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his share of work in the world as a physician, and already hoping, perhaps, that he might do something towards curing other than bodily ailments by finding out what was the structure of their minds, and how they might acquire most wisdom and fitness for wise action—we can understand why he had weleomed “ the happy return of his majesty" King Charles the Second. His favourite studies had never been abandoned ; he had clung to them all the more zealously because other occupations had been so forced upon him as to threaten to divert him from them altogether. His broken health had joined with other causes to prevent him from becoming a regular physician, but he had continued to be a diligent student of medicine. He had been induced to take an active though not at all a noisy part in political affairs; but the ugly complications of the politics of his time, which he had to help in unravelling, had only shown him the great need of better mental training in order to smooth out the tangled threads of life and clear away some of the vicious notions that were spoiling it all. It had been tedious, painful work, and he must have felt now that his toil had been well nigh thrown away. We have seen how, during the past four years, he had over and over again longed to go away from corrupted Europe, and try, with one true friend, to find a new Garden of Eden on the other side of Africa, or to fashion a new Utopia on the other side of the Atlantic. The longings may have been uttered half in jest, but they none the less sadly expressed his temper, or certain phases of his temper, at this time.

What was his position in this gloomy autumn of 1683 ? Sixteen years before he had broken through his plans of work in order to join with Shaftesbury in labouring to establish some measure of religious and political liberty, and Shaftesbury had only avoided the gibbet- by going to die in Amsterdam. Russell, Shaftesbury's worthier associate, and Locke's own friend to some extent, had, in defiance of the law, been beheaded a few weeks before, heedless of the cruel warning of Locke's more intimate friend Tillotson, that unless he submitted himself meekly to the God-sent king, he.“would leave the world in a delusion of false peace, and his eternal bappiness would be hindered.” Algernon Sidney, also an acquaintance if not a friend of Locke's, was now in the Tower waiting to be executed, in yet greater defiance of the law, a few weeks later. Lords Essex and Salisbury, other martyrs in the good cause, with whom Locke also had at any rate some acquaintance, had lately died in the Tower; the one of “ a fever on his spirits," )the other either by bis own or by an assassin's hand. “ Fever on the spirits” was a common malady just then, for which neither Dr. Sydenham nor any other physician could prescribe a remedy; and Locke, with so many political friends and allies dead or dying around him, himself spied upon and plotted against by his academic associates, in hope of finding some pretext for making a martyr of him too, could not but be afflicted with it. England had been ruined, though not quite past redemption, by that monarch at whose "happy return” he had rejoiced three-and-twenty years before. The “divine-right" king had Louis the Fourteenth for his god on earth, and prayed

1 See a narrative by Mrs. Hill, Stringer's widow (Christie, 'Life of the first Earl of Shaftesbury,' vol. ii., appendix pp..cxxiii.-cxxix.), who adds : “ Dr. Sydenham was his (Salisbury's) physioian, and Mr. Stringer often told him to do all in his power to save him ;. and the doctor told him if he could cure him of thinking too much of the danger the nation was in of popery, etc., he could cure his fever ; but he laid that danger so much to heart that he lost his life for it.”

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to him, with a zeal that put to shame the religious devotion of popes and prelates, for those golden favours that enabled him to occupy the English throne without help of parliaments; while all his other faculties of worship were exhausted on harlots, old and young. Justice, virtue, honesty, and religion, were out of court, if not quite banished from the country. Judge Jeffreys represented the first, the Duke of Buckingham the second, the Duke of Sunderland the third, Bishop Parker the fourth. And the only prospect of a change from this state of things depended on the death of Charles and the succession of his brother James, when to all the social depravity would be added a religious bigotry eclipsing the intolerance then vigorous enough. It is not strange that Locke, who had so often longed for a Utopia, should have gone in search of one at last.

The Utopia that he found was not very far from home, and, faulty as it was, was the best that that age could be expected to produce. The glory of those days when the brave Netherlanders rose up, under the leadership of William the Silent, to save themselves and the world from the thraldom of Philip of Spain, had a good deal faded in the century that followed; but, before the century was ended, their descendants did nearly as great service to Europe in holding at bay the new would-be Cæsar, Louis the Fourteenth; and in proportion to the loathing that Locke and every honest man then felt at the degradation of England, must have been their respect for the heroic action of the United Provinces. Especially welcome, too, to Locke, must have been the close connection, not always recurrent in the world's history, between their zeal for political and religious liberty and their freedom from religious and political intolerance.

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The Earl of Shaftesbury, in spite of his former eagerness in supporting the iniquitous wars of England against Holland, was sheltered by its people when he sought refuge among

them in his time of trouble. There can be no doubt that Locke followed his friend's example because he also was in need of a political asylum. Even in Holland, as we shall see, he was for some time not safe, and it became necessary for him to seek temporary shelter elsewhere. But, in his case, no blame could be attached to the political institutions of the country; and it was not possible for him to find fault with its allowance, and even encouragement, of greater freedom of opinion on religious matters than was then tolerated in any other part of Europe. This freedom, of course, implied a good deal of wrangling; but it was no slight improvement upon the arrangements existing elsewhere, that here thinkers of all sorts were allowed to give free utterance to their opinions without meeting any worse resistance than the angry expostulations, and the arguments as outspoken as their own, of those who differed from them. So, at any rate, Locke thought; and if his long sojourn in Holland led to some changes in his opinions, it only strengthened his old convictions in favour of religious and political liberty.

About Locke's movements and occupations during several months after his departure from England in the autumn of 1683 we have very little information. He appears to have gone direct to Amsterdam ; but we do not meet with him there until the following January, when he was present, by invitation of Peter Guenellon, the principal physician in the city, at the dissection of a lioness that had been killed by the intense coldness of the winter. He had made. Guenellon's acquaintance six or seven years before in Paris; and this friendship, which seems to have been kept up by letter in the interval, helped him to make many new friends among the doctors, men of letters and theologians in the busy .centre of Dutch intelligence and learning as well as of Dutch commerce. Of these new friends, the most important of all, as far as Locke was concerned, at any rate, was Philip.van Limborch.

They met first at the gathering of learned men to see the lioness cut up.

"When Mr. Locke heard from Dr. Guenellon,”-Limborch wrote twenty years later, “ that I was professor-of theology among the remonstrants, he introduced himself to me, and we afterwards had many conversations about religion, in which he acknowledged that he had long attributed to the remonstrants.doctrines very different from those which they held, and now that he understood what they really were, he was surprised to find how closely they agreed with many of his own opinions.”

That Locke should till now. have been ignorant of the doctrines of the remonstrants is hardly credible, seeing that several of his own friends had for some time past been in occasional correspondence with Limborch and others of their number.

Nearly eighty years before those doctrines had been in part propounded by Arminius, who was made professor of theology at Leyden in 1604; and soon after that date they began to stir up much angry discussion throughout

1 MSS. in the Remonstrants' Library; Limborch to Lady Masham, [134] 24 March, 1704-5.

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2 Ibid.

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