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the Object of all belief in Credibility, it will clearly follow, that diversity of Credibility in the Object, will proportionably cause a distinction of Asent in the Understanding, and consequently a leveral kind of Faith, which we have supposed to be nothing elte but such an Asent.

Now the Credibility of Objects, by which they appear fit to be believed, is distinguishable according to the diversities of its foundation, that is, according to the different Authority of the Testimony on which it depends. For we having no other certain means of assuring our felves of the truth, and consequently no other motives of our Assent in matters of mere Belief, than the Testimony upon which we believe ; if there be any fundamental distinction in the Authority of the Testimony, it will cause the like difference in the Assent, which must needs bear a proportion to the Authority

of the Testimony, as being originally and essentially founded upon it. It * To 76anion Two moram," is therefore necessary next to consider, in what the Authority of a Testi

allove wi- mony consisteth, and so to descend to the several kinds of Testimonies Socioculis 7870founded upon several Authorities. disiy, oy olcsencore. The strength and validity of every Testimony inust bear proportion with sóvos in uma. the * Authority of the Testifier; and the Authority of the Testifier is founded Aristot. Rhet. l. 1. c.8.

hel. upon his Ability and Integrity: his Ability in the knowledge of that which + Testimoni- he delivereth and assertech ; his Integrity in delivering and asserting acerum quæ , cording to his knowledge. For two several ways he which relateth or sunt genera? Divinum & testifieth any thing may deceive us ; one, by being ignorant of the truth, humanum. and so upon that ignorance mistaking, he may think that to be true which Divinum, ut: Orxcuta. ut is not fo, and confequently deliver that for truth, which in it self is false, auspicia, ut and so deceive himself and us; or if he be not ignorant, yer if he be difvaticinatio- honest or unfaithful, that which he knows to be false he may propound nes, & refponfa Tacer- and assert to be a truth, and so, though himself be not deceived, he may dotuin, aru- deceive us. And by each of these ways, for want either of Ability or spicuin, con-. ifcorum. Integrity in the Testifier, wholo grounds his Allent unto any thing as a Hunanum, truth, upon the testimony of another, may equally be deceived. tur ex autho

But whosoever is so able as certainly to know the truth of that which ritate, & ex he delivereth, and so faithful as to deliver nothing but what and as he voluntate, & knoweth, he, as he is not deceived, so deceiveth no inan. So far therefore aut libera aut as any person testifying appeareth to be knowing of the thing he testifies, expressa; in and to be faithful in the relation of what he knows, fo far his testimony quo insunt is acceptable, fo far that which he testifieth is properly Credible. And promira, ju- thus the Authority of every Testifier or Relater is grounded upon these rata, quæfita. two foundations, his Ability and Integrity. Cicero: Orat. Now there is in this case, so far as it concerns our present design, t a douPartit. # Non dicant ble Testimony : the Testimony of man to man, relying upon humane Authonon credimus rity, and the Testimony of God to man, founded upon divine Authority : quia non vidimus; quo which two kinds of Testimony are respective grounds of two kinds of Creniam fi hæc dibility, Humane and Divine ; and consequently there is a two-fold Faith dicant cogun- distinguish'd by this double Object, a Humane and a Divine Faith. tur fateri incertos fibi esse : Humane Faith is an Alent unto any thing Credible merely upon the Parentes fuos. Testimony of man. Such is the belief we have of the words and affectiDe fide rerum invisib.**** ons one of another. And upon this kind of Faith we proceed in the oramonst the dinary affairs of our life ; according to the Opinion we have of the ability works of st. and fidelity of him which relates or asserts any thing we believe or disbelieve. Augustin. Aimer g5 ideas By this a friend assurech himself of the affection of his friend: by this the orde sš wo?'. # Son acknowledgerh his Father, and upon this is his obedience wrought. Y AN* By virtue of this Humane Faith it is that we doubt not at all of those ativo DE wávles, i at things which we never saw, by reason of their distance from us, either by

time or place. Who doubts whether there be such a Country as Italy, or Manander apud S:cb. such a City as Constantinople, though he never pass’d'any of our four Seas?

