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means, of his small domain. On the possession of property, and by no fact of this possession are concentrated means the naïf individual the Parisian all the mainspring motives and agen- had been accustomed to believe him, cies of his whole existence—in this, his according to his text-books of vaudeindustry, his talent, his cunning, his villes and melodramas. The agents thoughts, his affections, his very love of communistic doctrines were forced for his children, to whom he hopes to to retreat in dudgeon, to declare the transmit it. The great mobile of the French peasant the most ignorant and character of the French peasant is pig-headed animal upon earth, still self-interest in this respect. The under the yoke of the tyrants, and doctrines, then, which preached that endoctriné by the aristocrats ; and to the possession of all landed property avow that the departments were not by individuals is an infamous spolia- ripe for the enlightenment of commution of the res publica, filled the country nism, perhaps even to denounce them people in the provinces with the live- as infamously reactionary. Certain liest alarm, and contributed to estab- it is that communistic doctrines found lish a still greater hatred to a state of no enthusiastic disciples in the counthings that tended to produce results so try; or, if the propagandism made fatally detrimental to all that they held any steps, it was after the fashion so dear. The Parisian, almost as blindly characteristically depicted in a cariignorant of the state of his own coun- cature published by the Charivari, in try—which, in his theory that Paris is which a peasant appears before the all France, he looks upon with in- mayor of his commune to say, that, difference, if not contempt- as he is since a general partage des biens is to proverbially utterly ignorant of every take place, he puts down his name for other country beyond the frontiers the château, but makes a most wofully of France, even the most neighbour wry face upon hearing that his own ing-and, in fact, of every thing that field has been already divided among touches upon geography or the state the paupers of the village. The propaof nations, of which he has only the gation of communism, then, only exFaguest and most incorrect notions— cited fears instead of hopes, consterthought that all his wild fraternity nation instead of joy, and tended still schemes, developed and accepted by more to indispose the country people, those who possessed nothing, in the and excite their aversion and disconcapital, would be received with en- tent towards a state of things likely to thusiasm also by the “ miserable, become so prejudicial to their interests: oppressed, and tyrannised inhabitant more than ever, they were disposed to of the fields and plains ;"—such was revolt. the language used, and eagerly caught In this state was the feeling of the up. The Parisian soon found, by ex- country at large when the general perience, that he had made a gross elections came on, accompanied by all mistake. The emissaries sent down the violence of party manæuvre to into the provinces by the professors and support the principles of ultra-republihigh-priests of communism, or by the canism, advocated by the unscrupulous ultra clubs, and supported, there is minister of the nation ; but all these every reason to believe, by the mem- efforts tended only to indispose it still bers of the government before alluded more, and to call forth, in spite of the to, met only with the most active desperate opposition made, its sense repulsion. Their Utopian ideas of in favour of respect of property, order, universal fraternity and spoliation of and moderatism of views in the reproperty were scorned, scouted, and public, if republic there was to be. opposed : themselves were hooted, As is well known, an immense mapelted, almost lapidated as incendiary jority of those men of moderate prinenemies of the peasant. " The inno- ciples, whom all the ill-judged and cent and humble inhabitant of the hateful efforts of the violent and reckfields" was indignant, insulted, ag- less republicans at the head of affairs grieved, that he should be so contemp- had so greatly contributed to form tuously considered “miserable and into a decided, self-conscious, and oppressed :" he showed himself in the compact party of opponents, was relight of the landed proprietor, the turned to the Assembly. Most of the most avariciously interested in the leading men of the liberal party under
