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captivated and in bonds, and Christ did give his life a ransome for them, and
that a proper ransome, if that his life were of any price, and given as such. For Hesych. Aú- a ransome is properly nothing else but something of * price given by way of regn, rijemput. redemption, to buy or purchase that which is detained, or given for the re
leasing of that which is enthralled.' But it is most evident that the life of
Christ was laid down as a price; neither is it more certain that he died, than I Cor.6. 20. that he bought us : Te are bought with a price, faith the Apostle, and it is
7. 23 the Lord who bought us, and the price which he paid was his blood; for 2 Pet. 2. I. à i Pet. 1. 18. We are not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, but with 19. This is the precious blood of Christ. Now as it was the blood of Christ, so it was a Jumany ex. price given by way of compensation : and as that blood was precio pressed by two P words, each of it a full and perfect satisfaction. For as the gravity of the offence and inithem fully sig- quity of the fin is augmented and increaseth, according to the dignity of the bricother person offended and injured by it ; fo the value, price, and dignity of that Sample, which which is given by way of compensation, is raised according to the dignity of is aloegelsens the person making the satisfaction. God is of infinite Majesty, againit whom the second in compofition, we have sinned ; and Christ is of the fame divinity, who gave his life a ranitaloogázev. fome for sinners: for God hath purchased his Church with his own blood. AlThat the Word áloegét
hough therefore God be said to remiç our sins by which we were captivated. Serv in the yet he is never faid to † remit the price without which we had never been New Testa: redeemed: neither can he be said to have remitted it, because he did require ment signifieth property it and receive it. . to buy, appeareth generally in the Evangelists, and particularly in that place of the Revelations 13. 17. ivce uń ris duín y boeãsua ♡ wiñocu. In the same fignification it is attributed undoubtedly unto Christ in respect of us whom he is ofter said to have bought, as 2 Pet. 2. I. Š ároegtarle auto's deawórlu ágyópefvor and this buying is expressed to be by a price, i Cor. 6. 20. i'r 'ise écwtwv, sloeg at ne g5 timens, Vulg. Non eftis veftri, empti enim eftis pretio magno, & i Cor. 6. 23. Truña aloegan78, penyiveati dodos avogórwy. What this price was is also evident, for the sides was the riusov aipa the precious blood of Christ, or the blood given by way of price, Rev. 5: 9. ore iopelns, rj srbegrag te Orõ nuãs is to aspiseli (8. Which will appear more fully by the compound word italoogw, Gal. 3. 13. Xersos spas išmy begrev i'r of xałeges rõ váMo, sfubpelo c urig auão ralceg, and Gal. 4. 4. 5. gfuópefwor was vójov, Ovce te's had youor, i de toegéon. Now this excoegan Mos is proper Redemption, or aóre wcis, upon a proper price, though not Silver or Gold, yet as proper as Silver and Gold, and far beyond them both, s piegrois diffuehau xguciw ixulecone c'x of kalaíces urav avas egoñs Walegrue&dót8, trei τιμίω αίμαχι ως αμνό αμώμα και ασίλε, Χρισέ, 1 Ρet. I. 18, 19. Η Ας λύτρων is a certain price given or promifed for Liberty, so prévou dúr egy is to remit the price set upon the head of a Man or promised for him ; as we read in the Teo . tament of Lycon the Philofopher, Δημητρίω κ ελοθέρω πάλαι άνι αφίημι τα λύτρα. Demetrius had been his Servant, and he had set him free upon a certain price which he had engaged himself to pay for that Liberty; the Sum which Demetrius was thus bound to pay, Lycon at his death remits, as also to Criton, Kehtav ä Kagundong, aj toto, tre steg apimples. Diog. Laert.
· If then we consider together, on our side the nature and obligation of fin,
cious blood of Christ, given and accepted in full compensation and satisfaction for the punishment which was due, restored into the favour of God, who being thus satisfied, and upon such satisfaction reconciled, is faithful and just to take off all obligation unto punishment from the sinner, and in this act of God consisteth the forgiveness of fins, Which is sufficient for the first part of the explication of this Article, as being designed for nothing else but to declare what is the true notion of remiffion of Jins, in what that action doth confift. S o do
NITO . ..! ! The second part of the explication, taking notice not only of the fub stance, but also of the order of the Article, observing the immediáte connexion of it with the Holy Church, and the relation, which in the opinioni of the Ancients it hath unto it, will endeavour to instruct us how this great privilege of forgiveness of sins is propounded in the Church; how it may be procured and obtained by the members of the Church. 'i..!!..
