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“ generally are not to be depended upon, and the best workmen I can find are incapable of directing. Indeed there is no branch of the work that can proceed well, scarcely for a single hour, unless I am present.

His genius, indeed, impressed itself on every part of the manufactory, extending even to the most common tools, all of which received some peculiar modification which improved them in accuracy, or efficacy, or beauty. His machinery for making the several parts of a musket was made to operate with the greatest possible degree of uniformity and precision. The object at which he aimed, and which he fully accomplished, was to make the same parts of different guns, as the locks, for example, as much like each other as the successive impressions of a copper-plate engraving. It has generally been conceded that Mr. Whitney greatly improved the art of manufacturing arms, and laid his country under permanent obligations, by augmenting her facilities for national defense.

Mr. Whitney died in 1825. In person, he was commanding, and of an open, manly countenance. His manners were modest, unassuming, and he invariably won the respect of all with whom he was thrown in contact. No American, by the single exercise of his powers, has added so much to the wealth and prosperity of his country, as Eli Whitney, the inventor of the Cotton Gin.

ROBERT FULTON, THE STEAMBOAT INVENTOR. LITTLE BRITAIN, now called Fulton, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, was the birthplace of the indefatigable ROBERT FULTON. He was born of Irish parentage in 1765, the same year which gave birth to Eli Whitney. When a mere lad; he passed his leisure hours in the shops of mechanics, or in the use of his pencil. The four years previous to his majority, he supported himself, in Philadelphia, by portrait and landscape painting.

He then went to London to study painting under Benjamin West, with whom he remained for several years. He resided for a time in Devonshire, where he derived much benefit from the acquaintance of those eminent patrons of the mechanic arts, the Duke of Bridgewater, and the Earl of Stanhope.

Internal navigation, by canals and improvements in machinery, now engrossed his attention, and he abandoned his profession as an artist and became a civil engineer. In his profession he at once gained eminence, and was the author of several valuable inventions. In 1796 he published his Treatise on the Improvement of Canal Navigation, and soon after went to Paris, where he resided with Joel Barlow for seven years. At this time, his thoughts were turned toward the subject of political economy, and he wrote a work, addressed to "the Friends of Mankind,” in which he labors to show, that education and internal improvements would have a good effect on the happiness of a nation, He judged it would take ages to establish the freedom of the seas by the common consent of nations; he therefore turned his whole attention to find out some means of destroying ships of war, those engines of oppression, and to put it out of the power of any nation to maintain such a system ; and thus to compel every government to adopt the simple principles of education, industry, and a free circulation of its produce. Out of such enlarged and philanthropic views and reflections grew Mr. Fulton's inventions for submarine navigation and explosions.

Having gained the patronage of the French government, in the summer of 1801 he went to Brest, to make experiments in submarine navigation. He embarked with three companions on board his plunging-boat in the harbor, and descended to the depth of five, ten, fifteen, and so on to twentyfive feet; but he did not attempt to go lower, because he found that his imperfect machine would not bear the pressure of the water at a greater depth. He found that she would tack and steer, and sail on a wind or before it, as well as any common sailing boat. He then struck her masts and sails ; to do which, and prepare for plunging, required about two minutes. Having plunged to a certain depth, he placed two men at the engine, which was intended to give her progressive motion; and one at the helm, while he, with a barometer before him, kept her balanced between the upper and lower waters. He found that with one hand he could keep her at any depth he pleased; and that in seven minutes, he had gone about the third of a mile. He could turn her round while under water, and return to the place he started from. These experiments were repeated for several days, till he became familiar with the operation of the niachinery and the motion of the boat. He found that she was as obedient to her helm under water, as any boat could be on the surface; and that the magnetic needle traversed as well in one situation as in the other: Satisfied with his boat, he next made some experiments with the torpedoes, or submarine bombs.

A small vessel was anchored in the roads, and with a bomb, containing about twenty pounds of powder, he approached within about two hundred yards, struck the vessel and blew.lier into atoms. A column of water and fragments was blown near one hundred feet into the air. This experiment was made in the presence of the prefect of the department and a multitude of spectators.