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Who questions now whether there were such a' Man as Alexander in the East, or Cafar in the West ? and yet the latest of these hath been beyond the possibility of the knowledge of man these sixteen hundred years. There is no * Science taught without original belief, there are no t Letters learnt * (pobáiege without preceding faith. There is no Justice executed, no Commerce pezzos aos sezono

v tis T 150 maintained, no Business prosecuted without this ; | all fecular affairs are mens i nenes transacted, all great archievements are attempted, all hopes, desires and Theodor. Theinclinations are preserved by this Humane Faith grounded upon the Te-TOS stimony of man..

• Węã TDC sorreia In which case we all by easie experience may observe the nature, gene- Mebežo oión se

un oud reauration and progress of Bélief. For in any thing which belongeth to more than

o px?157 WET:than ordinary knowledge, we believe not him whom we think to be igno- sázóra. ibid. rant, nor do we afsent the more for his assertion, though never fo confi- Imásla te iv

τω κόσμω τεdently delivered : but if we have a strong opinion of the knowledge and aš malice, mes skill of any person, what he affirmeth within the compass of his know why i azio

Teów crexana ledge, that we readily assent unto ; and while we have no other ground one

σίας τη πίες but his affirmation, this Assent is properly Belief. Whereas, if it be any ring Cyril. matter of concernment in which the interest of him that relateth or affir- Catech. V.

We Orig. cont. meth any thing to us is considerable, there it is not the skill or knowledge Cellum. lib. of the Relater which will satisfie us, except we have as strong an opinion of Euf. de prep.

Evang. l. 1. his fidelity and integrity : but if we think him so just and honest, that he has s.am no design upon us, nor will affirm any thing contrary to his knowledge for Arnob. adver. any gain or advantage, then we readily aslent unto his affirmations; and this Asent is our Belief. Seeing then our Belief relies upon the ability and integrity of the Relater, and being the knowledge of all men is imperfect; and the hearts of all men are deceitful, and so their integrity to be fufpected, there can be no infallible universal ground of Humane Faith. But what satisfaction we cannot find in the the testimon fman, v

Rom. 3. 4. receive in the testimony of God, * If we receive the witnes of man, the Quâm indig.

d is greater. Yea, let God be true, the ground of our num, nt huDivine, and every man a liar, the ground of our Humane Faith. moniis de alio

As for the other Member of the Division, we may now plainly perceive credamus. that it is thus to be defined ; Divine Faith is an Allent unto something Dei oraculis

gde se non creas Credible upon the Testimony of God. This Affent is the highest kind damus!se of Faith, because the object hath the highest Credibility, because grounded Ambrof. l. de upon the Testimony of God, which is infallible. Balaam could tell Balak Aramame:3 thus much, God is not a man, that he should lye ; and a better Prophet sorárieg"," confirm’d the fame truth to Saul, The strength of Israel will not lye ; záslavy civa and because he will not, because he cannot, he is the strength of Israel, og her en

Ogwrivay aris even my God, my strength, in whom I will trust. . .

cxcivas, uäaFor furt, God is of infinite knowledge and wisdom, as Hannah hath .misstev ter

Halhi gem; Orig. ad taught us, b the Lord is a God of knowledge, or rather, if our Language Celf. l. 1. will bear it, of knowledges, which are so plural, or rather infinite in their “Num. 23.19

1 Sam. 15.29. plurality, that the Plalmist hath said, “Of his understanding there is no Palm:55:2 number. He knoweth therefore all things, neither can any truth be hid 1 Sam. 2., 3. from his knowledge, who is essentially truth, and essentially knowledge, my and, as so, the cause of all other truth and knowledge. Thus the under-Lxx. Oids"

| Yversey xistanding of God is infinite in respect of comprehension, and not so only, r * but of certainty also and evidence. Some things we are said to know e Psal. 147.5: which are but obscurely known, we see them but as in a Glass or thro

In the Heb. a Cloud : But d God i. ht, and in him is no darknes at all : he fe

DOD without any obscurity, and whatsoever is propounded to his understanding incin india

+ Cujus iapiis most clear and evident ; e neither is there any Creature that is not mani- citer multi

plex, & uni. formiter multiformis, incomprchcnfibili comprehenfione omnia incomprehensibilia comprehendit. S. Auguftir, de Civit. Dei, lib. 12. cap. 18. di John 1. s.