At the same time when our Saviour fent the Apostles to gather a Church unto him, he foretold that repentance and remission of fins fhould be preach- Luke 24. 47. ed in his name among all nat 10ns, beginning at ferufalem; and wh Church was first constituted, they thus exhorted those whom they desired to come into it, Repent and be converted, that your fins may be blotted ont and, Be it known unto you that through this man is preached unto yoit Metsz. 2o. forgiveness of sins. From whence it appeareth that the Jews and Gentibes were invited to the Church of Christ, that they might therein receive remiffion of fins; that the doctrine of remission of all fins propounded and preached to all tuen, was proper and peculiar to the Gospel, which teacherh us that lets 13. 39: by Christ all that believe are justified from all things, from which then could not be justified by the law of Mofes. Therefore John the Baptist, who went before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways, gave knowledge of falvation unto his people by the remiffion of their fins. )
This, as it was preached by the Apostles at the first gathering of the Church of Christ, I call proper and peculiar to the Gospel, because the same doctrine was not so propounded by the law. For if we consider the law it self strict ly and under the bare notion of a law, it promised life only upon perfect, absolute, and uninterrupted obedience; the voice thereof was only this, Do this and live. Some of the greater fins nominated and specified in the law, had annexed unto them the sentence of death, and that sentence irreversible; nor was there any other way or means left in the law of Mofes, by which that punishment might be taken off. As for other less and more ordinary sins, there were sacrifices appointed for them; and when those facrifices were offered and accepted, God was appeased, and the offences were released. Whatsoever else we read of sins forgiven under the law, was of some special divine indulgence, more than was promised by Mofes, though not more than was promulgated unto the people, in the name and of the · nature of God, fo far as something of the Gospel was mingled with the law. Talit si dh
100 TOVDICT Now as to the atonement made by the sacrifices; it clearly had relation to # fet peccaa the death of the Mefias; and whatsoever virtue was in them did operate torum nescit through his death alone. As he was the lamb sain from the foundation of remiffionem ; the world, so all atonements which were èyer made, were only effectual by um non ha
lex mysterihis blood. But though no sin was ever forgiven, bur by, virtue of that Sa- bet quo octisfaction ; tho
into any lioner huit hy intui. culta purgan
" tur : & ideo tion of that propitiation; yet the general doctrine of remission of sins was quod in lege * never clearly revealed, and publickly preached to all nations; till the co- minus est, ming of the Saviour of the world, whole name was therefore called Jesus, tur in Evan
consumma because he was to save his people from their fins.
gelio. S. Amb Being therefore we are assured that the preaching remission of sins belong- in Lucám: 1.0
eth not only certainly, but in fome sense peculiarly, to the Church of Chrift,
First, It is certain, that forgiveness of sins was promised to all who were baptized in the name of Christ, and it cannot be doubted but all persons who did perform all things necessary to the receiving the ordinance of baptifm.
did also receive the benefit of that ordinance, which is remission of fins. Mark 1.1.. John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance
for the remision of lins. And S. Peter made this the exhortation of his Afts 2. 38. first Sermon, Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of fe. * Vel Baptif- fus Christ for the remiffion of Jins. In vain doth doubting and fluctuating mo illi, hoc * Socinus endeavour to evacuate the evidence of this Scripture : attributing est, ablationi peccatorum the remiffion either to repentance without consideration of baptism ; or else Reinifio- to the publick profession of faith made in baptism; or if any thing must be nem nequa
quar attributed to baptism it self, it must be nothing but a declaration of such rePetrus, sed mission. For how will these shifts agree with that which Ananias said unto pænitentiæ; Saul, without any mention either of repentance or confession, a Arife and vel fi Baptismi quoque be baptized, and wash away thy sins ; and that which S. Paul, who was rationem eå so baptized, hath taught us concerning the Church, that Christ doth b fanin re habuit, &tifie and cleanse it with the washing of water. It is therefore fufficiently publicam no- certain that baptism as it was instituted by Christ after the præadministration
of S. 7ohn, wheresoever it was received with all qualifications necessary in Chrifti profeflionem the person accepting, and conferred with all things necefiary to be perform continet, eam ed by the person administring, was most infallibly efficacious, as to this par. tantùm con- ticular, that is, to the remiflion of all fins committed before the administrasideravit; aut fi ipfius etiam tion of this facrament. externæ ablutionis omnino rationem habere voluit, quod ad ipfam attinet, remifsionis peccatorum nomine non ipsam remiffionem verè, sed remiflionis declarationem, & obligationem quandam intellexit. Soc. de Baptismo. Atis 22. 16. b Ephef. 5. 26.
