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who were that day in arms marched by and saluted him with firing their muskets as they passed. This lasted well nigh two hours, and after that they went to supper. Some of the gentlemen of the country, and some of the chief of his officers, supped with him and the ladies, and hereupon a page said grace. The prince is about twentyeight years old, little, and not very handsome ; but, as they say, a man of parts, loving, and well-beloved of his
Near Leeuwarden was established a branch of the strange sect of communistic mystics founded by Jean Labadie, who died in 1674; and Locke examined their institutions with great interest. They receive," he wrote on the 11th of August, “all ages, sexes, and degrees, upon approbation, after trial. They live all in common; and whoever is admitted is to give with himself all he has to Christ the Lord—that is, the church-to be managed by officers appointed by the church. It is a fundamental miscarriage, and such as will deserve cutting off, to possess anything in property. Their discipline whereby they prevent and correct offences is—first, reprehension; secondly, suspension from sacrament; and, if this makes no amendment, they cut him off from their body. Baptism they administer only to grown people, who show themselves to be Christians by their lives, as well as professions. They have been here these nine years, and, as they say, increase daily ; but yet I could not learn their numbers : Mr. Yonn said a hundred, Mr. Muller, eighty. They are very shy to give an account of themselves, particularly of their manner and rule of living and discipline; and it was with much difficulty I got so much out of them; for they seemed to expect that a man
1 Lord King, p. 164.
should come there disposed to desire and court admittance into their society without inquiring into their ways; and if the Lord, as they say, dispose him to it, and they see the signs of grace in him, they will proceed to give him further instruction; which signs of grace seein to me to be, at last, a perfect submission to the will and rules of their pastor, Mr. Yonn, who, if I mistake not, has established to himself a perfect empire over them. For though their censures, and all their administration, be in appearance in their church, yet it is easy to perceive how at last it determines in him. He is dominus factotum ; and though I believe they are much separated from the world, and are, generally speaking, people of very good and exemplary lives, yet the tone of voice, manner, and fashion, of those I conversed with, seemed to make one suspect a little of Tartuffe. Besides that, all their discourse carries with it a supposition of more purity in them than ordinary, and as if nobody was in the way to heaven but they; not without a mixture of canting, in referring things immediately to the Lord, even on those occasions where one inquires after the rational means and measures of proceeding; as if they did all things by revelation. It was above two hours after I came before I could receive audience of Mr. Yonn, though recommended by a friend; and how many offers soever I made towards it, I could not be admitted to see either their place of exercise, of eating, or any of their chambers, but was kept all the while I was there in atrio gentium, a little house without the gate ; for, as I said before, they seemed very shy of discovering the secreta domùs, which seemed to me not altogether so suitable to the pattern of Christianity.” Passing out of Friesland at the end of August, Locke
Lord King, p. 162.
went south, through Drenthe and Over-Yssel, to Deventer, where he saw some Christian communistic establishments of an older sort. “Here are two protestant nunneries. One belongs to the freemen of the town, and their daughters only are admitted. These are fourteen. They live altogether in one house. The oldest, of course, is the abbess. They have each a little garden, and their dividend of the corn and some land which belongs to them, which amounts to three or four bushels of rye. Their meat and drink they provide for themselves, and dress it in a common kitchen in the summer, in the winter in their chambers. There was formerly, before the Reformation, a convent of catholic nuns; and when in the last war the bishop of Munster was possessed of this town two years together, he put three catholic maids into the nunnery, which remain there still, under the same rules as the others. There is, besides this, another nunnery in the town, only of the noblesse of the province; they have each four hundred guilders per annum, one half whereof the abbess has for their board, the other half they have themselves to dispose of as they please. They have no particular habit, and are often at home with their friends in the country.'
From Deventer Locke went, on the 10th of September, to visit Zutphen, Arnheim, and other places rendered classical by the great struggle between the Netherlanders and Philip the Second of Spain; but his observations were less noteworthy here than in the more northern and out-of-the-way parts. He spent some days at Utrecht, and went thence to Amsterdam on the 30th of September, though only to go on the 5th of October to Leyden, which to him was a classic spot indeed.
1 Lord King, p. 165.
At Leyden, Descartes, his first great master, had settled down in 1629, to spend eight years of privacy in elaborating his method of philosophy. Here, or at Rijnsburg hard by, Spinoza, Descartes's greatest and most errant disciple—unless Locke may be reckoned such—had, in 1660, taken refuge from the persecutions of his Jewish kinsfolk in Amsterdam. At the university, founded only in 1575, but now nearly the most famous in Europe, Grotius, whom Locke looked up to as his foremost teacher in politics and all its philosophical and theological connections, had in 1594 begun to study under professors as learned as Joseph Scaliger. Here Arminius, who had Grotius for one of his converts to unsectarian Christianity, taught his simple doctrines from 1603 till his death in 1609; and here the elder Gronovius had been professor between 1651 and 1671. Of him perhaps Locke did not think so very highly; at any rate, he spoke rather scornfully of one exploit of his learned son. “The young Gronovius," he wrote on the 13th of October, "made a solemn oration in the schools. His subject was the original of Romulus. At it were present the curators of the university and the professors, solemnly ushered in by the university officers. Music, instrumental and vocal, began and concluded the
The harangue itself began with a magnificent and long compliment to the curators; and then, something being said to the professors and scholars, he came to the main business, which was to show that Romulus was not an Italian born, but came from the east and was of Palestine or thereabout. This, as I remember, was the design of his oration, which lasted almost two hours." i
Locke appears to have taken advantage of the resources and opportunities of the medical school at Leyden, some
1 Lord King, p. 166.
of the curiosities of which are minutely described in his journal. But, in this first year of his stay in Holland at any rate, he spent only about a month at Leyden. He was at Amsterdam, in November, 1684, when he heard of his expulsion from Christ Church; and by that arbitrary act, and other proceedings that followed it, his plans were considerably altered.
Thus far his voluntary exile in Holland had been little more than a holiday, and, besides all the profit that it brought him in other ways, this holiday had proved very beneficial to his health. “For many years past,” he wrote to Nicolas Thoynard, in the first letter, dated November, 1684, that is extant after a gap of more than three years in their correspondence, “I have not felt better than now."1 “In Holland,” said Lady Masham,
enjoying better health than he had of a long time done än England, or even in the fine air of Montpellier, he had full leisure to prosecute his thoughts on the subject of Human Understanding—a work which in probability he never would have finished had he continued in England.”? We shall see that he also made good use of the leisure that was forced upon him in prosecuting his thoughts on other subjects.
Having completed his long tour through the more interesting parts of Holland in November, 1684, Locke, then in Amsterdam, was intending, as we have seen, to pass the winter at Utrecht, when he heard of Dr. Fell's “moneo " against him, and resolved to return at once to
1 Additional MSS., in the British Museum, no. 28759; Locke to Thoy. nard, [19—] 28 Nov., 1684.
2 MSS. in the Remonstrants' Library; Lady Masham to Le Clerc, 12 Jan., 1704-5.