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eighths of an inch thick ; then coated with hempen twine, soaked in pitch and tar; lastly, an outer sheathing of eighteen wires, each wire being a strand of seven finer wires, making together 126 wires, over all of which is a thick coating of gutta percha. The heart is twined together so closely as to produce contact throughout. The cable will support, in water, six miles of its own length, and is flexible enough to be tied in a knot around a man's body. The greatest depth to which it has sunk is 2,400 fathoms, or 14,400 feet ---- nearly three miles. It extends from Trinity Bay, in Newfoundland, to Valentia Bay, in Ireland, a distance of 2,324 miles by the cable, and 1,950 miles in an air line.

The Atlantic Sub-marine Telegraph Company was formed in the year 1854, by Cyrus W. Field, a merchant of New York. The first attempt to lay the cable was in the year 1857, when it parted after 380 miles had been submerged. In June, 1858, the American war-steamer, Niagara, and the British war-steamer, Agamemnon, thrice met in mid ocean, spliced the cable, and started for their respective continents, and thrice the cable parted; the total loss of line by these unsuccessful trials having been 335 miles.

The final and successful attempt was begun by these vessels at noon, on the 29th of July, and at sunrise, on the 5th of August, the cable was laid and landed between Valentia Bay, Ireland, and Trinity Bay, Newfoundland - the old world and the new. On the same day, the American people were astounded by the news that the cable had been successfully laid. It was at first discredited -- it was too great an event for belief; but when a confirmatory dispatch came from Mi. Field, the whole nation broke out in a wild jubilee. On the 17th of August, a congratulatory message was sent by the Queen of England to the President of the United States, and soon after answered. The first messages through the cable were transmitted with dificulty, and its electric condition became gradually worse, until no intelligible signals could be transmitted. Various causes have been assigned for its failure, and it is not probable that those in this cable can be surmounted; but the day is not far distant, in the opinion of practical men, when all obstacles will be overcome, and Europe and America connected by successfully-working telegraphic lines across the bed of the Atlantic ocean. REMARKABLE ADVENTURES

OF

ISRAEL R. POTTER,

WHO WAS A SOLDIER IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, AND TOOK A DISTINGUISHED

PART IN THE BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL, IN WHICH HE RECEIVED THREE WOUNDS ; AFTER WHICH HE WAS TAKEN PRISONER BY THE BRITISH AND CONVEYED TO CNGLAND, WHERE FOR THIRTY YEARS HE OBTAINED A LIVELIHOOD FOR HIMSELF AND FAMILY BY CRYING "OLD CHAIRS TO MEND, , THROUGH THE STREETS OF LONDON. HE DID NOT SUCCEED IN OBTAINING A PASSAGE TO HIS NATIVE COUNTRY UNTIL THE YEAR 1823, WHEN HE WAS IN THE SEVENTY-NINTH YEAR OF HIS AGE, AND AFTER

AN ABSENCE OF FORTY-EIGHT YEARS

my

I was born of reputable parents in the town of Cranston, State of Rhode Island, August 1, 1744. I continued with my parents there, in the full enjoyment of parental affection and indulgence, until I arrived at the age of eighteen, when, having formed an acquaintance with the daughter of a Mr. Richard Gardner, a near neighbor, for whom (in the opinion of my friends) entertaining too great a degree of partiality, I was reprimanded, and threatened by them with more severe punishment, if visits were not discontinued. Disappointed in my intentions of forming an union with one whom I really loved; I deemed the conduct of my parents in this respect unreasonable and oppressive, and formed the determination to leave them, for the purpose of seeking another home and other friends.