*s. Chrufe As those which are received into the Church by the facrament of bap
ak- tism receive the remission of their Sins of which they were guilty before ing of the... they were baptized: so fafter they are thus made members of the Church, Power of the Priests, as they receive remission of their future fins by their repentance. Christ who ötav muäs ava- hath left us a pattern of prayer, hath thereby taught us for ever to implore and Suvãos Móvoy, borbe forgivenefs of our fins
rose to beg the forgivenels of our fins; that as we through the frailty of our nature are TOūra Cero always subject unto fin, so we should always exercise the acts of repentance, zagen &yron igeria apagthua7c. De Sacerd. l. 3. Excepto baptismatis munere, quod contra originale peccatum donatum eft, (ut quod generatione attractum est regeneratione detrahatur, & tamen activa quoque peccata quæcunque corde, ore, 0pere commila invenerit tollit) hac ergo exceptâ magnâ indulgentià (unde inquit hominis renovatio) in qua folvitur omnis reatus & ingeneratus &additus, ipsa etiam vita cætera jam ratione utentis ætatis, quantalibet præpolleat fæcunditate juftitiæ, fine remissione peccatorum non agitur; quoniam filii Dei quamdiu mortaliter vivunt cum morte confligunt: & quamvis de illis, üt veraciter dictnm, quotquot Spiritu Dei aguntur, bi filii sunt Dei: fic tamen Spiritu Dei excitantur & tanquam filii Dei proficiunt ad Deum, ut etiam fpiritu fuo (maximè aggravante corruptibili corpote) tadquam filii hominum quibusdam moribus humanis deficiant ad feipfos & peccent. S. Aug. Enchir. c. 44. Oůta ng pera τα το βάπτισμα εκκαθαίρε) αμαρ7ήμα7α Α πόνε πολλά και καμότο. Πάσαν τoίνω επιδαξώμεθα σε δω, ώσε αωτα εξαλάYou c ūbev, rj aiqui'ns sj xorcoews at ang liar op 'nő, requ gos juveíce cipele opefug7nxótes, do idénwielu, deauroóuelve a TorTu tauta ndéat en cualquátwi ta' poglia. S. Chryf. Hom. in Pentecoft. 1. Quod autem scriptum, & fanguis Jesu filii ejus mundat nos ab omni peccato; tam in Confeffione Baptismatis, quàm in clementia pænitudinis accipienduin cft. S. Hieron, adv. Pelag. 1. 2. .
and for ever seek the favour of God. This then is the comfort of the Gofpel, that as it discovererh Sin within us, so it propounded a remedy unto us. While we are in this life encompassed with flesh, while the allurements of the World, while the stratagems of Satan, while the infirmities and corruptions of our nature betray us to the transgression of the Law of God; we are always subject to offend, (from whence whosoever faith that he hath no in is a Ivar, contradicting himself, and contracting iniquity by pretending innocency) and so long as we can offend, so long we may apply our selves unto God by repentance, and be renewed by his Grace, and pardoned by his Mercy.
And therefore the Church of God, in which remision of fin is preached, doth not only promise it at first by the Laver of Regeneration, but afterwards also upon the virtue of Repentance; and to deny the Church this Power of Absolution is the * Heresie of Novatian.
*I call this the Herefe of No
vatian rather than of Novatus, because though they both joined in it, yet it is rather Sprung from Noratianus the Roman Presbyter, than from Novatus the African Bishop. And he is thus cxpressed by Epiphanius, hét we may bircea Camerov, saadi riav με άνοιαν με 5 το λαθρον, μηκέτι δώα ελεγα οδοπεπτωκότα" that is, he acknowledged but one Repentance τυhich τυάς available in Baptison; after which if any Man sinned, there was no Mercy remaining for him. To which Epiphanius gives this Reply, 'H tedcíce ne voice cu TW 1878@ our retudo o dé tis. Dagéretek 'x dabaad tõTOV Dj ciyice tê Of ñ 'Exxhops cia, dit was great cévodov, med en stor respovolaev ml pelauéancy. And again, Abxo govo á los rólossen j cyice OŠ 'Exxanoice bds767€ prievolder. And yet more generally. Tájardvice Capãs ti7easiwy evdey crónicv, leto von á TW vast σάλων, και με πλώσιν ένα ανάσασις, έτι ελπίς, έτι θεραπεία, έτι ομολογία" κάν και μη τελειόταλα, άλλ' άν, γε και άλλων εκ canyógov Ji Cwineid. Hær. 59.
