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now is, and hereafter shall be fo long as the Sun and Moon endure, a
Church of Christ one and tbe fame. This Church I believe in general holy
in respect of the author, end, institution and administration of it ; particu-
larly in the members, here I acknowledge it really, and in the same here:
after perfectly holy. I look upon this Church not like that of the Jews,
limited to one people, confined to one nation, but by the appointment
and Command of Cbrift, and by the efficacy of his affisting power, to be
disseminated through all nations, to be extended to all places, to be pro-
pagated to all ages, to contain in it all Truths necessary to be known, to
exact absolute obedience from all men to the Commands of Christ, and to
furnish us with all Graces necessary to make our persons acceptable, and our
actions well-pleasing in the light of God. And thus I believe the Holy Com
tholick Church.

The Communion of Saints. T HIS pare of the Article beareth fomething a * later date that any of. These words 1 the rest, but yer is no way inferior to the other in relation to the cer- Communio

si nem Sanctotainty of the truth thereof. And the late admission of it into the Creed will rum, were be thus far advantageous, that thereby we may be the better assured of the not int the 4. true intent of it, as it is placed in the Creed. For it will be no v

quileian Creed

O expounded by give any other explication of thefe words as the fenfe of the Creed, than Rufinus ; what was then understood by the Church of God, when they were first in- they were not

mentioned by ferted.

him, as being

either in the Oriental or the Roman Creed. They were not in the African Creed expounded by S. Auftio De Fide e Symbolo ; not in the Creed delivered by Maximus Taurinenfis ; not in any of the Sermons of Chrysologus ; not in any of the four Books de Symbolo ad Catechumenos attributed to S. Austin; not in the 119 Sermon under his name De Tempore, Cum Dixerimus Sanctam Ecclefiam, adjnngamus Remiffionem peccatorum. They are not in the Greek Creed in Sir Robert Cotton's Library, not in the old Latin Creed in the Oxford Library, not in that produced by Elipandus. We find them not in the old Greek Creeds, not in that of Eusebius given in the Council of Nice, not in that of Marcellus delivered to the Bishop of Rome, not in that of Arius and Euzoius prefented to Constantine, not in either of the Creeds preferved in the Ancoratus of Epiphanius, not in the Jerusalem Creed expounded by S.Cyril, not in that of the Council of Constantinople, not in that of Charisius given into the Ephefine Council, not in either of the Expofitions under the name of S.Chryfottom: It was therefore of a later Date, and is found in the Latin and Greek Copy in Bennet College Library, and is expressed and expounded in the 115 and 18: Serm. De Tempore, attributed to S. Austin, v. Pafchafii Symbolam.

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If we look upon the first institution of the Church, and the original condition of thofe persons which received the Gospel, how they were all - Acts 2. 44,45. gether, and had all things common ; how they sold their porellions and goods, and parted them to all men as every man had need, how $. Paul urged an equality that the abundance of some might supply the want of 0-2 Cor. 8. 14, thers, as it was written, He that had gathered much had nothing over, 15. and be that bad gathered little had no lack: we might well conceive that the communion (which word might be taken for communication) of the Saints, may signifie the great * charity, bounty and community, among the People. Grotius ubof God.

on that place But being that community, precisely taken, was not of eternal obligas of the Corintion, nor actually long continued in the Church ; being I conceive this Ār- ferves, Specicle doth not wholly look upon that which is already paft; and especially, eat & huc ea being I think neither that custom, nor that notion was then generally re-bolo pronte

quain in Symceived in the Church, when this communion of Saints was fuft inferted, I mur Sanctoshall therefore endeavour to fhew that communion which is attributed to the rum commu. Saints both according to the Fathers who have delivered it, and, and accord."

* nionein. ing to the Seriptures from whence they derived it.

Now all communion being between fuch as are fome way different and distina, the communion of the Saints may either be conceived becween them and others, or between themfelves ; between them and others, as differing

from

from them either in their nature or their fanctity ; between themselves, as diItinet in person only, or condition also. Wherefore if we can first understand who, or what kind of persons thefe are which are called Saints, with whom beside themselves, and how among themselves, in this relation as they are the Saints, they have communion; and lastly, in what the nature of that Communion in each respect consistech; I know not what can be thought wanting to the perfect explication of the Communion of Saints.

That we may understand what communion the Saints have with others, it would be necessary first to consider what it is to be a Saint , in what the true nature of Saintship doth consist, by what the Saints are distinguished from others. Again, that we may understand what Communion the Saints have with or among themselves, it will be farther necessary to confider who are those persons to which that Title doth belong, what are the various conditions of them, that we may be able to comprehend all such as are true Saints, and thence conclude the Communion between them all.

