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speaks of them as of such as fhall be destroyed, and perislı, and die ; therefore they will give that comfort to them here, that though their life in which they sin be short, yet the time in which they are to be tormented for their fins shall be thorter far. They tell us where the Scripture meucioneth destruction in Hell, it speaks of perdition, but no torment there. In this sense will they understand those words of Christ, (so full of terror in the true, so full of comfort to the wicked, in their exposition) * Fear * Mat. 10,28. Hot them which kill the Body, but are not able to kill the Soul; but ra- thei 10.28. ther fear him which is able to destroy both Soul and Body in Hell. If this perditionem place speak, as those men would have it, of perdition only, not of crucia-tantùm anition, then will it follow that God is not able to cruciate and torment a Man na, non cruin Hell; for there can be no other reason why it must be spoken of perdition ciatum. Smalonly, excluding cruciation, but because he is able to annihilate, not to cru- Meisnerum. ciare. No, certainly a Man may be said to be destroyed, and perilh, to Igni æterno be lost and dead, who is rejected, separated and disjoined from God the ber- illi Chrifti ter and the nobler life of Man; and that Perfon so denominated may still quidem funt consist, and be what in his own nature he was before, and live the life which Diabolus & doth consist in the vital union of his Soul and Body, and so fubsisting under-Angelit ejus go the wrath of God for ever. Nor shall any Language, Phrases or Expres- quorum nolions give any comfort to the wicked, or strength to this opinion, if the mine ifti quosame Scriptures, which say the wicked shall be destroyed, and perish, and
nentur) cuin die, say also that they shall be tormented with never dying pains, as they impiis cruciaplainly and frequently do.
Depart from me, ye cursed, shall the Judge eternal say to all the repro- Crell. Com. in bate, * Into everlasting fire; and left any should imagine that the fire hall Cor. c. 15. be eternal, but the torments not ; it followeth, and these shall go away in- 46. Iren: 1.4. to everlasting punishment, but the righteous into life eternal. Now, if the c.47. Quibuffire be everlasting by which God punilheth the reprobates, if the punishment Cunque enim inflicted be also everlasting, then must the reprobates everlastingly subsist to nus, Discedite endure that punishment, otherwise there would be a punishment inflicted and à me maledicti none endured, which is a contradiction. Now the life eternal
, iiti ebe affirmed to have an end, as the everlasting punishment, because they are runt femper both delivered in the t fame expression.
que dixerit, Verite benedi£ti Patris mei, hi semper percipiunt regnum, & in eo proficiunt semper. t Και απελούσαν και ετοι ως κόλασιν αιώνιον, οι 3 δίκαιοι ας ζωω αιώνιον. Matth. 24. 46. Antiquus ille persuasor in membris fuis, id est, in mentibus iniquorum futuras pænas quafi certo fine determinat, ut eorum corruptiones extendat, & eo magis hic peccata non finiant, qui istic affirmant peccatorum supplicia finienda. Sunt enim nunc etiam qui idcirco peccatis fuis ponere finem negligunt, quia habere quandoque finem futura super se judicia fufpicantur. Quibus breviter respondemus, fi quandoque finienda funt supplicia reproborum, quandoque finienda funt & gaudia beatorum : per semetipfam enim veritas dicit, ibunt hi in supplicium æternum, jufti autem in vitam æternam. Si igitur hoc verum non eft quod minatus eft, neque eft illud verum quod promisit. S. Gregor. Moral. lib. 34. cap. II.
Gregor. Moral. lib. 34. cap. II. Affirmamus te (Anima) manere post vitæ dispunctionem, & expectare diem
Judicii, proque meritis, aut cruciatibus deftinari, aut refrigerio utroque fempiterno. Tertull. de Teftim. Anime. Deus itaque judicabit pleniùs, quia extremiùs, per fententiam æternam tam supplicii quam refrigerii. Tertull
. de Anima, cap. 33. Qui producto ævo isto judicaturus fit fuos cultores in vitæ æternæ retributionem ; profanos in ignem æque perpetem & jugem, suscitatis omnibus ab initio defunctis ad utriufque meriti dispunctionem. spol. c. 18.
buntur, & ita delebuntur.