It was on Sunday, while the family were at meeting, that I packed up as many articles" of my clothing as could be contained in a pocket-handkerchief, which, with a small quantity of provision, I conveyed to and secreted in a piece of woods in the rear of my father's house';, I then returned and continued in the house until about nine in the evening, when, with the pretense of retiring to bed, I passed into a back room, and from thence out of a back door, and hastened to the spot where I had deposited my clothes, etc. It was a warm summer's night, and that I might be enabled to travel with the more facility. the succeeding day, I lay down at the foot of a tree and reposed myself until about four in the morning, when I arose and commenced my journey, traveling westward, with an intention of reaching, if possible, the new countries, which I had heard highly spoken of as affording excellent prospects for industrious and enterprising young men. To evade the pursuit of my friends, by whom I knew I should be early missed and diligently sought for, I confined my travel to the woods and shunned the public roads, until I had reached the distance of about twelve miles from my father's house. At noon the succeeding day I reached Hartford, in Connecticut, and ap. 11

(163)

plied to a farmer in that town for work, and for whom I agreed to labor for one month for the sum of six dollars. Having completed my month's work to the satisfaction of my employer, I received my money and started from Hartford for Otter Creek; but, when I reached Springfield, I met with a man bound to the Cahos country, and who offered me four dollars to accompany him, of which offer I accepted; and the next morning we left Springfield, and in a canoe ascended Connecticut River, and in about two weeks, after much hard labor in paddling and poleing the boat against the current, we reached Lebanon, New Hampshire, the place of our destination. It was with some difficulty, and not until I had procured a writ by the assistance of a respectable innkeeper in Lebanon by the name of Hill, that I obtained from my last employer the four dollars which he had agreed to pay me for my services.

From Lebanon, I crossed the river to New Hartford (then New York), where I bargained with a Mr. Brink of that town for two hundred acres of new land, lying in New Hampshire, and for which I was to labor for him four months. As this may appear to some a small consideration for so great a number of acres of land, it may be well here to acquaint the reader with the situation of the country in that quarter, at that early period of its settlement - which was an almost impenetrable wilderness, containing but few civilized inhabitants, far distantly situated from each other and from any considerable settlement; and whose temporary habitations with a few exceptions were constructed of logs in their natural state-- the woods abounded with wild beasts of almost every description peculiar to this country, nor 'were the few inhabitants at that time free from serious apprehension of being at some unguarded moment suddenly attacked and destroyed, or conveyed into captivity by the savages, who from the commencement of the French war, had improved every favorable opportunity to cut off the defenseless inhabitants of the frontier towns.

After the expiration of my four months' labor, the person who had promised me a deed of two hundred acres of land therefor, having refused to fulfill his engagements, I was 'obliged to engage with a party of his majesty's surveyors at fifteen shillings per month, as an assistant chain-bearer, to survey the wild unsettled lands bordering on the Connecticut River to its source.

It was in the winter season, and the snow so deep that it was impossible to travel without snow-shoes. At the close of each day we enkindled a fire, cooked our victuals and erected with the branches of hemlock a temporary ,hut, which served us for shelter for the night. The surveyors having completed their business returned to Lebanon, after an absence of about two months. Receiving my wages, I purchased a fowling-piece and ammunition therewith, and for the four succeeding months devoted my time in hunting deer, beavers, etc., in which I was very successful, as in the four months I obtained as many skins of these animals as produced me forty dollars. With my money I purchased of a Mr. John Marsh, one hundred acres of new land, lying on Water-Quechy River (so called), about five miles from Hartford, New York. On this land I went immediately to work, erected in small log hut thereon, and in two summers, without any assistance, cleared up thirty acres fit for sowing. In the winter seasons I employed my time in hunting and entrapping such animals whose hides and furs were esteemod of the most value. I remained in possession of my land two years, and then disposed of it to the same person of whom I purchased it, at the advanced price of two hundred dollars, and then conveyed my skins and furs which I had collected the two preceding winters, to No. 4 (now Charlestown), where I exchanged them for Indian blankets, wampeag, and such other articles as I could conveniently convey on a hand-sled, and with which I started for Canada, to barter with the Indians for furs. This proved a very profitable trip, as I very soon disposed of every article at an advance of more than two hundred per cent., and received payment in furs at a reduced price, and for which I received, in No. 4, two hundred dollars, cash. With this money, together with what I was before in possession of, I now set out for home, once more to visit my parents after an absence of two years and nine months, in which time my friends had not been enabled to receive any correct information of me. On my arrival, so greatly affected were my parents at the presence of a son whom they had considered dead, that it was some time before either could become sufficiently composed to listen to or request me to furnish them with an account of my travels.

