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believe that Man shall suffer in another Life such torments as will be proportionable to his demerits? Nor can we with reason think that the Soul alone shall undergo those sufferings, because the Laws which were given to us are
not made in respect of that alone, but have most frequent reflection on the * Quod con- Body, * without which in this Life the Soul can neither do nor suffer any hoc compeiit thing. It is therefore highly probable from the general consideration of huetiam refufci- man Actions and divine Řetributions, that there thall be a t Resurrection of tari.Tertullian the flesh, that every one may receive the things done in his body, according ne carnis,c.14. to that he hath done whether it be good or bad. Negent ope. raruin focietatem ut meritò possint mercedem negare. Non fit particeps in sententia caro fi non fuerit & in causa. Sola anima revocetur, fi fola decedit. At enim non magis fola decedit quàm fola decucurrit illud unde decedit, vitam hanc dico. ibid. c. 15. Cùm omnis vitæ noftræ usus in corporis animæque confortio fit, resurrectio autem aut boni actùs præmium habeat aut pænam improbi, neceffe eft corpus resurgere cujus actus expenditur. Quomodo cnim in judicium vocabitur fine corpore, cùm de suo & corporis contubernio ratio præstanda fit ? S. Amb. de fide Ref •2 Cor. 5. 10.
in noctem &
Furthermore; Beside the Principles of which we consist, and the actions which flow from us, the confideration of the things without us, and the natural course of variations in the Creature, will render the Resurrection yet more highly probable. Every space of twenty four hours teacheth
thus much, in which there is always a Revolution amounting to a Re+ Kxe7avóncov şi furrection. The † Day dies into Night, and is buried in silence and in De execução egy darkness; in the next Morning it appeareth again and reviveth, opening meningar in the grave of darkness
, rising from the dead of Night: This is a diurnal wūs se cuire Resurrection. As the Day dies into the Night, so doth the Summer into Federal Winter ; the fap is said to descend into the root, and there it lies buried in Antioch. ad the Ground; the Earth is covered with Snow, or crusted with Frost, and beAutol. l. 1.
comes a general Sepulchre: When the Spring appeareth, all begin to rises Dies moritur the Plants and Flowers peep out of their Graves, revive and grow,
and floutenebris usque rish : This is the annual Resurrection. The Corn by which we live, and quaque fepe-for want of which we perish with Famine, is notwithstanding cast upon the tur mundi ho-Earth and buried in the Ground, with a design that it may corrupt, and nor, omnis
being corrupted may revive and multiply ; our Bodies are fed with this confubftantia de Itant experiment, and we continue this present Life by succession of Refurdent, filent, rections. Thus all things are repaired by corrupting, are preserved by pefupent, cun- rishing, and revive by dying ; and can we * think that Man, the Lord of all justitium est
these things, which thus die and revive for him, should be detained in death quies rerum : as never to live again? Is it imaginable that God should thus restore all ita lux amista
things to Man, and not restore Man to himself? If there were no other lugetur : Et tamen rurfus conlideration, but of the principles of humane Nature, of the liberty and cum suo cultu, cum dote, cum sole, eadem & integra & tota universo orbi reviviscit, interficiens mortem suam noctem, rescindens sepulturam suam tenebras, hæres fibimet existens, donec & nox reviviscat, cum suo & illa suggestu. . Acccenduntur enim & ftellarum radii, quos matutina fuccenfio extinxerat. Reducuntur & siderum abfentiæ, quas temporalis distinctio exemerat. Redornatur & specula Lunæ quæ menftruus numerus adtriverat. Tertul. de Resur, carn.c. 12. Lux quotidie interfecta resplendet, & tenebræ pari vice decedendo succedunt, fidera defuncta vivescunt. tempora ubi finiuntur incipiunt, fructus consummantur & redeunt. Idem Apol. c. 48. Auód in huéege xj vexção alveolóxeta i restor κοιμισμόν αιτούης, ανατέλλά η ημέρα ήμάς διϋπνίζεσα και αναςάσεως υποδεικνύεσα Cημον. Ερiphan. in Ancorato. * Omnia pereundo servantur, omnia de interitu reformantur. Tu homo, tantum nomen, si intelligas te vel de titulo Pythiæ discens, dominus omnium morientium & resurgentium, ad hoc morieris ut pereas ? Tertull. Apol. 6.48. Revolventur hyemes & æftates, & verna aut autumna cum fuis viribus, moribus, fructibus. Quippe etiam terræ de cælo disciplina est arbores vestire poft spolia, flores denuo colorare, herbas rursus imponere, exhibere eadem quæ absumpta sunt semina, nec prius exhibere quàm absumpta : Mira ratio de fraudatrice servatrix, ut reddat intercipit, ut cuftodiat perdit, ut integret vitiat, ut