Through the summer he watched for English ships, to try the success of his invention in blowing up the enemy of France. No opportunity being afforded, the government refused him any farther encouragement, and, having received overtures from that of England, he proceeded to London. Several experiments were made, and some of them were failures; but on the 15th of October, 1805, he blew up a strong built Danish brig of two hundred tuns burden, which had been provided for the experiment, and which was anchored in Walmar Roads, near the residence of Mr. Pitt. The torpedo used on this occasion contained one hundred and seventy pounds of powder; and in fifteen minutes from the time of starting the machinery and throwing the torpedo into the water, the explosion took place. It lifted the brig almost entire, and broke her completely in two. The ends sunk immediately, and in one minute nothing was to be seen of her but floating fragments. In fact, her annihilation was complete.

Notwithstanding the complete success of this experiment, the British ministry seem to have been but little disposed to have anything further to do with Mr. Fulton, or his projects. Their object, evidently, had been to prevent his engines being placed in the hands of an enemy; and if this was accomplished, it was the interest of England, as long as she was ambitious of the proud title of the mistress of the seas, to make the world believe that Mr. Fulton's projects were chimerical.

In December, 1806, Mr. Fulton returned to his native country, and immediately engaged in the projects, both of submarine war and steam-navigation. In the succeeding July, he blew up, with a torpedo, in the harbor of New York, a large hulk-brig, which had been prepared for the purpose. In 1810, congress granted him five thousand dollars to make further experiments in submarine explosions.

We must now, however, revert to an early period of his life, to trace from the beginning the progress of that great improvement in the arts, for which we, and all the world, are so much indebted to him : we mean the practical establishment of navigation by steam.

At what time his attention was first directed to this subject, we do not know ; but it is ascertained that, in the year 1793, he had matured a plan, in which, even at that early day, he had great confidence. Mr. Fulton, when he conceived a mechanical invention, not only perceived the effect it would produce, but he could ascertain, by calculation, the power his combination would afford, how far it would be adequate to his purpose, and what would be the requisite strength of every part of the machine : and though his numerical calculations did not always prove exact, and required to be corrected by experiments, yet they assured him of general results.

It would be great injustice not to notice with due respect and commendation the enterprises of the late Chancellor Livingston, who had so intimate a connection with Fulton in the progress and establishment of steam-navigation. As early as 1798, Mr. Livingston represented to the legislature of New York, that he was possessed of a mode of applying the steam engine to propel a boat, on new and advantageous principles; upon which, they passed an act; vesting him with the exclusive right and privilege of navigating all kinds of boats, which might be propelled by the force of fire or steam, on all the waters within the territory or jurisdiction of the State of New York, for the term of twenty years from the passing of the act; upon condition that he should, within a twelve-month, build such a boat, the mean of whose progress should not be less than four miles an hour. Mr. Livingston, immediately after the passing of this act, built a boat of about thirty tuns burden, which was propelled by steam; but, as she was incom. petent to fulfill the condition of the law, she was abandoned. Soon after he entered into a contract with Fulton, by which it was, among other things, agreed, that a patent should be taken out in the United States in Fulton's name, which, Mr. Livingston well knew, could not be done without Mr. Fulton's taking an oath that the improvement was solely his.

Fulton met Chancellor Livingston in Paris in 1802, and was induced by him to again turn his attention to the subject. In the summer of 1803, an experimental boat was built on the Seine, sixty-six feet long, and eight feet wide. The experiment was satisfactory to the spectators--not entirely so to Mr. Fulton, she being deficient in speed, owing to defective machinery. He, however, was so well satisfied of ultimate success, that he ordered of Watt and Bolton, of Birmingham, England, certain parts of a steam-engine to be made for him, and sent to America. He did not disclose to them for what purpose the engine was intended ; but his directions were such as would produce the parts of an engine, that might be put together within a compass suited for a boat. Mr. Livingston had written to his friends in this country, and, through their interference, an act was passed by the legislature of the State of New York, on the 5th of April, 1803, by which the rights and exclusive privileges of navigating all the waters of that State, by vessels propelled by fire or steam, granted to Mr. Livingston by the act of 1798, which, we have before mentioned, were extended to Mr. Livingston and Mr. Fulton, for the term of twenty years from the date of the new act.

Very soon after Mr. Fulton's arrival in New York, he commenced building his first American boat. While she was constructing, he found that her expenses would greatly exceed his calculations. He endeavored to lessen the pressure on his own finances, by offering one third of the right, for a proportionate contribution to the expenses.