Heb. 4. 13.

** 1 John 5.9

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fest in his fight; but all things are naked and open unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do. Wherefore being all things are within the compass of his knowledge, being all things which are so, are most clear and evident unto him, being the knowledge he hath of them is most certain and infallible, it inevitably followeth that he cannot be deceiv'd in any tbing in

Secondly, The justice of God is equal to his knowledge, nor is bis * Dext. 32.4. holiness inferior to his wisdom: a God of truth, * faith Moses, and with t Amér out iniquity, juft and right is he. From which internal, effential and in2.28" imãs már finite rectitude, goodness and holiness, followerh an impossibility to de7tó Osos ons Suvé pouco, os clare or deliver that for truth which he knoweth not to be true. For if it Ords eivau, sy be against that finite purity and integrity which is required of man, to lye. in Icelas diva, ni and comes events and therefore sinful, then must we conceive it absolutely inconsistent with tisu). Orig. that transcendent purity and infinite integrity which is essential unto God. contra Cel Although therefore the power of God be infinite, though he can do all things: 4" Si velint in- yet we may fafely fay, without any prejudice to his Omnipotency, that he venire quod I cannot speak that for truth which he knowerh to be otherwise. For the omnipotens non poteft. perfections of his will are as necessarily infinite as those of his understanding , habent pror- neither can he be unholy or unjust more than he can be ignorant or unwile. sus ego di... a If we believe not, yet he abideth faithful, he cannot deny himself. cam, mentiri non poteft." Which words of the Apostle, though properly belonging to the promises S. Auguft.de of God, yet are as true in respect of his assertions; neither should he more Civ.Dei. I. 22.

12. deny himself in violating his fidelity, than in contradicting his veracity. C. 25. 22 Tim. 2. 13. 'Tis true, that God willing more abundantly to Mew unto the Heirs of b. Heb. 6. 17, Promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath ; that 18.

by two immutable things, in which it was impoffible for God to lye, we might have a strong confolation : but ʼtis as true, that all this confirmation is

only for our confolation; otherwise it is as impossible for God to lye, with Ć Heb. 6. 13. out an oath, as with one ; for being he can wear by no greater, he swear

eth only by himself, and so the strength even of the Oath of God relieth upon the veracity of God. Wherefore being God, as God is of infinite

rectitude, goodness and holiness, being it is manifestly repugnant to his * Ut fit om- purity, and inconsistent with his integrity, to deliver any thing contrary nium potens, mori non po- to his knowledge, it clearly followeth that he cannot deceive any man. : test, falli non It is therefore most infallibly certain, that God being infinitely wise, porelt, men cannot * be deceived; being infinitely good, cannot f deceive : and upon tiri non poteit. Auguft. these two immovable pillars standeth the Authority of the Testimony of God. de Symb. ad For since we cannot doubt of the witness of any one, but by questioning his Catechum.

Deus facere ability, as one who may be ignorant of that which he affirmeth, and fo fraudem nef- deceived; or by excepting against his integrity, as one who may affirm cit, pati non that which he knoweth to be false, and so have a purpose to deceive us : poteft. Chryfol. Serm.62. where there is no place for either of these exceptions, there can be no

Authoritas doubt of the truth of the Testimony. But where there is an intrinsical Dei confiftit in intrinseca +

I repugnancy of being deceived in the understanding, and of deceiving in repugnantia the will, as there certainly is in the understanding and will of God, there deceptionis can be no place for either of those exceptions, and consequently there can be seu falsitatis quàm habet no doubt of the truth of that which God testifieth. And whosoever thinketh divinum judi- any.

any thing comes from hins, and aslentech not unto it, must necessarily deny cium, & in intrinfeca re

him to be wise or holy: "He that believeth not God, said the Apostle, bath

himahewwife or ho pugnantia made him a liar. That truth then which is testified by God, hath a Di.

vine Credibility: and an allent unto it as lo credible, is Divine Faith. tatis imperan

In tis teftimom which the material Object is the Doctrine which God delivereth, the for: nium extrin- mal Object is that Credibility founded on the * Authority of the deliverer. Locum non And this I conceive the true nature of Divine Faith in general. judicio interno; quæ per terminos positivos actûs intellectûs infallibiliter veri, & actûs voluntatis intrinsecè & necessario recti, poterit explicari. Francis. de Ovied. Tract. de Fide. Contr. 2. pun.2. dl. John 5.10. * Divina • eft auctoritas cui credimus; divina est doctrina quain sequimur. Leo, Corm. 7. in Nativ.