The necessity of the belief of this Article appeareth, first, because there can be no Christian consolation without this persuasion. For we have all sinned and come short of the Glory of God, nay, God himself hath concluded all under Sin ; we must also acknowledge that every Sinner is a guilty Person, and that guilt consisteth in an obligation to endure eternal Punishment from the wrath of God provoked by our Sins; from whence nothing else can arise but a fearful expectation of everlasting Misery. So long as guilt remaineth on the Soul of Man, so long is he in the condition of the Devils, delivered into 'chains and reserved unto judgment. For we all fell as well 2 Pet. 2. 4* as they, but with this difference ; Remission of Sins is promised unto us, but to them it is not.
Secondly, It is necessary to believe the forgiveness of sins, that thereby we may sufficiently esteem God's goodness and our Happiness. When Man was fallen into Sin, there was no possibility left him to work out his recoVery; that Soul which had finned must of necessity die, the wrath of God abiding upon him for ever. There can be nothing imaginable in that Man | which should move God not to shew a demonstration of his Justice upon him; + there can be nothing without him which could pretend to rescue him from I the sentence of an offended and Almighty God. Glorious therefore must the goodness of our God appear; who dispenseth with his Law, who taketh off the guilt, who looseth the obligation, who imputeth not the Sin. This is God's goodness, this is Man's happiness. For blessed is he whole tranf-Pfal. 31. 1, gression is forgiven, whose fin is covered; Blesed is the man unto whom the Lord imputeth no iniquity. The year of Release, the Year of Jubilee, | was a time of publick Joy; and there is no Voice . like that, thy fins are + forgiven thee. "By this a Man is rescued from infernal Pains, secured from everlasting Flames; by this he is made capable of Heaven, by this he is af- | fured of eternal Happiness.
Thirdly, It is necessary to believe the forgiveness of fins, that by the sense thereof we may be inflamed with the love of God: For that lo naturally follow from such a fense, appeareth by the Parable in the Gospel, There was a certain creditor which had two debtors, the one owed him Luke 6.41,42;
five hundred pence, the other fifty. And when they had nothing to pay, be frankly forgave them both. Upon which case our Saviour made this question, Which of them will love him most? He supposeth both the Debtors will love him, because the creditor forgave them both; and he collecteth the degrees of love will answer proportionably to the quantity of the debt forgiven. We are the debtors, and our debts are sins, and the creditor is God: The remission of our sins is the frank forgiving of our debts, and for that we are obliged to return our love.
Fourthly, The true notion of forgiveness of sins is necessary to teach us
what we owe to Christ, to whom, and how far we are indebted for this ForAtis 13. 38. giveness. Through this man is preached unto us the forgiveness of sins, and
without a furety we had no release. He rendred God propitious unto our Persons, becaulé he gave himself as a satisfaction for our Sins. While thus
he took off our obligation to Punishment, he laid upon us a new obligation 1 Cor. 16.20. of Obedience. We are not our owu who are bought with a price : We I Cor. 7.22. must Glorifie God in our bodies, and in our spirits, which are God's. We
must be no longer the servants of men ; we are the servants of Christ, who are bought with a price.
Fifthly, It is necessary to believe remission of fins as wrought by the Blood of Christ, by which the Covenant was ratified and confirmed, which mindeth us of a Condition required. It is the nature of a Covenant to expect performances on both parts; and therefore if we look for forgiveness promised, we must perform repentance commanded. These two were always preached to
gether, and those which God hath joined ought no Man to put afunder. Chris Afts 5. 31. did truly appear a Prince and a Saviour, and it was to give repentance to
Ifrael, and forgiveness of fins : He joined thefe two in the Apostle's ComLuke 24. 47. mission, saying, that Repentance and remission of sins should be preached
in his name throughout all nations.
From hence every one may learn what he is explicitely to believe and confess in this Article of forgiveness of sins; for thereby he is conceived to intend thus much: I do freely and fully acknowledge, and with unipeakable comfort embrace this as a most necessary and infallible Truth, That whereas every Sin is a transgression of the Law of God, upon every transgression there remaineth a guilt upon the person of the transgressor, and that guilt is an obligation to endure eternal Punishment; so that all Men being concluded under Sin, they were all obliged to suffer the miseries of eternal Death, it pleafed God to give his Son, and his Son to give himself to be a furety for tbis Debt, and to release us from these bonds, and because without shedding of Blood there is no remission, he gave his life a facrifice for Sin, he laid it down as a ransome, even his precious Blood as a price by way of compensation and satisfaction to the will and justice of God; by which propitiation, God, who was by our Sins offended, became reconciled, and being so, took off our obligation to eternal Punishment, which is the guilt of our Sins, and
appointed in the Church of Christ the Sacrament of Baptism for the first rex | mission, and Repentance for the constant forgiveness of all following Tres
| passes. And thus I believe the forgiveness of Sins.