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But I have some consolation ; for I shall see you in a few days, and we can then settle what is to be done. In the meanwhile, please look out for lodgings for me, and on that matter take counsel with your two learned friends," -probably Veen and Guenellon were here alluded to ;“but it is important that the expulsion should not be thought or spoken about. That is a thing which I wish kept as quiet as possible. Commend me to those friends, and especially to your dear wife. If any letters for me come into your hands, keep them till I come to you.

That letter throws much interesting, though not altogether welcome, light on Locke's position at this time. Sick of English politics in the degraded state that they had reached, and anxious to find some quiet resting-place in which he might be able to bring into regular shape the philosophical inquiries which had long occupied his leisure, but for which he had not lately found much opportunity or had sufficient health in England, he had come to Holland three years ago. But thither political troubles had followed him. More than one year out of the three he had been compelled to spend in hiding from his enemies; and though some excellent work had been done then, and new influences of the utmost value had been exerted upon him, his chosen occupations had been greatly hindered. He had now come to Utrecht in search of rest. But before two months were over, he was again a fugitive; troubled to know where he could keep his books and make use of them ; troubled to give so much trouble to his friends; but, as he said, not troubled by the persecutions that hunted him about. “ Hi sunt fortunae lusus, vel potius vitae humanae casus ordinarii, nec magis quam ventus vel pluvia iterantibus mirandi.”

1 MSS. in Remonstrants' Lib.; Locke to Limborch, [24] 12 Dec., 1686. Returning to Amsterdam early in December, and becoming the welcome guest of Dr. Guenellon, Locke stayed there hardly two months. We shall next find him at Rotterdam, which was to be his usual, though not constant, place of residence during the remainder of the time that he spent in the Netherlands, and where, though his old relations. with Limborch and Le Clerc were strengthened, new friendships and occupations came to him.

His removal to Rotterdam seems to have been as sudden as his last removal from Utrecht, and his prolonged stay there unforeseen. “He desired,” said Le Clerc, in referring to this brief sojourn in Amsterdam, “that Limborch and I, with some other friends, would set up conferences, and that to this end we should meet together once a week, sometimes at one house and then at another by turns, and that there should be some question proposed of which every one should give his opinion at the next meeting; and I have still by me the rules which he would have had us observe, written in Latin with his own hand. But our conferences were interrupted, because he went to Rotterdam.” 1

“I grieve much,” Locke wrote to Limborch, soon after arriving in Rotterdam, “ that I am parted from you and all my other dear friends in Amsterdam. To politics I there gave but little thought; here I cannot pay much attention to literary affairs.” 2 At Rotterdam, however, he brought to something like completion the great work that he had been projecting and preparing during at least

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sixteen years.

1 • Eloge de M. Locke,' in the Bibliothèque Choisie,' vol. vi.

2 MSS. in the Remonstrants' Library; Locke to Limborch, [44] 14 Feb., 1686-7.

Though we know very little of its details, and though it evidently left him plenty of time for other occupations, we need be in no doubt as to the business that caused Locke suddenly, in February, 1686-7, to leave Amsterdam and such friends in it as Limborch and Le Clerc, Guenellon and Veen, with all the congenial intercourse, philosophical, literary, theological, and scientific, that they offered him.

English politics had begun to take a turn, in keeping with a more complete change of policy at the Hague, by which Locke's movements were greatly affected. He had gone to Holland to avoid association with and personal inconvenience from the disgraceful and apparently hopeless state of affairs into which Charles the Second and his advisers had brought England. Harsh usage and unjust suspicion had followed him there, and they had been harsher and more unjust during the first year or mote of James's reign than during the last year or more of Charles's. He had been falsely charged with participation in Monmouth's rebellion; and as long as William of Orange, honestly or for the sake of appearances, gave some support to the efforts of the English government to get hold of all the obnoxious refugees in Holland, he had either to hide away altogether or to lead a very retired life. Perhaps good to the world came from this in the opportunities that it forced upon him for paying more steady attention to literary work and philosophical speculations. But, excellent student and theorist as he was, he refused to recognize, either in his own case or in that of others, any benefit to be derived from theories or studies that had not for their sole method and object the improvement of society and of the individuals composing it; and, whatever else he was, he was always, in the truest sense of the term, a patriot. He saw no patriotism in useless rebellion or in frivolous schemes for effecting a change that gave no promise of reformation; but, as soon as there was a prospect of good work being done, he loyally devoted himself to it and laboured zealously to help in making it as good as it could be.

Such a prospect arose when all that was left of English statesmanship-only broken and soiled fragments for the most part, it is true-combined to bring about the overthrow of James the Second's corrupt and corrupting government, and the planting of William of Orange on the English throne, and when William of Orange, after long questioning whether the prize within his reach was worth grasping, consented to throw in his lot with the English. Thereupon Locke established himself, not at the Hague, where the revolution was being plotted for most eagerly, but at Rotterdam, which was within a short day's journey of the Hague, near enough for participation in all important business, and distant enough to be free from contact with the small selfishnesses and idle projects that only clogged the good enterprise that was in progress.

Writing to Limborch a few weeks after his change of residence, he excused himself for not sooner answering his friend's letters. “ Business of another kind,” he said, “ prevented me; and, though that immediate business is completed by the departure for England of the person with whom I was engaged, and I have now leisure enough for writing letters, I cannot get back into my old ways. Who that person was we do not know, nor can we make clear other allusions, of later date, to the friends who came over to visit him in Holland, or, being in Holland,

1 • Familiar Letters,' p. 350 ; Locke to Limborch, [27 Feb.-] 8 March, 1686-7.


occupied his time with business too extensive and important to allow him leisure even for his favourite pastime of letter-writing.

His chief political friend in Holland, however, can easily be identified. When his acquaintance with Lord Mordaunt, afterwards Earl of Peterborough and Monmouth, began, is not recorded; but they were fast friends at this time. Mordaunt, born about 1658, had seen much active service, and had attained considerable distinction as a seaman before November, 1685, when he startled his friends by making a first and last speech in James the Second's house of lords in eloquent condemnation of the Romanising policy of the government, and its violation of the test act. Very soon after that he crossed over to Holland, ostensibly to seek employment in the Dutch navy, but really to offer his services to William of Orange as leader of an expedition against James the Second. His first rash project was not listened to, but he remained at the Hague, and became the chief, or almost the chief, adviser of William on political affairs; Henry Sidney, afterwards Earl of Romney, finding his most congenial occupation in doing the dirty work of negociation with the varions parties and adventurers that, prompted by various motives, found common ground in their desire to place a new king on the English throne; and Gilbert Burnet, afterwards Bishop of Salisbury, being most at home in settling the domestic difficulties between Prince William and his wife. Locke had had some acquaintance, but no friendship, with Burnet in former times, and of Henry Sidney he must also have known something; but with Mordaunt he had most sympathy; and besides the frequent communications that passed between them in 1687 and 1688, there cannot be much doubt that

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