I take it first for granted, that though the Greek word which we trap* Keitarvia di- flate Saints be in it self as applicable to * things, as persons; yet in this

Article it signifieth noč holý things, but holy ones, that is perfons holy. Se. as well under-condly, I take it also for granted, that the singular holy One, the holy One stood in the Neuter as the of Israel, the fountain of all sanctity, the fanctifier of all Saints, is not compreMasculine, as hended in the Article, though the communion of the holy Ones with that line Exod. 28. 38.

concerning gular, eminent, and transcendent holy One, be contained in it. Thirdly, I rake sa umpiéce- it farther for granted, that the word in this Article, which we translate Saints, se tam ayhon is not taken in the original of the Creed, as it is often taken in the translathat Aaron may bear the tion of the Old Testament, for the # Sanctuary, as if the communion were iniquity of nothing else but a right of communicating or participating of the holy things holy things. So Levits of God. Lastly, I take it also for granted, that although the blessed and is. Küs imág- holy Angels are sometimes called in the Scriptures by the name of * Saints, on aixerias yet they were not those who are here said to have the communion, though Kveis, 22. 2. the Saints have communion with them. Kai te9rXéTWO Av d e dywy ñ y av 'loeger'a, i Chron. 2.4. 5. de 2017 es sylw, the Governours of the Sanctuary, of which notion afterwards. This is one of the common Names of God in the Old Testament, Spanien urip áy@ 'loegin, which is also sometimes translated plurally by the Lxx. as Elay 41. 16. 7876 wropa i toas cylors 'loegria, Jer. 51. 5. S un wird λι αγίων Ισραήλ: and if it were o taken, then κοινωνία και αγίων would be the Communion of God, as τ8 αγία Πημα7. ITă cria frequently used in the Scriptures for the Sanctuary; and then youwvice og cyw might be taken for the Communion in all those things which belonged to the Worship of God, as xorvarna was a Man excluded from all fuch Communion. * The Angels are not only called holy in ihe Scriptures by way of Addition or Epit here, as wávles oi äylor cyhor, Mat. 25. 31. Memang penyéims diyiwv, Mark 18. 38. Luke 9. 26. xenualisty wwi cyréng ayis, Acts 10. 22. CWTION B siyío griña, Rev. 14. 10. But alo the calo. Holy Ones, or Saints, taken substantively or fingly fignifie sometimes the Angels, as Deut. 32. 2. Wpra

he came with ten thousands of Saints; which the Jerusalem Targuni renders pornp pon nan. Tinys and with him came ten thousands of holy Angels; and Jonathan, jilny S727 Toys and with him myriads of myriads of holy Angels. And although the Lxx keep the Hebrew 01, yet they understood the Angels in that place (w reveroi Kádns, (Hefych. Kádns, aliaskos] i'r değião aută menos para creģ. So Job 5. 1. To which of the Saints wilt thou turn ? 6s Tinek cyrénw aylane on, Lxx. Thus in the Vision of Daniel, he heard one Saint Speaking, and another Saint said unto that certain Saint which fpake, Dan. 8. 13. So Zach. 14. 5. And the Lord my God fhall come, and all the Saints with thee. And thus it may very well be understood in the New Testament, i Theff. . 3. 13. ú añ weggrią Kveis pats to Av 7 eng op sylwe au , in correspone dence to that 2 Theff. 1.17. á rô deixadáyd og kveir 'Incă di segvă met syyée duvánew; wurð. These are the puesades dyiar in s. Jude, wop naar the myriads of Angels; and thus xonania ayiwe should be the Communion of the Angels. .

For this part of the Article hath a manifest relation to the former, in which we profefs to believe the Holy Church; which Church is therefore holy, because those persons are such, or ought to be, which are within it, the Church it self being nothing but a collection of such persons. To that confession is added this communion ; but because though the Church be holy, yet every person contained in it is not truly so, therefore is added this part of the Article which concerneth those who are truly such. There is therefore no do but the Saints mentioned here are members of the Church of Christ, as we haye described it, built npon the Apostles, laid upon the foundation of their

Doctrine

erefore no doubt

Doctrine, who do not only profess the Gospel, but are fanctified thereby
: The only question then remaining is, in what their Sanctity or Saintship
doth consist, and (because tho' they which are believers since our Saviour's
death, be truly and more highly fanctified, yet such as lived before and un-
der the law, the Patriarchs, the Prophets and the Servants of God were so
called, and were truly named the Saints of God) who were the Persons which
are capable of that denomination ?