In the spring of 1807, Fulton's first American boat was launched from. the ship-yard of Charles Brown on the East River. The engine from England was put on board of her; and in August she was completed, and was moved by her machinery from her birthplace to the Jersey shore. Mr. Livingston and Mr. Fulton had invited many of their friends to witness the first trial, among whom were those: learned men, Dr. . Mitchill and Dr. M'Neven, to whom we are indebted for some account of what passed on this occasion. Nothing could exceed the surprise and admiration of all who witnessed the experiment. The minds of the most incredulous were changed in a few minutes. Before the boat had made the progress of a quarter of a mile, the greatest unbeliever must have been converted. The man who, while he looked on the expensive machine, thanked his stars that he had more wisdom than to waste his money on such idle schemes, changed the expression of his features as the boat moved from the wharf and gained her specd, and his complacent expression gradually stiffened into one of wonder. The jeers of the ignorant, who had neither sense nor feeling enough to suppress their contemptuous ridicule and rude jokes, were silenced for a moment by a vulgar astonishment, which deprived them of the power of utterance, till the triumph of genius extorted from the incredulous multitude which crowded the shores, shouts and acclamations of congratulation and applause.

This boat, which was called the Clermont, soon after made a trip to Albany. Mr. Fulton gives the following account of this, voyage in a letter to his friend, Mr. Barlow. "My steamboat voyage to Albaný and back, has turned out rather more favorable than I had calculated. The distance from New York to Albany is one hundred and fifty miles; Iran it up in thirty-two hours, and down in thirty. I had a light breeze against me the whole way, both going and coming, and the voyage has been performed wholly by the power of the steam-engine. I overtook many sloops and schooners beating to windward, and parted with them as if they had been at anchor. The power of propelling boats by: steam is now fully proved. The morning I left New York, there were not perhaps thirty persons in the city, who believed that the boat would ever move one mile an hour, or be of the least utility ; and while we were putting off from the wharf, which was crowded with spectators, I heard a number of sarcastic remarks. This is the way in which ignorant men compliment what they call philosophers and projectors. Having employed much time, money, and zeal, in accomplishing this work, it gives me, as it will you, great pleasure to see it fully answer my expectations. It will give a cheap and quick conveyance to


the merchandise on the Mississippi, Missouri, and other great rivers, which are now laying open their treasures to the enterprise of our countrymen; and although the prospect of personal emolument has been some inducement to me, yet I feel infinitely more pleasure in reflecting on the immense advantage that my country will derive from the invention,” etc.

Soon after this successful voyage, the Hudson boat was advertised and established as a regular passage-boat between New York and Albany. Sho, however

, in the course of the season, met with several accidents, from the hostility of those engaged in the ordinary navigation of the river, and from defects in her machinery,

On the 11th of February, 1809, Mr. Fulton took out a patent for his inventions in navigation by steam, and on the 9th of February, 181.1, he obtained a second patent for some improvements in his boats and machinery

It having been found that the laws, granting to Livingston and Fulton exclusive privileges, were insufficient to secure their enjoyment, the legislature of New York, in: 1811, passed a supplementary act, giving certain summary remedies against those who should contravene the protecting laws. The act, however, .excepts two boats which were then navigating the Hudson, and one which ran on Lake Champlain in opposition to Livingston and Fulton : without these exceptions, the law, as to these boats, would have been ex post facto. In respect to these, therefore, the parties were left to the same remedies as before passing the last act. The opposition boats on the Hudson, were at first to have been propelled by a pendulum, which some thought would give a greater power than steam; but on launching their vessel, they found the machinery was not so easily moved as when she was on the stocks. Having found, by experiment, that a pendulum would not supply the place of steam, and knowing no other way of apply. ing steam than that they saw practiced in the Fulton boats, they adopted all their machinery, with some small alterations, with no other view than to give a pretense for claiming to be the inventors of improvements on steamboats,

On a trial for an injunction which ensued, the merits of the members of this Pendulum Company were contrasted with those of Fulton, by Mr. Emmet, the counsel for the appellants. He described them as

men who never wasted health and life in midnight vigils, and painful study, who never dreamt of science in the broken slumbers of an exhausted mind, and who bestowed on the construction of a steamboat just as much mathematical calculation and philosophical research, as in the purchase of a sack of wheat, or a barrel of ashes.”

From the time the first boat was put in motion till the death of Mr. Fulton, the art of navigating by steam was fast advancing to that perfection of which he believed it capable : for some time the boat performed tách successive trip with increased speed, and every year improvements were made. The last boat built by him was invariably the best, the most convenient, and the swiftest.

In the war of 1812, Mr. Fulton's ingenuity was called upon to furnish plans of his submarine warfare, as a defense to the harbor of New York. Congress also authorized him to build a steam-frigate for its defense, which

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