etiam ampliet prids decoquit. Siquidem uberiora & cultiora reftituit, quàm exterminavit : Revera fænore interitu, & injuria usura & lucro damno : Semel dixerim, universa conditio recidiva eft. Quodcunque conveneris fuit, quodcunque amiseris, nihil non iterum eft: Omnia in ftatum redeunt cùm abcefferint; omnia incipiunt cum desierint : Ideo finiuntur ut fiant, nihil deperit nifi in falutem. Totus igitur hic ordo revolubilis rerum testatio est resurrectionis mortuorum. Operibus eam præscripsit Deus antequam literis, viribus prædicavit antequam vocibus. Præmifit tibi naturam magistram, fubmissurus & Prophetiam, quò faciliùs credas prophetiæ discipulus naturæ; quò statim adınittas cùm audieris, quod ubique jam videris, nec dubites Deum carnis etiam resuscitatorem, quem omnium noris reftitutorem. Et utique omnia homini resurgunt cui procurata sunt: porro non homini nisi & carni, quale est ut ipsa depereat in totum propter quam & cui nihil deperit. Idem de Refur. carn. cap. 12.
fémunerability of humane actions, and of the natural revolutions and resurrections of other Creatures, it were abundantly fufficient to render the resurrection of our Bodies highly probable.
We must not rest in this School of Nature, nor settle our persuasions upon likelyhoods ; but as we passed from an apparent possibility, unto a high presumption and probability, so must we pals from thence unto a full assurance of an infallible certainty. And of this indeed we cannot be assured but by the revelation of the will of God ; upon his power we must conclude that we may, from his will that we shall, rise from the dead. Now the God is known unto all men, and therefore all men may infer from thence a possibility; but the will of God is not revealed unto all men, and therefore all have not an infallible certainty of the resurrection. For the grounding of which assurance, I shall thew that God hath revealed the determination of his will to raise the dead, and that he hath not only delivered that intention in his word, but hath also several ways confirmed the fame.
Many of the places produced out of the Old Testament to this purpose will scarce amount to a revelation of this truth. The Jews insist upon luch * weak inferences out of the Law, as thew that the resurrection was not clearly delivered by Moses; and in the Book of Job, where it is most evident- * They pro-, ly expressed they acknowledge it not, because they will not understand the places on: of true notion of a Redeemer properly belonging to Christ
. The words of Job Moses, which are very express, • I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand upin tion is at the latter day upon the earth, and though after my skin worms destroy believed may this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God. Against the evidence of this truth in some kind there are two interpretations; one very new of fome late Opinionists, who firase it
, but understand this of a sudden restitution to his former temporal condition ; the can in no deother more ancient of the Jews, who make him speak of the happiness of bought to reanother life, without any reference to a resurrection. But that Job Ipake not vealso great concerning any sudden restitution, or any alteration of his temporal condi- a mystery. As tion, is apparent out of the remarkable Preface ushering in this Expression, formation of O that my words were now written, Othat they were printed in a book! man Moses u. That they were graven with an iron pen and lead, in the rock for ever ! Lesh the word He desires that his words may continue as his expectation, that they may re- two jods, and main in the rock, together with his hope so long as the rock shall endure, in the formaeven to the day of his resurrection. The fame appeareth from the objection you with but of his Friends, who urged against him that he was a sinner, and concluded one; therefrom thence that he should never rise again ; for his sins he pleaded a Re- are made but deemer, and † for his resurrection he sheweth expectation and assurance through once, but the same Redeemer. It is further confirmed by the expressions themselves, Man twist; which are no way proper for his temporal restitution: The first words, * I al
generation, so know, denote a certainty, and community, whereas the blessings of this and again in life are under no such certainty, nor did Job pretend to it, and the par- ftion. They ticular condition of Job admitted no community, there being none parta- strangely apker with him of the fame calamity; I know certainly and infallibly, whatso-prekend agroever shall become of my Body at this time, which I know not, but this I mieler metros know that I shall rise ; this is the hope of all which believe in God, and even in the