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Now being the Credibility of all which we believe is founded upon the Testimony of God, we can never be sufficiently instructed in the notion of Faith, till we first understand how this testimony is given to those truths which we now believe. To this end it will be necessary to give notice that the Testimony of God is not given unto truths before questioned or debated; nor are they such things as are first propounded and doubted of by man, and then resoly'd and confirm’d by interposing the authority of God: but he is then said to witness when he doth propound, and his Teftimony is given by way of Revelation, which is nothing else but the de livery or speech of God unto his creatures. And therefore upon a diverfity of delivery must follow a difference, though not of Faith itself, yer of the means and manner of Alent.

Wherefore it will be farther necessary to observe, that Divine Revelation is of two kinds, either immediate, or mediate. An immediate Revelation is that by which God delivereth himself to man by himself, without the intervention of man. A mediare Revelation is the conveyance of the counsel of God unto man by man. By the first he spake unto the Prophets; by the fe

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cundiupolen cond in the Prophets, and by them unto us. Being then there is this diffe- locutid, scilirence between the revealing of God unto the Prophets and to others, being cet exterior the Faith both of Prophets, and others, relieth wholly upon Divine Reve- lis, & interior lation, the * difference of the manner of Āsent in these several kinds of Belie- ac fpiritualis ; vers will be very observable for the es lanation of the nature of our Faith.

wa fides,una quæ oritur in cordibus fidelium per auditum exteriorem, cùm scil. Deus per aliquos homines aliis credenda proponit; & ifta eft fides quæ nobis five communi ftatui fidelium convenit, ex eo quod adhæremus revelationibus Prophetis & Apoftolis factis: alia est quæ oritur in aliquibus per spiritualem locutionem, quâ Deus aliquibus per internam inspirationem credenda revelat, nullo hominis ministerio utens; ficut est fides Apostolorum & Prophetarum, qui ab ipfo Deo per intrinfecam illuminationem sunt de credendis instructi. Francis. Ferrariensis in Thom.cont. Gent.cap.40.

Those then to whom God did immediately speak himself, or by an Angel representing God, and so being in his stead, and bearing his name, (of which * Ilisu zemin I İhall need here to make no distinction) those Persons, I say, to whom uwloat eis God did fo reveal himself, did by virtue of the fame Revelation, perceive,

perceive which word

perceive, comes from the know, and assure themselves, that he which spake to them was God; so original xegów; that at the same time they learly understood both what was delivered, and appropriated

by the Greeks by whom: otherwise we cannot imagine that Abraham would have slain his to an Oracle, Son, or have been commended for such a resolution, had he not been most or Answer giassured that it was God who by an immediate Revelation of his will clearly

ven by God, o

Oeds xeño ó commanded it. Thus a by faith Noah being warned of God of things not seen mara as yet, moved with fear, prepared an Ark, to the saving of his house : Mar 7512), which * warning of God was a clear Revelation of God's determination to bifalm2. ia.

Moscopulus. drown the world, of his will to save him and his family, and of his command I Sam.3.21. for that end to build an Ark. And this Noah fo received from God, as that

no chord I Sam. 3. 7. he knew it to be an Oracle of God, and was as well assured of the Author as informed of the Command. Thus the judgments hanging over Judah were in revealed in the ears of b Isaiah by the Lord of Hofts. Thus cthe Lord re- xúerca drovealed himself to Samuel in Shiloh: at first indeed he knew him not; that rico

xáruye to wa is, when the Lord spake, he knew it not to be the voice of God, Now Sa- 1 Sam.9.15. muel did not yet know the Lord, neither was the word of the Lord yet re- * vealed unto him; but after that he knew him, and was assured that it was 1787722 He which spake unto him, the Scripture teaching us that the tears of Sa-me