Now being God himself hath given a rule unto his people, which is both in the nature of a precept and of a pattern : (Be ye holy as I the Lord your God am holy. Be ye boly, there's the command; as the Lord your God is holy, there's the Rule : ) being it is impossible that we should have the fame sanctity which is in God, it will be necessary to declare what is this holiness which maketh men to be accounted holy Ones, and to be called Saints. · The true notion of Saints is expressed by Mofes both as to the subject, Exod. 22. 31. and the affection or qualification of it ; for they are called by him men of wa WINY holiness, such are the persons understood in this Article, which is the communion of men of holiness. Now holiness in the first acceptation of it signifieth separation, and that with the relation of a double term, of one from which the separation is made, and of the other to which that which is separated is applied. Those things which were counted holy under the law were separated from common use, and applied to the service of God; and their fanctity was nothing else but that separation from and to those terms; from an use and exercise prophane and common, to an use and exercise peculiar and divine. . Thus all such persons as are called from the vulgar and common condition of the world unto any peculiar feryice or relation unto God, are thereby denominated holy, and in some sense receive the name of Saints. The pen-men of the Old Testament do often speak of the people of Israel as of an holy nation, and God doth speak unto them as to a people holy unto himself; because he had chosen them out of all the nations of the world and appropriated them to himself. Altho' therefore most of that nation were rebellious to him which called them, and void of all true inherent and actual Sanctity; yet because they were all in that manner feparated, they were all, as to the separation, called holy. In the like man

of the New Teltament writing to luch as were called, and had received, and were baptized in the Faith, give unto them all the name of Saints, as being in fome manner such, by being called and baptized. For being Baptism is a washing away of fin, and the purification from sin is a proper fanctification ; being every one who is so called and baptized is thereby feparated from the rest of the world which are not so, and all such feparation is some kind of fanctification ; being, though the work of grace be not perfectly wrought, yet when the means are used, without something appearing to the contrary, we ought to presume of the good effect ; therefore all luch as have been received into the Church, may be in some sense called holy.

But because there is more than an outward vocation, and a charitable presumption, necessary to make a man holy; therefore we must find some other qualification which must make him really and truly such, not only by an extrinsical denomination, but by a real and internal affection. What this fanctity is, and who are capable of this title properly, we must learn out of the Gospel of Christ; by which alone, ever since the Church of Christ was founded, any man can become a Saint. Now by the tenure of the Gospel we shall find that those are truly and properly Saints which are fančtified in Christ Jefus : first, in respect of their holy Faith, by which they i Cor. 1. 2: are regenerated; for whosoever believeth'that Jesus is the Christ, is born 1 Johnsit.

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Acts 15. 9. of God; by which they are purged, God himself purifying their hearts by I Cor.6.11. faith, whereby they are washed, fan&tified, and justified in the name of the Ephes. 1.13. Lord Jesus, in whom also after that they believe, they are sealed with the 2 Pet. I. 15. holy Spirit of promise. Secondly, In respect of their conversation : For as 2 Pet. 1. 8. be which hath called them is boly, lo are they holy in all manner of conver.

fation : adding to their faith vertue, and to vertue knowledge, and to knowledge temperance, and to temperance patience, and to patience brotherlykindness, and to brotherly-kindness charity, that they may neither be bar. ren nör unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. · Such persons then as are called by a holy calling, and not disobedient unto it; fuch as are endued with a holy Faith, and purified thereby ; such as are fanctified by the holy Spirit of God, and by virtue thereof do lead a holy life, perfečting holiness in the fear of God; such Perfons, I say, are really and truly Saints; and being of the Church of Christ, (as all such now must of necessity be) are the proper subject of this part of thé Article tbe Communion of Saints. as it is added to the former, the Holy Catholick Church.

Now as these are the Saints of the Church of Christ, from whence they *I Cor. 14. 33. were called the Churches of the Saints ; so there was never any Church of Psal. 89:5, 7: God but there were such persons in it as were Saints: we read in the Psalms 149. 1. Sopa

Son of the congregation and the assembly of the Saints; and Mofes assured the LXX cv ex-' people of Israel, that all · the Saints of God were in his hand : we read in κλησία αγίων. S ipahie the Prophets of the Saints of the most High; and at our Saviour's death the as Boas dyim bodies of such Saints which Nept arose. Where again we may observe that Vulg. Latin.

in & they were Saints while their Bodies were in the grave; as Aaron in the time in concilio of David kept the name of b Saint of the Lord. Such as are holy in their sanctorum. lives do not lose their fanctity, but improve it at their deaths ; nor can they Deut. 33. 3. Dan. 7.18, lose the honour of that appellation, while that which gives it doth acquire 21, 22, 25. perfection. Mat. 27, 52. Quis ignorat sub altera dispensatione Dei omnes retrò Sanctos ejufdem fuisse métiti cujus nunc Chriftiani funt ? S. Hier. adv. Jovinian. b Psal. 106. 16.