malediction. therefore this I also know. The title which he gives to him on whom he de
Duft thou art, pends, the † Redeemer, sheweth that he understands it of Christ; the time and to duit turn ; JUN NA DN NS 750 it is not thou shalt go to the dust, but thou shalt return. As if he had said, tho: art now disft wh:le thou livejt, and after death thou shalt return into this duft, that is, thou fvalt live again as now,
So from those words, Exod. 15.1. JUNT IN they conclude the refurrection upon this ground, you queen IDN it is not said, he sang, but he lhall fing, viz. after the resurrection in the life to come. With these and the like arguments did the Rabbins satisfie themselves ; zwhich was the reason that they gave so small satisfaction to the Sadduces; while they omitted that pregnant place in Job. a Fob 19.25,26. | This place is urged by: S. Clemens Romanus, the immediate successor of the Apostles; in his Epistle to the Corinthians, p. 36. where instead of thefe words of the LΧΧ. αιατήται το δέρμα με το ανανήλον ταύτα, he reads, καναςήσεις 7 Cάρκα με ταύτίω τ' ανανήλήσαy Tañon Tayla, nyt 21
thou shalt re
Dan. 12. 2.
: pond expressed denotes the futurition at the latter day; the description of that
, standing on the earth, representeth the judge of the quick and the
much, and many of them that seep in the dust of the earth shall awake; The Jews collect from
fome to everlasting life, and some to fame and everlasting Confusion. hence the resurrection, as Rabina in Sanhedrin, and in the Midrash Tillim. Psal. 93. 3. 'Jw Sinds 0.7 Dy pant "IN : '121 1972 ny DIN IUD D'an Rabbi Rachmon said, that the sleepers in the duft are the dead, as it is written, Dan. 1 2. 2. Many of them that fleep in the duit of the earth shall awake, wc. And this is only denied by the Gentiles for Porphyrius referreth it only and wholly to the times of Antiochus, whose words are thus left unto us transated by S. Hierom: Tunc hi qui quasi in terræ pulvere dormiebant, & operti erant malorum pondere, & quafi in fepulchris miferiarum reconditi, ad insperatam victoriam de terræ pulvere resurrexerunt, & de humo elevaverunt caput, cuftodes legis rcsurgentes in vitam æternam, & prævaricatores in opprobrium sempiternum: where it is to be observed, tbat he gives a probable gloss of the former part of the verse, but none at all of the latter, because it is no way consistent with his exposition of the former for they which did rise from the burden of the pressures under Antiochus, did neither risc from thence to an eternal life, nor to an everlasting contempt. Thus, I say, only the Gentiles did interpret it, but now the Socinians are joined to them. So Volkelius urges, quòd in præcedentibus de Antiochi tempore agatur, & resurreetio illa ad tempora quæ jam præcesserunt spectet.
If these and other places of the Old Testament few that God had then revealed his will to raise the dead, we are sure those of the New fully declare the same. Christ who called himself the resurrection and the life, refuted the Sadduces, and confirmed the doctrine of the Pharisees as to that opinion. He produced a place out of the law of Mofes, and made it an argument to prove as much, As touching the refurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you
by God, saying,
I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Ifaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead but of the living. With the force of which argument the multitude was astonishid, and the Sadduce's Gilenced. For under the name of God was understood a great benefactor, a God of promise, and to be their God was to bless them and to reward them; as in them to be his fervants and his people was to believe in him, and to obey him. Now Abraham, Isaac and Jacob had not received the promise which they expected, and therefore God after their death desiring still to be called their God, he thereby acknowledgeth that he had a blessing and a reward for them stilt, and consequently that he will raise them to another life in which they may receive it." So that the argument of our Saviour is the fame which the Jews have
drawn from another place of Mofes, I appeared unto Abraham, unto Ifaac, 097 ninand unto Jacob by the name of God Almighty, but by the name Jehovah was TRN) N I not known unto them. Nevertheless I have established my Covenant with
was them, to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their Pilgrimage whereSma in they were strangers. It is not faid, to give their Sons, but, to give them :ining the land of Canaan ; and therefore, because while they lived here they enjoyto give you, ed it not, they must live again that they may receive the promise. but to give them, whereby the resurrection of the dead appeareth out of the Law. R. Simai, in Perek Helek. And therefore the Fews , Moses Maim. Expl. c. 10. Tract. Sanhedrin.
