities But there was no great attributed to him, or the need of any here; for the places where he was worĆ Goths and’ Celtes re shiped, or from the acgarded war as a very fa tions he had performed, cred occupation. It fur &c. This : diversity of nilhed, according to them, names hath often milled opportunities for display- those of the learned, who ing courage, and of ful
have applied themselves to filling the views of pro- the study of the Celtic vidence; which was to religion, just in the same place us here as in a field manner as hath happened of battle ; and only to to those, who applied grant its favours as the themselves to the Greek peculiar rewards of forti or Roman mythology. In tude and valour,
the ancient Icelandic
try, we find the Supreme (B) " It was the great
God denominated in more os variety of languages.”] than a hundred and twenThis reasoning upon the
ty-six different phrases. names of Odin, may con They are all enumerated tain something of truth in the Scalda, or Poetić in it. · The text recounts Dictionary. It would a great number of these therefore (as Gangler ob. names, which I have sup- serves) require some appressed, out of regard to plication, to give the reathose ears which are not fons of all these different accustomed to Gothic denominations, many of sounds. 'Tis certain that which allude to particular almost all the names a vents.
THE ÉL EVENTH FABLE
H What are
Of the God Thor, the Son of Odin.
What are the names of the other Gods ? What are their functions, and what, have they done for the advancement of their glory? Har says to him, The most illustrious among them is Thor. He is called Afa-Thot, or the Lord Thor; and Ake-Thor, or the Active Thor. He is the strongest and bravest of Gods and Men (A). His kingdom is named Thrudwanger. He possesses there a palace, in which are five hundred and forty Halls. It is the largest house that is known; according as we find mentioned in the poem of Grimnis. “ There “ are five hundred and forty Halls in the * Winding Palace of the God Thor ; and * I believe there is no where a greater fa« bric, than this of the eldest of fons." The Chariot of Thoř is drawn by two He-Goats. It is in that Chariot that he goes into the country of the Giants; and VOL. II.
thence they call him the rapid Thor. He likewise postesses three very precious things. The first is a Mace; or Club, called Miol. ner, which the Giants of the Frost, and those of the Mountains, know to their cost, when they see it hurled against them in the air : and no wonder; for with that Mace has this God often bruised the heads of their fathers and kindred. The second jewel he poffeffes, is called the Belt of Prowess; when he puts it on, he becomes as strong again as he was before. The third, which is also very precious, are his Gauntlets, or Gloves of Iron, which he always wears when he would lay hold of the handle of his Mace. There is no person of so much learning, as to be able to relate all his marvellous exploits ; I myself could tell
many, that day would end much sooner, than the recital of what immediately occur to me. Then says Gangler to him, I would rather hear something about the other Sons of Odin. To this Har answered in there words:
REMARKS ON THE ELEVENTH FABLE,
(A) • Thor is the will recollect here, what “ Itrongest of Gods and I have said a little higher " Men.”] The reader The reader concerning this divinity
of the northern nations *. of the Supreme God; of The function ascribed to to speak in the language him of launching the of the EDDA, " The thunder, made him pass " Eldest of Sons;" the for the most warlike and first and principal intelliformidable of all the
gence proceeding from Gods. It was also Thor the union of the Deity who reigned in the air, with Matter; they have distributed the seasons, made him a middle diviand raised or allayed tem nity, a mediator between pests. “ Thor, says God and Men. It is prois Adam of Bremen, is bable that a great many to the God who, accord people venerated him also, « ing to these people, as the intelligence who
governs the thunder, animated the Sun and " the winds, the rains, Fire. The worship of " the fair weather, and the Persians had in this " harvest.” (See Hist. respect, as in a great maEcclef.) This Mace or ny others, the most exClub, which he hurled act resemblance to that of against the Giants, and this people. The Perwith which he crushed fians held, that the most their heads, is doubtless illustrious of all created the Thunder, which most intelligences was what frequently falls upon ele- they paid homage to unvated places. He was in der the symbol of Fire or general regarded as a di the Sun, wherein the invinity favourable to man telligence resided. They kind; as he who guarded called it Mithr-as, or the them from the attacks of Mediator Lord.
(The Giants and wicked Ge word As ftill signifies nii ; whom he never ceaf- Lord, in Persian.) They, . ed to encounter and per as well as the Scandinasue. The name of his vians, kept a perpetual palace signifies, in Go and sacred fire, in confethic, “ The place of re quence of this perfuafion. “ fuge from Terrour." The Scythians, accordAs he was the first-born ing to Herodotus and He
Vychius, adored this divi a feast at the winter fol. nity under the title of Go stice, by which men teleto-Syrus, which fignifies tified their joy at seeing The Good Star. This this great ļuminary reword Syr, or Seir, which turn again to this part of the Persians employed to the heavens. They fadenominate the Sun, feems crificed horses to him, as to be the same with Thor, an emblem, says Herodoonly in a different dialect, tus, of the rapidity of The ancient people of this planet. the north pronounced the the greatest_folemnity in th in the same manner as
the year. They called it the English do at present; in many places, Yole, or not very different from ss. Yuul, from the word Hi
They had a particular aul, or Houl, which even character for that letter, at this day signifies the which was afterwards loft Sun, in the languages of in the other dialects of Bass Britagne, and Cornthe Saxon language. All
When the an- : the Celtic nations have cient Pagan religion gave rin like manner,' been place to the
the Christian, accustomed to the worship the rejoicings, feasts and of the Sun; either as di nocturnal assemblies which stinguished from Thor, or that feftival authorised, conlidered as his fymbol. indecent as they were, It was a custom that eve were not suppressed, left, ry where prevailed in an by endeavouring to gain cient times, to celebrate all, all should be lost.
* This is giving a Celtic derivation of a Gothic word, (two languages extremely different. - The' learned Dr. Hickes thus derives the term in question. 31-01, Cimbricum, Anglo-Saxonicè fcriptum, Leol ; et “ Dan. Sax. lul, o in u facile mutato, ope intenfivi præfixi i et ge, fa“ ciunt rl, ol, Commefatio, compotatio, convivium, Symposium.
(in, Ol. cerevifiam denotat, & metonymicè Convivium.jio Junii Etym. Ang. V. YEOL,
Our ingenious author, however, is certainly right as to the origin and design of the YULE-FEAST: the Greenlanders at this day keep a Sun.Feast at the winter solstice, about Dec, 22. to rejoice at the re. turn of the S:in, and the expected renewal of the Hunting season, &i. Which custom they may pollibly have learnt of the Norvegian Colony formerly settled in Greenland. See an account of this festival in Dav. Craniz's Hift. of Greenland, 2 Vols. 8vo. 1767. Vol. I. p. 176. T.