the former dynasty, who had stood of demons upon it, in the shape of reforward as friends of progressive re volutionary emissaries and agents. It form, but not as opponents to the forgets still less the scenes of Limoges, constitutional monarchy principle, where a mob were turned loose into were likewise elected, with great ma the polling-house to destroy the votes, jorities, by the suffrages of the people. drive out the national guards, disarm The country declared its will to be these defenders of order and right, and against the views of the principal and form a mob government, to rule and stirring influence which emanated from terrorise the town, while Master Comthe reckless man who governed the missary looked on, and told the people interior affairs of the country in the that it did well, and laughed in his capital. But it did not forget, at the sleeve. It forgets still less the fury same time, and it still bears an in- of the disappointed upon the result of veterate grudge to the violent agents the elections, their incitements to inof that ultra-republicanism, chiefly surrections, their preachings of armed concentrated in Paris, who had filled resistance for the sake of annulling the the country with disorder, tumult, elections, obtained, it must never be terror, and, in some cases, bloodshed, forgotten, by universal suffrage, in face by the atrocious and outrageous means of their culpable manæuvres : the it placed in the hands of a riotous mob emissaries again sent down from the to overawe them, and sway the direc- clubs, and with an apparent connivtion of the elections, and by the base ance of certain ultra-members of the manoeuvres employed to attain their government, from the charge of which, ends. It does not forget the despotism now more than ever since the conspiof certain commissaries, who, after racy of the 15th May, they willscarcely having their own lists of ultra-demo- be able to acquit themselves : the cratic candidates, whom they intended efforts of these emissaries to make the to force down the throats of the elec- easily excited and tumultuous lower tors, printed, threatened the printer classes take up arms, and the bloody who should dare to print any other, conflicts in the streets of Rouen : the with their high displeasure, and caused complicity of the very magistrates apthem to shut up their press. It does pointed by these members of the gonot forget the seizure of those papers vernment-the terror and the bloodthat proposed moderate candidates, shed, and then the cry of the furious with every attempt to strangle in ultras that the people had been treachpractice that liberty of the press which erously assassinated—the conspiracies was so clamorously claimed in theory. and incendiary projects of the vanIt does not forget the voters’ lists torn quished at Marseilles, the troubles of from the hands of voters by a pur- Lisle, of Amiens, of Lyons, of Aubusposely excited mob. It does not forget son, of Rhodez, of Toulouse, of Carcasthe odious manœuvre by which agents sonne—why swell the list of names ? were largely paid and sent about to -of almost every town in France, all cry Vive Henri V." in the streets of with the same intent of destroying those towns, in order to induce the belief elections of representatives which the in a Bourbonist reactionary party, country had proclaimed in the sense and thus rouse the passions and feel of order and of moderatism. It ings of the flattered and declamation- forgets still less the dangers of that intoxicated mob against the moderates, same 15th May, when the goveruregardless of the consequences of ment was for a few hours overthrown, the animosity and the bloodshed. It by the disorderly, the disappointed, does not forget the intimidation, the the discontented, the violent ultra threat of fire and sword, the opposition republicans, the conspirators of Paris, by force to the voting of whole villages when some of those, who had suspected of moderatism—the collision, been formerly their rulers, were the constraint, the conflict, the vio arrested as accomplices, and others lence. It does not forget all this, still in power can scarcely yet again nor also that it owes the outrage, avoid the accusation and conviction the alarm, and the suffering, the of complicity. ruin to peace and order, to commerce,
All the other troubles of this disto well-being, to fortune, to that tracted country, since the revolution central power which turned a legion of February, may be passed over-the
ruin to commerce, the poverty, misery, in a very striking manner in the affair and want, the military revolts excited of the 15th May. One of the conby the same emissaries to cause di spirators got possession of the electric visions in the army, as likewise the telegraph at the Home Office, and unhappy troubles of Nismes, where sent down despatches into all the prothe disturbances took a religious ten vinces, to inform the country that the dency—as a conflict of creeds between Assembly was dissolved, and the new Roman Catholics and Protestants, government of the ultra-anarchist rather than a political or
party had taken the reins of power. social character, - although they still Instead of being awed into submission bore evidence of the disorder of the as heretofore, instead of calmly and times and the disturbance of the resignedly accepting the fait accompli country. The elections, then, con- as was their wont, the departments tributed more powerfully than ever to immediately rose to protest against the fermentation, the discontent, the the new revolution of Paris. Before mistrast, and the ill-will of the a counter-despatch could be sent down country.