Soon after my return, as some atonement for the anxiety which I had caused my parents, I presented them with most of the money that I had earned in my absence, and formed the determination that I would remain with them contented at home, in consequence of a conclusion from the welcome reception that I met with, that they had repented of their opposition, and had beconie reconciled to my intended union--but, in this, I soon found that I was mistaken ; for, although overjoyed to see me alive, whom they had supposed really deadl, no sooner did they find that long absence had increased rather than diminished my attachment for their neighbor's daughter, than their resentment and opposition appeared to increase in proportion-in consequence of which I formed the determination again to quit them, and try my fortune at sea, as I had now arrived at an age in which I had an unquestionable right to think and act for myself.

After remaining at home one month, I applied for and procured a berth at Providence, on board the sloop ----, Captain Fuller, bound for Grenada. After this voyage was finished, I made several other voyages, the last of which was of three years' duration, in a whaler to the South Seas.

I returned from my last voyage perfectly sick of the sea, remained with my friends at Cranston a few weeks, and then hired myself to a Mr. James Waterman, of Coventry, for twelve months, to work at farming. This was in the year 1774, and I continued with him about six months, when the difficulties which had for some time prevailed between the Americans and British, had now arrived at that crisis as to render it certain that hostilities would soon commence in good earnest between the two nations; in consequence of which, the Americans at this period began to prepare themselves for the event-companies were formed in several of the towns in New England, who received the appellation of "minute men,” and who were to hold themselves in readiness to obey the first summons of their officers, to march at a moment's notice. A company of this kind was formed in Coventry, into which I enlisted.

It was on a Sabbath morning that news was received of the destruction of the provincial stores at Concord, and of the massacre of our countrymer at Lexington, by a detached party of the British troops from Boston : and I immediately thereupon received a summons from the captain, to be prepared to march with the company early in the morning ensuing.

By the break of day on Monday morning, I swung my knapsack, shouldered my musket, and with the company commenced my march with a quick step for Charlestown, where we arrived before sunset, and remained encamped in the vicinity until about noon of the 16th June; when, having been previously joined by the remainder of the regiment from Rhode Island, to which our company was attached, we received orders to proceed and join a detachment of about one thousand American troops, which had that morning taken possession of Bunker Hill, and which we had orders immediately to fortify, in the best manner that circumstances would admit of. We labored all night without cessation and with very little refreshment, and by the dawn of day succeeded in throwing up a redoubt of eight or nine rods square. As soon as our works were discovered by the British in the morning, they commenced a heavy fire upon us, which was supported by a fort on Copp's Hill; wę, however (under the command of the intrepid Putnam), continued to labor like beavers until our breastwork was completed.

About noon, a number of the enemy's boats and barges, filled with troops, landed at Charlestown, and commenced a deliberate march to attack us. We were now hậrangüed by General Putnam, who reminded us, that exhausted as we were, by our incessant labor through the preceding night, the most important part of our duty was yet to be performed, and that much would be expected from so great a number of excellent marksmen, he charged us to be cool, and to reserve our fire until the enemy approached so near as to enable us to see the white of their eyes. When within about ten rods of our works, we gave them the contents of our muskets, which were aimed with such good effect, as soon to cause them to turn their backs and to retreat with a much quicker step than that with which they approached us. We were now again harangued by “old General Put;" as he was termed, and requested by him to aim at the officers, should the enemy: renew the attack-which they did in a few moments, with a reinforcement. Their approach was with a slow step, which gave us an excellent opportunity to obey the commands of our general in bringing down their officers. I feel but little disposed to boast of my own performances on this occasion, and will only say, that after devoting so many months in hunting the wild animals of the wilderness, while an inhabitant of New Hampshire, the reader will not suppose me a bad or inexperienced marksman, and that such were the fair shots which the epauletted red-coats presented in the two attacks, that every shot which they received from me, I am confident on another occasion would have produced me a deer-skin.

So warm was the reception the enemy met with in their second attack, that they again found it necessary to retreat; but soon after receiving a fresh reinforcement, a third assault was made, in which, in consequence of our ammunition failing, they too well succeeded. A close and bloody engagement now ensued--to fight our way through a very considerable body of the enemy, with clubbed muskets (for there were not one in twenty of us pro

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