Indeed the eternity of that fire prepared for the Devil and his Angels is a fufficient demonstration of the eternity of such as fuffer in it, and the question only can be what that eternity doch signifie. For, because so the things are called in the Scriptures eternal which have but a limited or determined duration, therefore some may imagine the fire of Hell to be in that sense eternal, as lasting to the time appointed by God for the duration of it. But as the fire is termed eternal," fo that eternity is described as absolute, cxcluding all limits, prescinding from all determinations. The end of the burning of fire is by extinguishing, and that which cannot be extin
guished can never end: But such is the fire which thall torment the
reproMat. 3. 12. bare; for he, whose fan is in his hand, shall burn up the chaff with unLuke 3. 17. quenchable fire; and hath taught us before, that it is better to enter into Mar. 18. 2. life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast
into everlasting, fire, to go into hell, into the fire that never hall be quenched; and hath farther yet explained himself by that unquestionable ad
dition, and undeniable description of the place of torments, Where the * Tertull, de worm dieth not, * and the fire is not quenched. And that we may yet be Pænitentiâ. further assured that this fire shall be never extinguished, we read that the b filmi hermaid
. smoak of their torment ascendeth up for ever and evert, and that those rum ignis re- which are b cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, shall be tormented day terni æftima- and night for ever and ever; which expression of day and night is the mus, quum fame with that which declared the eternal happiness in the Heavens, where quædam ejus they reft not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy : Where they are tales flamma: before the throne of God, and serve him day and night in his temple. If
then the fire in which the reprobates are to be tormented, be everlasting, proximæ ur- if so absolutely everlasting that it shall never be quenched, if so certainly bes aut jain
never to be quenched that the smoak thereof shall ascend for ever and ever, nullæ extent, aut idem fibi if those which are cast into it shall be tormented for ever and ever (all de die fpei which the Scriptures expressly teach) then Ihall the wicked never be fo conunt superbif
fumed as to be annihilated, but shall subsist for ever, and be co-eternal to fini montes the tormenting flames. And so this Language of the Scriptures proves not letus fætur, & only an effect eternal, as annihilation may be conceived, but an eternal ef quod nobis ficient never ceasing to produce the same effect, which cannot be annihilajudicii perpe- tion, but cruciation only. And therefore the fire which consumed Sodom bat, cùm dic and Gomorrha, bears no proportion with the flames of Hell: because all filiant, cùm men know that fire is extinguished, nor doth the smoak thereof ascend devorentur, for ever and ever. nunquam ta
+ Εις αιώνα 3 αιώνων αυτον αναβαίνειν λέγε, ίνα μάθωμεν ατελεύτηλον είναι ? κόλασις if yagiwär, maris dixaiw toupl sidlov. Andreas Cafar. ad locum.
Rev. 4. 8.7.15.
a Rev. 14. 11.
6 Rev. 20. 10.
ROV. 2. II.
Neither doth this only prove the eternity of infernal pains, but clearly refute the only material argument brought against it, which is laid
upon this ground, that the wicked after the resurrection shall be punished with death, and that a second death; and so they shall be no more, nor can in any sense be said to live or subsist. For, the enduring of this fire is that very death, and they are therefore said to die the second death because they endure eternal torments. He that overcometh, shall not be hurt by the second death; it seems that they which shall die that death shall be hurt by it ; whereas if it were annihilation, and so a conclusion of their torments, it would be no way hurtful or injurious, but highly beneficial to them. But the living torments are the second death. For death and bell were cast into the lake of fire, that is the second death. Whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire, this is the second death. The Jews before our Saviour's time believed there was a second death, and
though it were not expressed in the oracles themselves which were cominit* The Chaldee Paraphrase
ted to them, yet in the received * exposition of them it was often meņtionmaketh often ed, and that as the punishment of the wicked in the life to come and mention of it, as Deut.33.6. Let Reuben live and not die, he expounded thus, : 57 NN NIDI NDY 972 2107 IT, Let Reuben live in the life of the world, and not die the second death. So the Targum of Onkelos. The Jerusalem Targ. more expremy, live world, and let him not die the second death, which the wicked die' in the world to come. So ifa. 22. 14. Surely
, , and 65.6. I will not keep silence but will recompence, even recompènce into eir Bosom, mu
I will not give them an end .להן ארכא בחייא אלהן אשלס להין פורענות הובהין ואמסור למותא תנינאית גויתין :
:) . I in this life, but will recompence them with vengeance for their sins, and deliver their bodies to the second death. From these and the like places it appeareth, that the Jews believed that the wicked after death should be delivered to a second death; that this death should be in the world to come; that they should by this death be punished for their
fins. And S. Jolin revealed that this punishment shall be by everlasting burnings : Kas Fávcelou ģ siccitas dúo o de op Caρκος πρόσκαιρΘ-. ο 3 δι αμαρτημάτων έκλισιν επαγόμδυον ώ το μέλλονή αιώνιο», όπερ έσιν ή τα συρος γίεννα. Andreas Caesar. in Apocal.