into the provinces, to let them know In this state of France, with the that the former order of things was feeling of impatient jealousy and restored, the national guards of all irritation against tyranny and des- the great towns were up and out, with potism expressed by the departments thecry“ to arms!” and it was resolved towards the capital, with the evident to march upon Paris. It was not only disunion between the provinces and in the towns within a day's journey Paris, what are likely to be the des- of the capital that the movement was tinies of the Republic hereafter ? spontaneously made. In the furthest Again it must be said—who can tell, parts of the country, from the cities of who foresee, who predict? The Re- Avignon, Marseilles, Nismes, and all public has been accepted, and is main- the south of France, the national tained, from a love of order and the guards were already on their way status quo: but there is no enthusiasm, towards the capital, before the inno admiration for the republican form formation that declared the more of government throughout the country satisfactory result of the day could be at large ; there is, at most, indif- made public. It is more than proference to any government, what- bable, then, that, should a desperate ever it may be provided it but faction ever seize upon the power, or insure the stability and prosperity of even should a close conflict of parties the country. If an opinion may be further endanger the safety of the hazarded, however, it is, that the country and its tottering welfare, danger to the present established form that the provinces would again take of things will not arise so much from up arms against Paris, and that a the conflict of contending parties in civil war would be the result. the capital, as from the discontent, This is rather a suggestion hazarded, disaffection, jealousy, and, perhaps, than a prediction made, as to the final outbreak and resistance of the future fate of the French republic. departments. Terrorism has had its Whatever that future may be, an day; and it would be difficult, if not uneasy submission on the part of a impossible, to apply the system once great anti-republican majority to the again to the country in its present active agency of a small republican state. What other means will the minority—but, at the same time, a violent possess—what coercive mea- desire of maintaining a government, sures, if, when parties come to an whatever it may be, if supportable, issue, the wearied and disgusted for tranquillity's sake ; a feeling of country should rise to protest against humiliation and degradation in this the disorders of Republican Paris ? utter submission to the will of Paris There seem at present to be none. throughout the country—but, at the The result of such an outbreak would same time, an apparent growing debe inevitable civil war. The strong termination eventually to resist that instance before alluded to, of the de- will, should it at last prove intolerable termination of the departments to such is the present state of Repubassert a will of their own, was given lican France.
VOL. LXIV.-NO. CCCXCIII.
AUSTRALIA is the greatest acces tion to the British possessions: the sion to substantial power ever made conquest of the Cape has drawn a large by England. It is the gift of a Con- body of settlers to its fine climate ; tinent, unstained by war, usurpation, but Australia remained, and remains, or the sufferings of a people. But for the grand future field of British even this is but a narrow view of its emigration. value. It is the addition of a terri The subject has again come before tory, almost boundless, to the posses- the British public with additional insions of mankind; a location for a new terest. The Irish famine, the British family of man, capable of snpporting a financial difficulties, and the palpable population equal to that of Europe; hazard of leaving a vast pauperism to or probably, from its command of the grow up in ignorance, have absolutely ocean, and from the improved systems, compelled an effort to relieve the not merely of commercial communi- country. A motion has just been cation, but of agriculture itself, cap made in Parliament by Lord Ashley, able of supplying the wants of double giving the most startling details of the population of Europe. It is, in the infant population; and demanding fact, the virtual future addition of three the means of sending at least its hundred millions of human beings, who orphan portion to some of those colootherwise would not have existed. nial possessions, where they may be And besides all this, and perhaps of a trained to habits of industry, and higher order than all, is the transfer have at least a chance of an honest of English civilisation, laws, habits, existence. We shall give a few of industrial activity, and national free- these details, and they are of the very dom, to the richest, but the most first importance to humanity. On the abject countries of the globe; an im 6th of June Lord Ashley brought in a perial England at the Antipodes, resolution, “ That it is expedient that securing, invigorating, and crowning means be annually provided for the all its benefits by its religion.
voluntary emigration, to some one of Within the last fifty years, the her Majesty's colonies, of a certain population of the British islands has number of young persons of both nearly tripled ; it is increasing in sexes, who have been educated in the England alone at the rate of a thou- schools, ordinarily called
ragged saud a day. In every kingdom of the schools,' in and about the metropolis." Continent it is increasing in an im In the speech preparatory to this mense ratio. The population is be- resolution, a variety of statements coming too great for the means of were made, obtained from the clergy existence. Every trade is over and laity of London. It was ascerworked, every profession is over tained that the number of children, stocked, every expedient for a liveli- either deserted by their parents, or hood threatens to be exhausted under sent out by their parents to beg and this vast and perpetual influx of life ; steal, could not be less than 30,000 in and the question of questions is, How the metropolis alone. Their habits is this burthen to be lightened ?