Exod. 6. 4.
And as our blessed Saviour did refute the Sadduces out of the law of Mofes, so did S. Paul join himself unto the Pharisees in this particular, for being called before the Council, and perceiving that the one part were Sadduces
and the other Pharisees, one denying, the other asserting the resurrection, Afts 23.6. he cried unto the Council, Men and brethren, I am a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee, of the hope and refurrection of the dead I am called in question; and
answering before Felix, that they had found no evil doing in him, while he ftood before the Council he mentioned this particularly, except it be for this Acts 24. 21. one voice, that I cried standing among them, Touching the refurrection of the dead I am called in question by you this day.
It is evident therefore that the resurrection of the dead was revealed under the law, that the Pharisees who fat in Moses's chair did collect it thence, and believe it before our Saviour came into the world, that the Sadduces who denied it, erred, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God: Thar our blessed Saviour clearly delivered the same truth, proved it out of the law of Moses, refuted the Sadduces, confirmed the Pharisees, taught it the Apostles, who followed him, confirming it to the Jews, preaching it to the Gentiles. Thus the will of God concerning the raising of the dead was made known unto the Sons of men ; and because God can do whatsoever he will, and will certainly effect whatsoever he hath foretold, therefore we are assured of a resurrection by virtue of a clear revelation.
Beside, God hath not only foretold, or barely promised, but hath also given such testimonies as are most proper to confirm our faith in this particular prediction and promise. For God heard the voice of Elijah for the dead Child of the widow of Sarepta, and the Soul of the Child came into him a- 1 kings 17. gain, and be revived. Him did Elisha succeed, not only in the fame Spi- 22.
2 Kings 4. rit, but also in the like power, for he raised the child of the Shunamite from death, nor did that power die together with him : for when they were burying a dead man, they cast the man into the sepulchre of Elisha, and when the man was let down and touched the bones of Elisha, he revived and stood up-2 Kings 17.21. on his feet. These three examples were so many confirmations, under the law, of a resurrection to life after death ; and we have three to equal them under the Gospel. When the Daughter of Jairus was dead, Christ said unto Mark 5. 41, her, Talitha cumi, Damsel, arise, and her spirit came again, and straight- 42. way the Damsel arose. When he came nigh to the gate of the city called Naim, there was a dead man carried out, and he came nigh and touched Luke 1.7; 12; the Bier, and said, young man, I say unto thee, Arise; and he that was dead sat up and began to speak. Thus Christ railed the dead in the chamber and in the street, from the bed and from the bier, and not content with these smaller demonstrations, proceedeth also from the grave. When Lazarus had been dead four days, and fo buried that his Sister said of him, by this John 11:39, time he stinketh; Jesus cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth, and he that was dead came forth. These three evangelical resuscitations are so many preambulary proofs of the last and general resurrection ; but the three former and these also come far short of the resurrection of him who raised these.