what this punishment shall be, was in these words revealed to St. John. Rev. 21. 8. But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murtherers, and whoremongers, and forcerers, and idolaters, and all lyars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the second death. Now if the part in the lake be the second death, if that
part be a perpetual permansion in torment, as before it is proved, then to say that the wicked shall die the second death is not a confutation of their eternal being in misery, but an assertion of it, because it is the same thing with everlasting torments, but delivered in other terms.
And if the pretence of death will not prove an annihilation, or infer a conclusion of torment, much less will the bare phrases of perdition and destruction ; for we may as well conclude that whosoever says he is * undone, * "Os deman
Perii. intends thereby that he shall be no more : Beside, the eternity of destruction in the language of the Scripture signifies a perpetual perpession, and duration in misery. For when Christ shall come to take vengeance on them that know 2 Thess. 1.8,9! not God, and obey noi the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, they shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power. Wherefore I conclude, that the wicked Thall rise to everlasting punishment, continuing both in the Soul and Body under the wrath of God and the torments proceeding from it, never to be quitted of them by annihilation; which is our first assertion, against the covert + Do- I call it.com
vert, because &trine of the Socinians.
it was at first
closely delivered by Socinus, and some of his brethren did profess themselves to be scandalized at it, though he thought he had so delivered it that it should sooner be believed by his writings than perceived by them, as appeareth out of his foxth Epistle to Volkelius, who was offended at this Doctrine, and seems never to have assented to it. Quod ais ea in disputatione mea cum Puccio, tum de Chriftianorum resurrectione, tum de morte impiorum pallim contineri, quæ à multis fine magna offenfione, tum noftris tum alienis, legi non possint; scio equidein ista ibi contineri, sed meo judicio, non passim nec ita apertè (cavi enim iftud quantùm potui) ut quisquam vir pius facilè offendi possit ; adeo ut quod nominatim attinet ad impiorum mortem, in quo dogmate majus est multò offensionis periculum, ea potiùs ex iis colligi possit quæ ibi disputantur, quàm expreflè literis consignata extet; adeo ut Lector, qui alioqui fententiam meam adversus Puccium de mortalitate primi hominis, quæ toto libro agitatur, quæque ob non paucos quos habet fautores, parum aut nihil offenfionis parere poteft, probandum censeat, priùs censeat doctrinam iftam fibi jam persuasam effe quàm fuaderi animadvertat. Against this, Germanus Patriarch of Conftantinople in his defence of Gregory Nyssen, Shewed from the words of Christ, the Apostles, Prophets, and the Fathers, wareg chavcov Todo doxaban dévexroanlov drawer, stw xj Ti do peces por não útensúrntów te rj drutósclov xórdois. Photius, Cod. 233.
The second assertion teacherh us, That as the reprobates shall never fail to endure the torments due unto their fins, so the justice of God will never fail to inflict those torments for their fins. They shall never live to pay the uttermost farthing, they shall never come to the days of refreshment who are cast into perpetual burnings. One part of their misery is the horror of despair, and it were not perfect Hell if any hope could lodge in it. The favour of God is not to be obtained where there is no means left to obtain it; but in the world to come there is no place for Faith, nor yirtue in Repentance. If there be now such a vast distance between the tormenting flames and Abraham's bofom, that none could pass from one to the other, what impossibility must there be when the final Sentence is paft upon all ? As certainly as no person once received into the heavenly mansions shall ever be cast into outer darkness, fo certainly none which is once cast into the fire prepared for the Devil and his Angels shall ever enter into their Master's joy. “ As the tree fal
lech so it lieth: There is no change to be wrought in Man within those flames, no purgation of his fiu, no fanctification of his nature, no justification of his person, and therefore no falvation of him. Without the mediation of Christ no Man shall ever enter into Heaven, and when he hath delivered up
the kingdom to God, even the Father, then Mall the office of the Mediator cease.
