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immortal. his dominion must be eternal. Wherefore S. Paul exprefly cal. a 1 Tim. 1.17. leth Goda the King eternal, with reference to that of David, b*Thy kingßasideii dom is an everlasting kingdom, and thy dominion endureth throughout all cicvwr. Opral.145.13. generations. And Mofes in his Song hath told us, "The Lord hall reign

CMLHER for ever and ever : which phrase for ever and ever in the original signifieth Lxx. Back thus much, that there is no time to come assignable or imaginable, but after acáve tálvany and beyond that God Thall reign. on urdrwy. colore 18. The third branch of God's authoritative or potestative power consistech

191 bys in the use of all things in his possession, by virtue of his absolute dominion. Lxx. i wasw- for it is the

aswe For it is th eral dictate of reason, that the use, benefit and utility va nuri. S. Hier. in se- any thing, redoundeth unto him whose it is, and to whom as to the proprieculum & ul- tor it belongeth. 'Tis true indeed, that God, who is all-fufficient and intra. So Aquitha Theod. and finitely happy in and of himself, so that no accession ever could or can be the fifth Edit. made to his original felicity, cannot receive any real benefit and utility from in Psal. 21. 4. the creature. Thou art my Lord, faith David, my goodness extendeth again, Dan. not to thee. And therefore our only and absolute Lord, because his good12.7. dis tõs ness extendeth unto us, and not ours to him, because his dominion is for αιώνας και έτι and mich. 4. our benefit, not for his own: for us who want, and therefore may receive; 5. cist al@ve not for himself who cannot receive, because he wanteth nothing, whose ho

mirese. nour standeth not in his own, but in our * receiving. Pfal. 16.2. 104 Ille nostra servitute non indiget, nos verò dominatione illius indigemus, ut operetur & custodiat nos: & ideo verus & folus est Dominus, qui non illi ad fuam sed ad noftram utilitatem falutémque servimus. Nam fi nobis indigeret eo ipso non verus Dominus effet, cùm per nos ejus adjuvaretur necessitas, fub qua & ipse serviret. S. Aug. de Gen. ad lit. l. 8.6.11. Dixi Domino, Deus meus es tu, quare ? quoniam bonorum non eges. Ille non eget noftri, nos egemus ipfius; ideo verus Dominus. Nam tu non valde verus Dominus servi tui; ambo homines, àmbo egentes Deo. Si verò putas egere tui fervum tuum, ut des panem, eges & tu fervi tui, ut adjuvet labores tuos. Uterque veftrum altero vestrum indi: get : itaque nullus veftrum verè dominus, & nullus veftrum verè fervus. Audi verum Dominum, cujus verus es fervus, Dixi Domino, Dens meus es tu: quare tui dominus ? quoniam bonorum meorum non eges. Id. ad Pfal.69. * Topelimoleky cévevdegs met og en ineive me97esvopisów lubőv indoxl). Hieročl. in Aurea Car. And again, "Osis toução t lòy as a god eópsov, šta déander oiópetua tautos Jeð elva speét?ova.

But though the universal Cause made all things for the benefit of some creatures framed by him, yet hath he made them ultimately for himself; and

God is as universally the final as the efficient cause of his operations. The e Rom. 11.36. Apostle hath taught us, that not only e of him, and by him, as the first 8.6. thor, but also f to him, and for him, as the ultimate end, are all things. 5 Prov. 16. 4. And 'tis one of the proverbial sentences of Solomon, The Lord hath made

all things for himself, yea even the wicked for the day of evil. For tho' he cannot receive any real benefit or utility from the creature, yet he can

and doth in a manner receive that which hath some similitude or affinity hPfal. 104.31. with it. Thus God h rejoiceth at the effects of his wisdom, power and

goodness, and taketh delight in the works of his hands. Thus doth he or* Hom. 14. pe' der and dispose of all things unto his own glory, which redoundeth from the 'Hucis on per demonstration of his Attributes. γάλοίο Διός 77e80 ópeedee An explicit belief of this authoritative power and absolute dominion of Bongo Os wa- the Almighty is necessary, first for the breeding in us an awful Reverence of

senzorom his Majesty, and entire subjection to his will. For to the highest excelcom cash.

lency the greatest honour, to the * fupreme authority the most exact obe 7 Eluor words dience is no more than duty. isi ze sce?e@u-dience is no more than auty.