were filthy, wretched, and depraved. There can be but one answer, Emi- Their places of living by day were the gration. For the last century, com
streets, and by night every conceivable mon sense, urged by common neces haunt of misery and sin. They had sity, directed the stream of this no alternative but to starve, or to emigration to the great outlying regions of the western world. North perhaps murderers. Of the general
grow up into professional thieves, America was the chief recipient. population, the police reports stated, Since the conquest of Canada, annual
that in 1847 there had been taken thousands had directed their emigra- into custody 62,181 individuals of
Journal of an Erpedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia, &c. By Lieut.Colonel Sir T. MITCHELL, Surveyor-General, &c. 1 vol. London: Longmans.
both sexes and all ages. Of these, public mischief, and end in individual 20,702 were females, and 47,479 males. ruin. Lord Ashley's suggesti on is Of the whole, 15,693 were under that the plan shall be first tried on the twenty years of age, 3,682 between moderate scale of sending 500 boys, fifteen and ten, and 362 under ten. and 500 girls, chosen from the ragged Of the whole, 22,075 could neither schools of London, under proper suread nor write, and 35,227 could read perintendents, to the most fitting of only, or read and write imperfectly. the colonies ; by which we understand
The average attendanee last year in Australia. The plan may then be the "ragged sehools” was 4000. Of extended to the other parts of the these 400 had been in prison, 600 kingdom, to Scotland and Ireland. lived by begging, 178 were the children He concluded by placing his motion of conviets, and 800 had lost one or in the hands of government, who, both their parents, and of course were through the Home Secretary, promised living by their own contrivances. Out to give it all consideration. of the 62,000, there were not less than It is certainly lamentable that such 28.113 who had no trade or occupa- statements are to be made ; and we tion, or honest livelihood whatever! have little donbt that the foreign jour
The statement then proceeded to nalist will esult in this evidence of consider the expense to which the what they call “the depravity of nation was put to keep down crime. England." But, it is to be rememIt will perhaps surprise those readers bered that London has a population who object to the expenses of emi- of nearly two millions that all the gration.
idleness, vice, and beggary of an island
of twenty millions are constantly In 1847. The expense of Park- pouring into it—that foreign vice, idle
hurst Prison was . £14,349 ness, and beggary contribute their
Of Pentonville Prison, 18,307 share, and that what is abhorred and In 1846. Or County Gaols, 147,145 corrected in England, is overlooked, Of County Houses of
and even cherished abroad. It is also Correction,
160,841 Of Rural Police, 180,000
to be remembered, that there is a conOf Prosecutions for
tinual temptation to plunder in the Coining,
9000 exposed wealth of the metropolis, and In 1847. Of Metropolitan Po- a continual temptation to mendicancy liee,
363,164 in the proverbial humanity of the
people. The whole buta few items, yet amount- Still
, crime must be punished whering to a million sterling annually. In ever it exists, and vice must be rethis we observe the Millbank Peni- formed wherever man has the means; tentiary, an immense establishment, and, therefore, we shall exult in the Newgate, the Compter, and the var success of any judicious plan of emirious places of detention in the city, gration. are not included; and there is no notice It happens, at this moment, that there of the expenses of building, which in is an extraordinary demand for emithe instance of the Penitentiary alone gration; that every letter from Ausamounted to a million.
tralia calls for a supply of human life, Yet, to dry up the source of this and especially for an emigration of tremendous evil, Lord Ashley asks females, the proportion of males to only an expenditure of £100,000 an- females in some of the settlements mually, to transform 30,000 growing being 9 to 1, while the number of thieves into honest men, idlers into females predominates, by the last cultivators of the soil, beggars into census in England. possessors of property, which the ge- There is a daily demand for addiTierality of settlers become, on an tional labourers, artificers, and houseaverage of seven years.
hold servants, and with offers of wages There can be no rational denial of which in England neither labourer the benefit, and even of the neces- nor artisan could hope to obtain. sity, of rescuing those unfortunate Thousands are now offered employcreatures from a career which, begin- ment, comfort, and prospective wealth ning in vice and misery, must go on in in Australia, who must barthen the