So groundless was the opinion of Origen, who conceived that after some number of years the damned Thould be released from their torments, and made partakers of the joys of heaven, or at least try their fortunes in such regions of the world as he conceived should be reserved for their Habitation. For he may as well imagine that Christ Thall be born and die again, (who being risen, dieth not,) as that any person being condemned to the flames for contemning of his death, should ever come to live again, and by believing in the death of Christ to be after saved. For certainly their condition is unalterable, their condemnation is irreversible, their torments inevitable, their miseries eternal. As they fhall not be taken from their
punishment by annihilation of themselves, which is our first; So the punishment shall not be taken off them by any compassion upon them, which is our second assertion.
To conclude this branch of the Article, I conceive these certain and infallible Doctrines in Christianity: That the wicked after this life shall be punished for their fins, so that in their punishment there shall be a demonftration of the justice of God revealed against all unrighteousness of men. That to this end they fhall be raised again to life, and thall be judged and condemned by Christ, and delivered up under the curse, to be tormented with the Devil and his Angels. That the punishment which shall be inflicted on them shall be proportionate to their fins, as a recompence of their demerits, so that no Man Thall fuffer more than he hath deserved. That they shall be tormented with a pain of loss, the loss from God, from whose presence they are cast out, the pain from themselves, in a despair of enjoying him, and regret for losing him. That they farther shall be tormented with the pain of sense inflicted on them by the wrath of God which abideth
upon them, represented uuto us by a lake of fire. That their Persons shall continue for ever in this remediless condition, under an everlasting pain of loss, because there is no hope of Heaven, under an eternal pain of sense, because there is no means to appease the wrath of God which abideth on them. Thus the Athanafian Creed, They that have done good shall go into life everlasting, and they that bave done evil into everlasting fire.
The next relation of this Article to the former is in reference to the * Eam quippe resurrection of the just; and then the life everlasting is not to be taken in vitam æter
a vulgar and ordinary sense, but railed to the constant language of the nam dicimus, ubi en finc Scriptures, in which it signifieth all which God hath promised, which fine felicitas. Christ hath purchased, and with which Man shall be rewarded in the world Nam fi ani
to come. ma in pænis vivit æternis, quibus & ipfi fpiritus cruciabuntur immundi, mors illa potiùs æterna dicenda eft, quàm vita. Nulla quippe major & pejor eft mors quàm ubi non moritur mors. S. Aug. de Civit. Dei l. 6. C. 12. Quia vita eterna ab his qui familiaritatem non habent cum Scripturis sanctis poteft accipi etiam pro malorum vita ; vel fecundùm quosdam etiam Philofophos, propter animæ immortalitatem ; vel etiam fecundùm fidem noftram, propter pænas interminabiles impiorum, qui utique in æternum cruciari non poterunt nifi etiam vixerint in æternum; profe&ò finis Civitatis hujus, in quo summum habebit bonum, vel pax in vita æterna, vel vita æterna in pace dicendus eft, ut faciliùs ab omnibus poffit intelligi. Idem. I. 19. 6. II.