If God be our absolute Lord, we his servants yeni res pópulQ and vassals, then is there a right in him to require of us whatsoever we can en zg dizais perform, and, an obligation upon us to perform whatsoever he command18 1 8 1

Inc eth. Whosoever doch otherwise, while he confesseth, denieth him; while ödewórns he acknowledgeth him with his tongue, he sets his hand against him. iWhy pro eos call ye me Lord, Lord, faith our Saviour, and do not the things which I qué.

e fay? ? Servius apud Secondly, This belief is also necessary to breed in us equanimity and paMenand. Luke 6. 46. tience in our sufferings, to prevent all murmuring, repining, and objecting


against the actions or determinations of God, as knowing that he, who is abiolute Lord, cannot abule his power; he, whole will is a law to us, cannot do any thing unwisely or unjustly. a Let the potsheard strive with a fai. ag. o. the potsheards of the earth : Shall the clay say to him that fashioneth it, What makest thou ? But let the man after God's own heart rather teach us humble and religious silence. b I was dumb, faith he, and opened not my prel 20.0 mouth, because thou didst it. When Shimei cast stones at him, and cursed him, let us learn to speak as he then spake : ? The Lord hath said unto e 2 Sam. 16. bim, Curse David: who shall then fay, Wherefore hast thou done 60 ? 19.

Thirdly, The belief of God's abfolute Dominion is yet farther necessary to make us truly and sufficiently sensible of the benefits we receive from him, so as by a right value and estimation of them to understand how far we stand obliged to hiin. No man can duly prize the blessings of Heaven, but he which acknowledgeth they might justly have been denied him ; nor can any be sufficiently thankful for them, except it be confessed that he ought him nothing who bestowed them.

But as the original word for Almighty is not put only for the Lord of Hofts; but often also for the Lord Shaddei : fo we must not restrain the signification to the power authoritative, but extend it also to that power which is properly operative and executive. In the title of the Lord of Sabaoth we understand the rule and dominion of God, by which he hath a right of governing all : in the name Shaddai we apprehend an infinite force and strength, by which he is able to work and perform all things. For whether we take this word in * composition, as signifying the AU-sufficient ; whosoever is able * So R. Soloto suppeditate all things to the fufficing all, must have an infinite power : mon will

have it. comor whether we deduce it from the f Root denoting vaftation or destruction ; pounded of u whosoever can destroy the being of all things, and reduce them unto no- the pronoun o thing, must have the same power which originally produced all things out

u inbna of nothing, and that is infinite. Howsoever, the first notion of Almighty 72 535 necessarily inferreth the second, and the infinity of God's Dominion speaketh because in God

there is sufhim infinitely * powerful in operation. Indeed in earthly. Dominions, the ficiency, that strength of the Governour is not in himself, but in those whom he governeth : is, sufficient and he is a powerful Prince whose Subjects are numerous. But the King power over of Kings hath in himself all power of execution, as well as right of domi- ture: from nion. Were all the force and strength of a Nation in tl rson of the whence the

Lxx. Ruth 1, King, as the authority is, obedience would not be arbitrary, nor could rebellion be successful : whereas experience teacherh us that the most puissant Job 21.15.6 Prince is compelled actually to submit, when the stronger part of his own 31.2. trans

"nate it ixords, people hath taken the boldness to put a force upon him. But we must not as Sym. Job" imagine that the Governour of the World ruleth only over them which are 22. 3. and Awilling to obey, or that any of his creatures may dispute his commands with ima

ith quila with

will him, Ezek. safety, or cast off his yoke with impunity. And if his dominion be uncon- 1. 24.** troulable, it is because his power is irresistible. For man is not more inclina- 1714 vasta

vit, deftruxit, ble to obey God than man, but God is more powerful to exact subjection, and perdidit: from to vindicate Rebellion. In respect of the infinity, and irresistibility of which whence itu active power we must acknowledge him Almighty; and fo, according to the destroyer;

and because the most vulgar acception, give the second explication of his † Omni- utter deftrupotency.

Etion requiequivalent to production, the Omnipotent, from whence the LXX. Job 8. 3. translate it ó ar du? Toshoots. And this Esymology rather than the former, seemed to be confirmed by the Prophet, Ifa. 13.6. Howlye, for the day of the Lord is at hand, Ninowa 70). It shall come as a destruction from the Almighty (destroyer). * Homer hath well joined these two. 1a. O'. 'weteenuétege Kegvidn, wu7€ separóvw. yu gj nueisid relis öri ativa o'x (714x7èv. Hoc nifi credainus, periclitatur ipsum noftræ fidei Canfessionis initium, qui nos in Deum Patrem Omnipotentem credere confitemur. Neque enim veraciter ob aliud vocatur Omnipotens, nisi quia quicquid vult potest, nec voluntate cujuspiam creaturæ voluntatis omnipotentis impeditur effectus. S. Aug. Enchir. c. 96.