Christ did of himself actually rise, others who had slept in their graves did come from thence, and thus he gave an actual testimony of the relurrection. For if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead, faith S. Paul to the Corinthians, how say some among you that there is no resurrection from the 1 Cor. 15. 22 dead? If it be most infallibly certain that one man did rise from the dead, as we have before proved that Christ did, then it must be as certainly false to assert that there is no resurrection. And therefore when the Gentiles did themselves confess that some particular persons did return * to life after death, * There were they could not rationally deny the resurrection wholly. Now the resurrection only
ceron of Christ doth not only prove by way of example, as the rest who rose, under the Law Fews, who were raised to life; but there were also histories amongst the Gentiles of several who rose to life after Death. We mentioned before, one out of Plutarch p. 289. who rose the third day, and Plato mentionesh another who revived the Twelfth day after death. 'Αλλ' μεντί σοι, ως δ' εγώ. 'Αλκίνα γε απόλογον έρω, αλλ' άλαίμα και ανδρυς, Ηρώς, τα 'Αρμενία, το γένος Παμφύλα, ός πο7ε ν πολέμω τελόυγήσας αναιρεθένων δεκαηαίων νεκρών ήδη διεφθαρμένων, υγιης ανηρέτη, κυμιώς 50rad's uéddar Scris cu dude.claros éti tol muzợc xelperos á ve biw. Plat. de Rep. l. 10. Vide Plin. l. 7. c. 52. De his qui clati revixerunt.
Luke 8. 55.
42, 43, 44.
1 Cor. 15. 25, 26.
but hath a force in it to command belief of a future general resurrection. For Acts 17.31. God hath appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteous
ness by that man whom he hath ordained, whereof he hath given an assu
rance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead. All men 1 Cor. 15. 21, then are assured that they shall rile, because Christ is risen. And since by
man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Chrift jhall all be made alive.
This consequence of a future resurrection of the dead from that of Christ already past, either hath a general or particular consideration. In a general reference it concerneth all ; in a more peculiar way it belongeth to the Elect alone. First, It belongeth generally unto all men in respect of that do
minion of which Christ at his resurrection did obtain the full possession and Rom. 14. 9. exccution. For to this end Christ both died and rose, and revived, that he
might be Lord both of the dead and living. Now as God is not the God of the dead, but of the living, so Christ is not the Lord of the dead, as dead, but as by his power he can revive them and rule them, when and in what they live. By virtue of this dominion entered upon at his resurrection he must reign till he hath put all his enemies under his feet, and the last enemy that shall be destroyed is death, and there is no destruction of death
but by a general resurrection. By virtue of this did he declare himself after Rev. 1. 18. this manner to S. John, I am he that liveth and was dead, and behold I
am alive for evermore, Amen, and have the keys of Hell and of Death. Thus are we assured of a general resurrection, in that Christ is risen to become the Lord of the dead, and to destroy death.
Secondly, Christ rising from the dead assureth us of a general resurrection in respect of the judgment which is to follow. For as it is appointed for all men once to die; so after death cometh judgment, and as Christ was raised that he might be Judge, so Thall the dead be raised that they may be judged. As therefore God gave an asurance to all men, that he would judge the world by that man, in that he raised him from the dead, so by the fame act did he also give an assurance of the resurrection of the world to judgment.
Now as the general resurrection is evidenced by the rising of Christ, fo in a more special and peculiar manner the resurrection of the chosen Saints and Servants of God is demonstrated thereby. For he is risen not only as their Lord and Judge, but as their Head, to which they are united as members of his Body (for He is the head of the body of the Church, who is the begin
ning of the first-born from the dead) as the first-fruits, by which all the I Cor. 15.20. lump is fanctified and accepted, for now is Christ risen from the dead,
and become the first-fruits of them that sept. The Saints of God are endued with the Spirit of Christ, and thereby their bodies become the temples of the Holy Ghost; now as the promise of the Spirit was upon the refurre
ction of Christ, so the gift and possession of the Spirit is an assurance of the Rom. 8. 11. refurrection of a Christian. For if the Spirit of him that raised up Jefus
from the dead, dwell in us, he that raised Christ from the dead Mall also quicken our mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in us.
Thus God hath determined, and revealed that determination, to raise the dead, and confirmed that revelation by the actual raising of several persons as examples, and of Christ as the highest assurance which could be given unto man, that the doctrine of the resurrection might be established beyond all possibility of contradiction. Wherefore I conclude that the resurrection of the body, is in it self considered possible, upon general considerations highly probable, upon Christian principles infallibly certain.
But as it is necessary to a refurrection that the flesh should rise, neither will the life of the Soul alone continuing amount to the reviviscence of the whole
Col. 1. 18.