Now this life eternal may be looked upon under three confiderations ; as initial, as partial, and as perfectional. 'I call that eternal Life Initial
which is obtained in this life, and is as it were an earnest of that which is to follow: of which our Saviour fpake, He that heareth my word, and believ- John 5. 24. eth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and Mall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto life. I call that partial, which belongeth, though to the nobler, yet but a part of Man, that is, the Soul of the just separated from the Body. I dispute not whether the joys be partial as to the Soul, I am sure they are but partial as to the Man. For that life consisteth in the happiness which is conferred on the Soul departed in the fear, and admitted to the presence of God. St. Paul had a desire to depart phil. I. 23. and to be with Christ; he was willing rather to travel and be absent from the body, and to be present and at home with the Lord. And certainly 2 Cor. 8. where St. Paul desired to be when he departed, there he then was, and there now is, and that not alone, but with all them which ever departed in the same Faith with him, and that is with Christ who sitteth at the right hand of God. This happiness which the Saints enjoy between the hour of their death and the last day, is the partial Life eternal
. Thirdly, I call that perfe&tional, which shall be conferred upon the Elect immediately after the Blessing pronounced by Christ, Come, ye blessed children of my father, receive the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.
This eternal life is to be considered in the possession, and in the duration ; in the first, as it is life; in the second, as it is eternal. Now this Life is not only natural, that is, the union of the Soul to the Body, which is the Life of . Duæ vitæ the Reprobate; but spiritual, which consisteth in the * Union of the Soul to funt, una corGod, as our Saviour speaks, | He that hath the fon hath life, and he that poris, altera hath not the fon hath not life. And it is called after an especial manner Life, vita corporis because of the † Happiness which attendeth it : And therefore to understand anima,ita vita that Life is to know, so far as it is revealed, in what that happiness doth animæ Deus:
Quo modo fi confift.
rat, moritur corpus ; fic anima moritur, fi deserat Deus. S. Auguß. in Pfal. 70. to John 5, 12.
# For Life is taken for Happiness, and to live for being happy. As among the Greeks and Latines zu and Vivere were taken for living a chearful and merry Life, as Vivamus, mea Lesbia, in Catullus ; and in Martial,
Sera nimis vita est craftina, vive hodie.
And as it is an old Inscription, AMICI DUM VIVIMUS VIVAMUS, and in the convival wish, Záchras; mentioned by Dio in the Life of Commodus : so in the language of the Scriptures, and a religious notion, they signifie an happy and a blessed Life : as I Sam. 10. 24. ,75227 m Let the King live, is translated by the Chaldee Paraphrast
, bonbyt Let the King prosper. And when David sent unto Nabal, he said, Thus shall ye say to him that live eth in prosperity, which is in the Original nothing but .05 So the Pfalmift is to be understood, Pf. 69. 32. The humble shall see this and be glad, and your heart ihall live that seek God.' And S. Paul, 1 Thej 3. 8. Ti ve Süpefu, fav vpéis saxele á Kveiw. Thus Life of it self is often taken in the Scriptures for a happy and glorious Life, even ihas which is eternal, as S. Austin observeth upon these words of the 119th Pfalm, Veniant mihi miserationes tue e vivam : Tunc enim verè vivam, quando nihil potero tiinere ne moriar. Ipfa enim & fine ullo additamento dicitur Vita, nes intelligitur nisi æterna & beata, tanquam fola dicenda fit vita, in cujus comparatione ista quam ducimus, mors potiùs fit appellanda quàm vita; quale illud eft in Evangelio, si vis venire ad vitam, serva mandata. Nunquid addie dit, æternam vel beatam ? Item de resurrectione carnis cùm loqueretur, qui bene fecerunt, inquit, in resurrectione m vitæ ; neque hic ait, æternæ vel beatæ. Sic & hic, Veniant, inquit, mihi miserationes tua, e vivam: Neque hic ait, in æternum vivam, vel beatè vivam; quasi aliud non fit vivere quàin sine ullo fine, & sine ulla miseria vivere : Thus S. Austin. And again, Enchir. ad Laurent. 6.92. Non est vera vita, nisi ubi feliciter vivitur, nec vera incore ruptio, nisi ubi salus nullo dolore corrumpitur.
To begin with that which is most intelligible; the Bodies of the Saints after the Resurrection, Ihall be transformed into spiritual and incorruptible Bodies. The flesh is fown in corruption, raised in incorruption; sown in dishonour, 1 Cor. 15.42, raised in glory; fown in weakness, raised in power; sown a natural body, 43, 44. raised a spiritual body. This perfective alteration shall be made by the Son of God, who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto Phil. 3. 21. his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself. Thus when we come into that other World, the World of Spirits, even our Bodies shall be spiritual.