reth power

* But

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* Article I. * But because this word Almighty is twice repeated in the Creed, once in Nisswe's this first Article, and again in the fixth, where Christ is represented sitting at Jeov talige

So the right hand of God the Father Almighty; and although in our English eg. Art. 6.xa-and the Latin the same word be expressed in both places, yet in the ancient de bouwoy co Greek Copies there is a manifest distinction; being the word in the first Arδεξια θεά

*2070-ticle may equally comprehend God's power in operation, as well as authoi uveux, as it rity in dominion; whereas that in the sixth speakerh only infinity of power, enta copy of without relation to authority or dominion : I shall therefore reserve the exthe Creed ta- plication of the latter unto its proper place, designing to treat particularly ken out of the of God's infinite power where it is most peculiarly expressed ; and fo conLibrary of Bennet Co- clude briefly with two other interpretations which some of the Ancients have lege, and set made of the original word, belonging rather to Philofophy than Divinity, forth by the Jarchives of though true in both. For + fome have stretched this word Almighty acArmagh." "cording to the Greek notation, to signifie that God holdeth, incircleth, and

As Theo containeth all things. a Who hath gathered the wind in his fifts; who philus Bishop of Antioch, hath bound the waters in a garment? who hath established all the ends giving account of the earth? who but God? Who hath measured the waters in the of those words oh.

ords hollow of his hand, and meted out heaven with the span, and compres which are attributed unto hended the dust of the earth in a measure? who but he? Thus then may God, as soon he be called Almighty, as holding, containing, and comprehending all xúero, ufo s@, tells us things. he is called *Others extend it farther yet, beyond that of containing or comprehenwur?oxectare sion, to a more immediate influence of sustaining or preservation. For the ότι αυτός τα

_v7ce reg.7c fame power which first gave Being unto all things, continuerh the fame Being se fue apertext: unto all. God giveth to all, life, and breath, and all things. In him we rod gS vet inte en mai live, move, and have our being, faith the strangest Philosopher that ever enBelstaf ábú - tred Athens, the first expositor of that blind Inscription, To the unknown God. car, esta wk- a How could any thing have endured, if it had not been thy will? or been preegla doiroevening is rñ ferved, if not called by thee? as the wisdom of the Jews confesseth. Thus xdeiaúrsis. did the Levites stand and bless: Thou, even thou, art Lord alone ; thou hast. Ad Antol.l.1. a Prov. 30.4. made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their hoft, the earth and all Ifai. 40. 12. things that are therein, the sea and all that is therein, and thou prefervest Nyfi. Ουκάν

Greeting them all. Where the continual conservation of the creature is in equal lati**v * 11217- tude attributed unto God with their first production. Because there is an xeqfwę parñs absolute necessity of preserving us from returning unto nothing by annihilacxśrwuk, rosa govori nation, as there was for first bestowing an existence on us by creation. And távce Gròn in this sense God is undoubtedly Almighty, in that he doth fustain, uphold, a tot eerder and constantly preserve all things in that being which they have. Cωέχων ; Neither says he, would God be termed wavloxect we si un wära sjxlícis Exx@g7o ūva authw, xe dlou owneow

@, édée7o. contra Eunom. l. 1. Creatoris Omnipotentia, & Omnipotentis atque omnitenentis virtus, est causa subsistendi omni Creaturæ. Quæ virtus ab eis quæ creata sunt regendis fi aliquando ceffaret, fimul & illoruin cefsaret species, omnisque natura concideret. S. Aug. in Genef. l. 4. c. 12. C Alts 17. 24. 28. d Wisd. II. 25. e Neh. 9. 6.

From whence we may at last declare what is couched under this Attribute of God, how far this Omnipotency extends it self, and what every Christian is thought to profess, when he addech this part of the first Article of his Creed, I believe in God the Father ALMIGHTY.

As I am persuaded of an infinite and independent Essence, which I term a God, and of the mystery of an eternal Generation by which that God is a Fa. ther: fo I assure my self that Father is not subject to infirmities of age, nor is there any weakness attending on the Ancient of days ; but, on the contrary, I believe Omnipotency to be an essential Attribute of his Deity, and that not only in respect of operative and active power (concerning which I shall have occafion to express my faith hereafter) but also in regard of power authoritative, in which I must acknowledge his antecedent and ecernal right of ma


king what, and when, and how he pleased, of possessing whatsoever he makech by direct dominion, of using and disposing as he pleaseth all things which he so possesseth. This dominion I believe most absolute in respect of its Independency, both in the Original, and the Use or Exercise thereof : this I acknowledge Infinite for amplitude or extension, as being a power over all things without exception; for plenitude or perfection, as being all power over every thing without limitation ; for continuance or duration, as being eternal without end os conclusion: Thus I believe in God the Father Almighty.