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127 muel were revealed, and the word of God revealed, and *God himself re- dupa över dúvealed to him. By all which we can understand no less, than that Samuel hud parma xuels

i Sam. 3. 7. was fo illuminated in his Prophecies, that he fully understood the words or

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ny things themselves which were delivered, and as certainly knew that the deliverer was God: so Samuel the Seer, fo the rest of those Prophets believed 5xiou those truths revealed to them by such a faith as was a firm affent unto an ***** dupta

xúerouareg's object credible upon the immediate Testimony of God.

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But those faithful people to whom the Prophets spake, believed the same truth, and upon the testimony of the same God, delivered unto them not by God, but by those Prophets, whose words they therefore assented unto as certain truths, because they were allured that what the Prophets spake was immediately revealed to them by God himself, without which assurance no faith could be expected from them. When God appeared unto Mofes in a flame of fire out of the midst of a Bush, and there immediately revealed to him firit himself, laying, I am the God of thy Fathers, the God of Abraham the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, and then his will to bring the children of Israel out of the Land of Egypt, Mofes clearly believed God both in the Revelation of himself and of his will, and was fully satisfied that the Ifraelites thould be delivered, because he was assured it was God who promised their deliverance : yet notwithstanding still he doubted whether the

Ifraelites would believe the same truth, when it should be delivered to them, Exod. 4. I.

1 ngt immediately by God, but by Moses, And Mofes answered and fard.

But behold they will not believe me, nor hearken unto my voice ; for then will say, The Lord hath not appeared unto thee. Which words of his first suppose, that if they had heard the voice of God, as he had, they would have assented to the truth upon a testimony Divine ; and then as rationally affirm, that it was improbable they should believe, except they were assured it was God who promised, or think that God had promised by Mofes, only because Mofes faid so. Which rational Objection was clearly taken away, when God endued Mofes with power of evident and undoubted miracles ; for then the Rod which he carried in his hand was as infallible a sign to the Israelites, that God had appeared unto him, as the flaming Bush was to himielf; and therefore they which saw in his hand God's Omnipotency, could not suspect

s Veracity: insomuch as when Aaron became to Mores Evd. 4. 30, instead of a Mouth, and Moses to Aaron instead of God, Aaron spake all ĝi. the words which the Lord had spoken unto Mofes, and did the signs in the

sight of the people, and the people believed. For being persuaded by a lively and active presence of Omnipotency that God had appeared unto Mofes, and what was delivered to them by him came to him from God, and being fufficiently assured out of the very sense and notion of a Deity, that what

foever God should speak, must of necessity be true, they presently assented, Exod. 14. 31.

and believed the Lord, and his Servant Moses; Moses, as the immediate propounder, God, as the original revealer: they believed Mofes that God had revealed it, and they believed the Promise, because God had revealed it. So that the Faith both of Moses and the Ifraelites was grounded upon the fame Testimony or revelation of God, and differed only in the proposition or application of the Testimony; Mofes receiving it immediately from God himlelf, the Ifraelites mediately by the ministry of Mofes.

In the like manner the succeeding Prophets were the instruments of Di vine Revelation, which they first believed as revealed to them, and then the people as revealed by them : for what they delivered was not the

testimony of man, but the testimony of God delivered by man. It was Luke 1, 70. he who spake by the mouth of his holy Prophets which have been since

Tas the world began : the mouth, the instrument, the articulation was theirs; i sam. 25.2. but the words were God's. The Spirit of the Lord Spake by me, faith 1 King. 8. 53. David, and his word was in my tongue. It was the word of the Lord, L Xing. 14. 18. which he spake by the hand of Mofes, and by the hand of his servant

Ahijab the Prophet. The band the general instrument of man, the mouth

the particular instrument of speech, both attributed to the Prophers as j a merely instrumental in their prophecies. The words which Balaam's Afs Numb.22.28. spake were as much the Ass's words, as those which Balaam fpake were Numb. 23. 5. his; for the Lord opened the mouth of the Ass, and the Lord put a word

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