Hence grows that necessary, distinction of the Saints on earth, and the

Saints in heaven ; the first belonging to the militant, the second to the triPP. 16.2; 3. umphant Church. Of the first the prophet David speaketh expremy, Tbou

art my Lord, my goodnefs extendēth not to thee, but to the Saints that are
in the earth : of these do we read in the Acts of the Apostles, to thefe did
S. Paul direct his Epistles. Of the second doth the Apostle make that que-

n, "Do ye not know that the Saints shall judge the world? And all those which were spoken of as Saints then in the earth, if truly such, and departed so, are now, and shall for ever continue, Saints in heaven..

Having thus declared what is the sanctity required to make a Saint, thar is, a man of holiness; having alfo distinguished the Saints before and under the Gospel, (which difference is only observable as to this exposition of the Creed) and again distinguishing the fame Saints 'while they live here with men on earth, and when after death they live with God' in heaven ; having also shewed that of all these, those Saints are here particularly understood who in all ages lived in the Church of Christ, we may now properly descend to the next consideration, which is, who are those persons with whom those Saints have this communion, and in what the communion which they have consists. .

First then, the Saints of God living in the Church of Christ, have communi

on with God the father; for the Apostles did therefore write that they to whom I John 1. 3. they wrote might have communion with them, that which we have feen and Korreríacu heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us, (faith iš nalogs. * S. John,) and did at the fame time declare that their communion was with the

Father.

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Father. Wherefore being all the Saints of God under the Gospel receiving the Doctrine of the Apostles have communion with them; being the communion of the Apostles was the communion with the Father; it followeth that all the Saints of God under the Gospel have a communion with God the Father. As we are the Branches of the Vine, so the Father is the Hushandim

e, so the Father is the Husbandman; and thus the Saints partake of his care and inspection. As Abraham believed God, and Fam. 2. 23: it was imputed to him for righteousness, and he was called the friend of God; so all which are Heirs of the Faith of Abraham are made partakers of the same relation. Nor are we only Friends, but alfo Sons; for behold what I Foin 3. I. manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the fons of God. . Thus must we acknowledge that the Saints of God h communion with the Father, because by the great and precious promises given unto them, they became partakers of the divine nature.

2 Pet. I. 4. . Secondly, The Saints of God living in the Church of God have commu- Ossas xoivavo! nion with the Son of God : for, as the Apostle faid, our Communion is with a pohon. 1. 3. the Father and the Son ; and this connexion is infallible, because he that a- 2 John 9. bideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son; and our Saviour prayed for all such as should believe on him through the word John 17. 20; of the Apostles, 'that they might be one, as the Father is one in him and be 21, 23. in the Father, that they also may be one in both, I in them, faith Christ; and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one. This communion of the Saints with the Son of God, is, as most evident, so most remarkable. Hé hath taken unto him our nature and infirmities; he hath taken upon him our fins, and the curse due unto them; while we all have received of his fulness John 1. 16. grace for grace ; and are called to the fellowship of his sufferings, that we may be conformable to his death. What is the fellowship of brethren and phil. 3. 10. co-heirs of the Bridegroom and the Spouse : what is the communion of members with the Head, of branches with the Vine, that is the communion of Saints with Christ. For God hath called us unto the fellowship of his Son 1 Cor. 1.9: Jefus Christ our Lord,

.. Korveria të Thirdly, The Saints of God in the Church of Christ have communion

'rið. with the Holy Ghost: and the Apostle hath two ways assured us of the truth thereof, one rhetorically, by a seeming doubt, if there be any fellowship of the Phil. 2. 1. Spirit; the other devoutly, praying for it, The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, Kowavica

| Ilyóúra . and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost be with you all. 2 Cor. 13.14. The Saints are therefore such, because they partake of the Holy Ghost; for they are therefore holy because they are fanctified, and it is the Spirit alone which sanctifieth. Beside, the communion with the Father and the Son is wrought by the communication of the Spirit; for hereby do we become the Sons of God, in that we have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we Gal. 4. 6.7. cry, Abba, Father; and thereby do we become Coheirs with Christ, in that because we are fons God hath rent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father; so that we are no more fervants, but fons; and if fons, then heirs of God through Christ. This is the communion which the Saints enjoy with the three Persons of the blessed Trinity: this is the heavenly fellowship represented unto entertaining Abraham when the Lord appear-Gen. 18. 1, 2. éd unto him, and three men stood by him; for our Saviour hath made us this most precious Promise, If any man love me he will keep my words, and my John 14. 23: Father will love him, and we will come unto him and make our abode with him. Here is the Soul of Man made the Habitation of God the Father, and of God the Son; and the presence of the Spirit cannot be wanting where those two are inhabiting ; for if any man have not the Spirit of Christ he is Rom. 8. 9: none of his. The Spirit therefore with the Father and the Son inhabiteth the Saints"; for know ye not, faith the Apostle, that ye are the temple of God, 1 Cor. 3. 16: and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?

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Fourthly

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