Maker of heaven and Earth.

A though this last part of the First Article were not expressed in the

A *àncient Creeds, yer the sense thereof was delivered in the first Rules + of Faith, and at last these particular words inserted both in the Greek and La- it not mena tin Confessions. And indeed the work of Creation most properly follow- tioned by s. eth the Attribute of Omnipo cy, as being the foundation of the first, and

ion of the fun and Augustine de

and Fide v Symthe demonstration of the fecond explication of it. As then we believe there bolo; neither is a God, and that God Almighty; as we acknowledge that same God to be hath Rufinus

expounded it the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in him of us : so we also confess in the Aqui that the fame God the Father made both heaven and earth. For the full leian, or noted

; it to be found explication of which operation, it will be sufficient, first, to declare th

llo in the Romani tude of the Object, what is comprehended under the terms of heaven and or Oriental earth; secondly, to express the nature of the action, the true notion of Creeds. Leo, Creation, by which they were made; and thirdly, to demonstrate the Per- three fir ft Ar: son to whom this operation is afcribed.

ticles in his

Epifle to Flavianus, maketh no mention of it. Epift. 1o. Maximus Taurinensis hath it not in Traditione symboli, nor Petrus Chryfologus in his Sermons, amongst fix feveral expofitions. It is not in the Homilies of Eusebius Gallicanus, or the exposition of Venantius Fortunatus. Marcellus Bishop of Ancyra left it not at Rome with Julius : Nor did Arius in bis Catholick Confesion unto Conftantine acknowledge it. Neither are the words to be found in the Latin or Greek Copy of the Creed written about the beginning of the eighth Century, and published out of the MSS. by the most Reverend and Learned Archbishop of Armagh; or in that which Etherius and Beatus produced against Elipandus Archbishop of Toledo, towards the end of the seventh Century. As in that delivered by Irenæus, Eis éva fior wallégee wavloxescom Topa, i Tetornxóta megzavoy saj se ylw xi tos fondosas, xy wavla ta e autois. Adver. Har. 1. 1. c. 2. And that by Tertul. Unum omnino Deum effe, nec alium præter mundi conditorem, qui universa de nihilo produxerit. De præfcr. adv. Har. f. 13. And that under the Name of Novatian, not in formal words, but with an (id est, by way of explication. Regula exigit veritatis ut primo omnium credamus in Deum Patrem & Dominum Omnipotentein, id eft, rerum omnium perfectissimum conditorem, qui cælum alta sublimitate fufpenderit, terram dejecta mole folidavit, maria soluto liquore diffudit, & hæc omnia propriis & condignis inftrumentis & ornata & plena digessit. De Trin. c. I. It was also observed by Origen, that the Christians were wont most frequently to mention God under that as the most common title. "Hg8 coelsus opodoyści tò, xoshy öropat, ó Oids, ko negatisn5, odmurdayos o amorwy, ó Wolnlns scurš x vs. Adv. Celsum.l. 1. Eusebius deliver'd the first Article thus in his Confession to the Nicene Council: Ilısotonik dhe ëvce Jedy w cléga Wayloxec70.94, ý der vw óeg Tov TE xj úoogtav mom li. and that Council expressed the same without alteration in their Creed. But after the Nicene Council we find added 701 seavõreras, by S. Cyril of Jerusalem, in his Catechism, and Epiphanius in Ancorato: which addition was received, confirmed and transmitted to us by the Council of Conftantinople. By which means at last we find this Article thus expressed in the Western Confessions, Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem, creatorein cæli & terræ.

For the first, I suppose it cannot be denied as the sense of the Creed, that under the terms of heaven and earth are comprehended all things; because the first Rules of Faith did so express it, and the most ancient Creeds had either instead of these words, or together with them, the maker of all things visible and invisible, which being terms of immediate contradiction, mult consequently be of universal comprehension; nor is there any thing imaginable which is not visible, or invisible. Being then these were the words of the Nicene Creed; being the addition of heaven and earth in the Constantinopolitan could be no diminution to the former, which they fill retained together with them, saying, I believe in one God the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible; it followeth, that they which in the Latin Church made use only of this last addition, could not choose but take it in the full latitude of the first expression.



And well may this be taken as the undoubted sense of the Creed, because Exod. 31:17. it is the known language of the sacred Scriptures. In fix days, faith Mofes, Exod. 20. II. the Lord made heaven and earth: in the same time, faith God himself, the

Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is. So that all

by those two must be understood which are contained in them: and we know no Being which is made or placed without them. When God would

call a general rendezvous, and make up an universal Auditory, the Prophet Isa. 1..2. crys out, Hear, o heavens, and give ear, O earth. When he would ex

press the full fplendour of his Majesty, and utmost extent of his actual do1/2i.66.1. minion, Thus faith the Lord, the heaven is my throne, and the earth is my

footstool. When he would challenge unto himlelf thole glorious : Jer. 23. 24. of immensity and Omnipresence, Do not I fill heaven and earth? faith

the Lord. These two then taken together signifie the Univerle, or that

which is called the World. S. Paul hath given a clear exposition of these Afts 17. 24. words in his explication of the Athenian Altar ; God that made the world

and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwels leth not in Temples made with hands. For being God is necessarily the Lord of all things which he made, (the right of his direct Dominion being clearly grounded upon the first Creation) except we should conceive the Apostle to exempt fome Creature from the authoritative Power of God, and so take some work out of his Hand out of the reach of his Arm; we must confess that heaven and earth are of as large extent and ample signification as the world and all things therein. Where it is yet farther observable, that the Apostle hạth conjoyned the speech of both Testaments together. For the ancient Hebrews seem to have had no word in use among them which singly of it self did signifie the world, as the Greeks had, in whose language

S. Paul did speak; and therefore they used in conjunction the heaven and * Kancs i earth, as the * grand extremities within which all things are contained. z éves gedov

" Nay, if we take the exposition of the later Writers in that language, those tois exeges, &-two words will not only as extremities comprehend between them, but in se on best in the extension of their own significations contain all things in them. ta mboa Cuneo

For betes Aziv ce when they divide the universe into † three worlds, the inferiour, superiour, souzeza. ws and the middle world; the lower is wholly contained in the name of earth, Qoxese onni; ori ana e vo' the other two under the name of heaven. Nor do the Hebrews only use xév egy marios this manner of expression, but even the Greeks theinfelves, and that not sedamot only before, but after * Pythagoras had accustomed them to one name. zu denn wár- As therefore under the single name of t World or Universe, so also under the twy i ra, wé- conjunctive expression of heaven and earth, are contained all things mategees ä touto a brev mee wer-rial and immaterial, visible and invisible. xwe ougatrós Tõutudov cvw@ev, cez xa pe o scavàs, wieges ģ wody?wy nrñ' het z &vă rog pe rñs te dosta teia mendenza ) sargeir. 30. Philop. de mendi Creat. J. I. c. 5. Tạ PT &agrit P.671 (cores) m Tiep T8 4 Tok & Magi, T say m xovegy. cy Coaugą órias ů to xéviegu áęzł, całog 3 mert movie oza. Hierocl. in Aur. Carm. For the Rabbins usually divide the whole frame of things into minbiy wyw three worlds: the first, porno baby the inferiour, or so wi by the depressed and lowest world; by : 71 117 that is this world, say they, uit, this globe of earth on which we live. This they divide into three parts; o the sea, lakes and rivers, 1299 the desart, Solitatary and uninhabitable places, 211017 pin far from the habitations of men, and given F oixiga Ww, the earth inha

The Jecond is called

this is the world of the הוא עולם הגלגלים ;the middle or inmolt world עולם התיבון

spheres, containing the aërial Region, and the starry heavens, The third is, mbyn abiy the superiour world ; 110

.the fpiritual world עולם הרוחני ,of Souls נפשות ,of God אלהים ,this the world of Angels עולם המלאכים

Now being these three comprehend all things imaginable ; being the first is sufficiently expressed in in the earth, and the two last in o n the heaven; it followeth that, in the sense of the Hebrews, heaven and earth signifie all things. * Els talls campescuri, kis ésir feos, os s@gvòv tétouye se yoncev u crocév. * Ilubyógas wpūta avónars en onwy radioil), xóquov, in all c ate rázews. Plut. de Plac. Philofoph. 1. 2. c. 1. † Si Mundum dixeris, illic erit & cælum, & quæ in eo sol, & luna, & fidera, & aftra, & terra, & freta, & omnis census elementorum. Omnia dixeris, cùm id dixeris quòd ex omnibus conftat. Tertul. de Virg. Veland. c.4. Dadi ä oi Copoi spavor sehr w x 988's soveeπες - κοινωνίας Cωέχειν, και φιλίας, και κοσμιότητα, και Ζωφροσώω, και δικαιοσώλω" και το όλον τοτο οΙ τώτα κόσμον maasowy, lambl. Protrept. but the words are Plato's in Gorgia.


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